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output budget
相关语句
  产出预算
     From Input Budge to Output Budget
     从投入预算到产出预算
短句来源
  “output budget”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Consideration of general utilization includes data input, report output, budget control.
     通用性方面主要考虑了数据输入、报表输出、拨款控制 ;
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     From Input Budge to Output Budget
     从投入预算到产出预算
短句来源
     The reproductive output of R.
     桃金娘的生殖产量与其所受的光照强度有很大的关系。
短句来源
     output of the model.
     模型输出。
短句来源
     Budget PC
     低价PC
短句来源
     How to Get High Quality Output Power in a Budget-Constrained Design
     以最低成本获得高品质高输出功率
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  output budget
Evaluation of the N input-output budget and microbial N transformations in the ecosystem revealed that lowering N inputs in this N saturated forest soil resulted in a more than proportional decrease of N leaching losses out of the soil system.
      
After 21 years, the average P input-output budget reached -20.9 kg P ha-1 a-1 for NON, -7.8 for DYN, -5.7 for ORG, -5.0 for MIN and +3.8 for CON.
      
A case study on the nutrient input-output budget of slash and burn agriculture was carried out in Northeast-Pará, Brazil, where such a land-use system has been practised for about 100 years.
      
Nutrient input-output budget of shifting agriculture in Eastern Amazonia
      
An input-output budget (atmospheric deposition - stream exports) for the whole watershed indicated that nitrogen (N) was strongly retained, while sulphur (S) and base cations (K, Ca, Mg) were lost.
      
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Xishuangbanna, located in southwest China, bounded by Laos and Myanmar on the upper Mekong River, is on the northernmost edge of tropical Asia. As a result, a mosaic distribution of tropical seasonal rain forest, which mainly appears in the wet valleys, usually with small streams or on the low hills and flats below 1000 m altitude exists in Xishuangbanna. The tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna is rich in species and has a complex forest canopy and structure. In 1999, 119 species with DBH>10 cm were...

Xishuangbanna, located in southwest China, bounded by Laos and Myanmar on the upper Mekong River, is on the northernmost edge of tropical Asia. As a result, a mosaic distribution of tropical seasonal rain forest, which mainly appears in the wet valleys, usually with small streams or on the low hills and flats below 1000 m altitude exists in Xishuangbanna. The tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna is rich in species and has a complex forest canopy and structure. In 1999, 119 species with DBH>10 cm were recorded in the 1 hm2 study plot. Based on the "small catchment" approach and input-output budgets, we studied on the nitrogen cycling in the seasonal rain forest. The nitrogen stock in the seasonal rain forest ecosystem (6 481.2 kg·hm -2) was higher than that of montane rain forest in Hainan of China (6 345 kg·hm -2), but lower than montane rain forest in New Guinea (20 190 kg·hm -2), lowland rain forest in Brazil (7 537 kg·hm -2), and lowland rain forest in Ghana (7 230 kg·hm -2). The distribution of the nitrogen stock in the seasonal rain forest ecosystem is as follows: 970.9 kg·hm -2 (15.0%) in the living biomass, 37.7 kg· hm -2 (0.6%) in the forest floor, and 5 481.2 kg·hm -2 (84.4%) in the soil (0-30 cm). We found that most of the nitrogen in the seasonal rain forest was stored in the soil, but not in the living biomass. Soil (0-10 cm) net nitrogen mineralization rate was 90.4 kg·hm -2·a -1. Soil played a very important role of stocking and providing N to plants. The nitrogen content in precipitation, throughfall, stemflow and stream flow were 0.565, 0.828, 0.983 and 1.042 mg·dm -3, respectively. The nitrogen input from precipitation, throughfall and stemflow were 8.89, 10.97 and 3.57 kg·hm -2·a -1, respectively. The nitrogen output in stream flow was 5.95 kg·hm -2·a -1. The nitrogen net increase in the seasonal rain forest was 2.94 kg·hm -2·a -1. In the nitrogen biological cycling, 149.86 kg·hm -2·a -1 was taken up by plants,69.30 kg·hm -2·a -1 stored in living biomass,and 80.56 kg·hm -2·a -1 returned to soil. This undisturbed seasonal rain forest had the nitrogen conservation mechanism and remained in the nitrogen accumulation state.

用小流域集水区和物质平衡方法 ,于 1999年对西双版纳热带季节雨林生态系统的氮素循环进行了初步研究。西双版纳季节雨林生态系统的氮库总储量为 6 4 81.2kg·hm-2 ,其中活体生物量、凋落物层和土壤 (0~ 30cm)中的氮储量分别为 970 .9、37.7、5 4 81.2kg·hm-2 。土壤中的氮占生态系统氮总储量的 84 .4 % ,活体生物量占 15 .0 % ,凋落物层仅占 0 .6 %。结果表明季节雨林的氮主要分布在土壤中 ,而在生物量中只占很少部分。大气降水、林内穿透水、树干流及地表径流的氮含量分别为 0 .5 6 5、0 .82 8、0 .983和 1.0 4 2mg·dm-3 ,氮通量则分别为 8.89、10 .97、3.5 7、5 .95kg·hm-2 ·a-1。大气降水输入氮 8.89kg·hm-2 ·a-1,径流输出氮 5 .95kg·hm-2 ·a-1,收支平衡 (输入—输出 )为2 .94kg·hm-2 ·a-1。氮的生物循环 :吸收为 14 9.86kg·hm-2 ·a-1,存留为 6 9.30kg·hm-2 ·a-1,归还为 80 .5 6kg·hm-2 ·a-1,循...

用小流域集水区和物质平衡方法 ,于 1999年对西双版纳热带季节雨林生态系统的氮素循环进行了初步研究。西双版纳季节雨林生态系统的氮库总储量为 6 4 81.2kg·hm-2 ,其中活体生物量、凋落物层和土壤 (0~ 30cm)中的氮储量分别为 970 .9、37.7、5 4 81.2kg·hm-2 。土壤中的氮占生态系统氮总储量的 84 .4 % ,活体生物量占 15 .0 % ,凋落物层仅占 0 .6 %。结果表明季节雨林的氮主要分布在土壤中 ,而在生物量中只占很少部分。大气降水、林内穿透水、树干流及地表径流的氮含量分别为 0 .5 6 5、0 .82 8、0 .983和 1.0 4 2mg·dm-3 ,氮通量则分别为 8.89、10 .97、3.5 7、5 .95kg·hm-2 ·a-1。大气降水输入氮 8.89kg·hm-2 ·a-1,径流输出氮 5 .95kg·hm-2 ·a-1,收支平衡 (输入—输出 )为2 .94kg·hm-2 ·a-1。氮的生物循环 :吸收为 14 9.86kg·hm-2 ·a-1,存留为 6 9.30kg·hm-2 ·a-1,归还为 80 .5 6kg·hm-2 ·a-1,循环系数为 0 .5 4。结果表明未受干扰的季节雨林生态系统处于氮积累的状态 ,有利于该生态系统的稳定与持续发展。

Weathering rates play a significant role in the evolution of geochemistry of the Earth's surface and region environments. The basic theories of calculation of weathering rates are the mass balance and the law of reactions between solutions and minerals. The behavior of the element in weathering is influenced by many factors including weathering of bedrock, atmospheric precipitation, runoff of water, export of biomass and anthropogenic inputs(such as fertilization). Chemical reactions between minerals and solutions...

Weathering rates play a significant role in the evolution of geochemistry of the Earth's surface and region environments. The basic theories of calculation of weathering rates are the mass balance and the law of reactions between solutions and minerals. The behavior of the element in weathering is influenced by many factors including weathering of bedrock, atmospheric precipitation, runoff of water, export of biomass and anthropogenic inputs(such as fertilization). Chemical reactions between minerals and solutions contribute to the base cation release rate due to chemical weathering of silicate minerals, and the total specific rate of reaction will be the sum of the rates of the individual reactions. Three key parameters of reactions between solutions and minerals are Acidic Neutral Capacities(ANC). Base Cation/Aluminium ratio(BC/A)and Critical Loads(CL). Methods of calculation of weathering rates mainly include①PROFILE modeling; ②basic cation depletion; ③input output budget; and ④Stronium isotope ratio. The PROFILE modeling is a steady stated and integrated soil chemistry model. Weathering rate of a mineral is controlled by dissolvable rate of the mineral, exposed surface area of the mineral. soil moisture saturation and soil layer thickness, and the total weathering rate is obtained by adding the contributions from all minerals. The element depletion is mostly the depletion of base cation such as Ca, Na, K and Mg. In the calculation of weathering rate, it's assumed that Ti,Zr or Nb is resistant, and thus Ti,Zr or Nb is considered to be immobile during weathering. Weathering rate is calculated as the difference between outputs and inputs, provided that the study area is in steady state. In general, the input is considered as the contribution from precipitation, while the output is calculated as the sum of ①river transported dissolved fraction; ②river transported suspended non detrital fraction; and ③biotic nutrient net uptake. It is suggested that Sr isotope is not fractionated during biotic and chemical processes, and Sr isotopic compositions in different ecosystem exchangeable cation pools are mixtures derived from mineral weathering reactions and atmospheric aerosol.

地壳风化速率研究的理论基础是质量守恒原理和溶液与矿物反应动力学法则。元素在风化过程中的行为受多种因素控制 ,主要包括基岩风化量、大气沉降量、径流量、生物的输出数量和人为输入量 (如施肥 )。硅酸盐矿物化学风化过程中 ,矿物与溶液之间总的化学反应速率是单个反应速率之和 ,其中涉及到 3个关键参数 ,即 :酸中和能力 (ANC)、基本阳离子 /无机铝 (BC/Al无机 )比值和临界负荷 (CL)。风化速率的研究主要采用四种方法 ,即PROFILE模型、基本阳离子损耗、元素输入—输出指数和Sr同位素比值等。PROFILE模型是一个稳定态的综合土壤化学模型 ,矿物的分解速率、矿物的暴露表面积、土壤水饱和度和土壤层厚度决定着该矿物的风化速率 ,总的风化速率为各种矿物的风化速率之和。元素损耗 ,主要是基本阳离子 (Ca、Na、K和Mg)的损耗 ,假设Ti、Zr和Nb在成土过程中含量稳定并不参与风化反应 ,那么对于给定的土壤层 ,化学风化损耗的基本阳离子可以通过比较土层与成土母质之间元素组成的差异来计算。输入—输出指数的假设前提是研究的流域处于稳定状态 ,一般认为输入指数是大气沉降 ,输出指数是河流搬运溶解部分、悬浮的非岩...

地壳风化速率研究的理论基础是质量守恒原理和溶液与矿物反应动力学法则。元素在风化过程中的行为受多种因素控制 ,主要包括基岩风化量、大气沉降量、径流量、生物的输出数量和人为输入量 (如施肥 )。硅酸盐矿物化学风化过程中 ,矿物与溶液之间总的化学反应速率是单个反应速率之和 ,其中涉及到 3个关键参数 ,即 :酸中和能力 (ANC)、基本阳离子 /无机铝 (BC/Al无机 )比值和临界负荷 (CL)。风化速率的研究主要采用四种方法 ,即PROFILE模型、基本阳离子损耗、元素输入—输出指数和Sr同位素比值等。PROFILE模型是一个稳定态的综合土壤化学模型 ,矿物的分解速率、矿物的暴露表面积、土壤水饱和度和土壤层厚度决定着该矿物的风化速率 ,总的风化速率为各种矿物的风化速率之和。元素损耗 ,主要是基本阳离子 (Ca、Na、K和Mg)的损耗 ,假设Ti、Zr和Nb在成土过程中含量稳定并不参与风化反应 ,那么对于给定的土壤层 ,化学风化损耗的基本阳离子可以通过比较土层与成土母质之间元素组成的差异来计算。输入—输出指数的假设前提是研究的流域处于稳定状态 ,一般认为输入指数是大气沉降 ,输出指数是河流搬运溶解部分、悬浮的非岩屑成因部分和生物营养净吸收部分。Sr同位素在生物和化学作用过程中并不分馏 ,不同生态系统阳?

The financial depository duty of the various sections of the government should be first defined when realizing the financial depository duty;second,the realization of the financial depository duty should be depended on the legal system formally.In response to the duty,the financial depository duty of the government should be carried out by output budget.

有效实现财政受托责任,首先必须明确政府各部门的财政受托责任;其次应该有正式的法律制度来保证财政受托责任的实现。针对责任的回应性,狭义政府部门的财政受托责任主要通过产出预算来实现。

 
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