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investment
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Beginnings have been made by firms and research organizations to confront the challenges ahead by increasing R>amp;amp;D investment, patenting activity and adopting novel strategies.
      
An optimal investment/consumption problem with higher borrowing rate
      
In this paper, optimal investment and consumption decisions for an optimal choice problem in infinite horizon are considered.
      
this paper gets the optimal consumption and optimal investment in the form of with .
      
Optimal investment consumption model with a higher interest rate for borrowing
      
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On the basis of the analysis of the previous paper, the present work poses a series of problems in dilute-phase heat transfer technique as applied to chemical metallurgy, and illustrates its practical aspects through pilot-scale measurements and experiments in the development of new metallurgical processes.In actual practice, particles are more often than not in accelerative motion while heat is being transported between them and the surrounding fluid medium, with the result that the transfer coefficient seldom...

On the basis of the analysis of the previous paper, the present work poses a series of problems in dilute-phase heat transfer technique as applied to chemical metallurgy, and illustrates its practical aspects through pilot-scale measurements and experiments in the development of new metallurgical processes.In actual practice, particles are more often than not in accelerative motion while heat is being transported between them and the surrounding fluid medium, with the result that the transfer coefficient seldom retains a constant value. An acceleration integral∫F(x)=integral from n=Re_0 to (Re_0+Re)((Re_s~xdRe_s)/(Ar_(Δρ)-fRe_s~2)) is proposed from which four dimensionless groups are derived (Eqs. (28), (29), (31), and (36)) which permit comparison of analogous heat transfer equipment on a generalized basis. Towards this end, Eq. (43) is derived for calculating the effectiveness of heat recovery for multi-layer dense-phase fluidization with full allowance for heterogeneous nonuniformity, so that the dense-phase operation may be compared directly with the corresponding dilute-phase operation as given by Eqs. (26) and (26a).After heat transfer measurements had been conducted on pilot scale, the authors applied the dilute-phase technique to heat transfer problems in the magnetizing roasting of low-grade iron ores and the sulfatizing roasting of an iron ore containing small amounts of copper and cobalt. In both cases pilot plant results indicate that the capital investment of dilute-phase equipment would be much lower that those of the conventional counterparts of corresponding capacities. Finally, it is concluded that dilute-phase technique is a new, yet rapidly developing field in the application of fluidization to chemical metallurgy, and a few important problems are proposed for future investigation.

在前文的分析基础上,提出了将稀相技术应用于流态化冶金中換热过程时的一系列問題,并通过稀相換热的扩大实驗和中間工厂实践进一步闡明稀相流态化的应用。在工艺換热过程中顆粒在加速度状态下与周围的流体进行換热,因此換热系数并非为常数。本文通过一个加速度积分∫F(x)=integral from n=Re_0 to (Re_0+Re)((Re_s~xdRe_s)/(Ar_(Δρ)-fRe_s~2)),对換热設备的換热能力和压降特性用四个无因次数加以統一描述[式(28),(29),(31)和式(36)]。将稀相換热与多层浓相流态化床比較时,本文为流速的非齐次性提出式(43)所表示的多层流态化床的热量回收率关系,使之可与稀相換热[式(26)和式(26a)进行直接比較]。在进行稀相換热扩大实驗后,将稀相技术应用于貧铁矿的磁化焙烧和含低品位銅鈷氧化鉄矿的硫酸化焙烧中間工厂中,并指出采用稀相換热的設备投资仅为习俗設备的一个很小的百分数。指出稀相技术是一个流态化冶金中正在开始发展的領域,其中許多問題尚待进一步的探索和研究。

For the sake of treating chromium waste from the electroplating workshop, experiments on the electrolytic method of removing chromium were carried out. Results indicate that treatment of chromium waste with the electrolytic method may reduce the hexavalent chromium in the waste to the amount less than the maximum permissible mentioned in the Standards for waste-water effluents, technical control is simple and reliable and the sludge produced may be utilized. The method of double-electrode connection was adopted...

For the sake of treating chromium waste from the electroplating workshop, experiments on the electrolytic method of removing chromium were carried out. Results indicate that treatment of chromium waste with the electrolytic method may reduce the hexavalent chromium in the waste to the amount less than the maximum permissible mentioned in the Standards for waste-water effluents, technical control is simple and reliable and the sludge produced may be utilized. The method of double-electrode connection was adopted to reduce the current and lower the equipment investment of the rectifier. Factors affecting the method, such as the spacing of the plates, electrolytic period, sodium chloride dosage required, etc., were studied and the economical and reasonabe design data were obtained.

为了处理电镀车间排出的含铬废水,进行了电解法除铬的小型试验。试验证明,采用电解法处理含铬废水,可使废水中六价铬达到规定的排放标准,操作管理简单可靠,污泥也便于综合利用。试验中采用了双电极的联接方法,可使电流降低,节约整流设备投资。通过试验,摸索了极板间距、电解时间、投加食盐等因素对电解除铬的影响,取得了经济合理的设计数据。

This paper discussed the necessity to construct ultra large blast furnaces with a inner volume up to 4000~4500m~3 in our country. These large furnaces should have high quality raw materials and operate with superhigh top pressure and superhigh blast temperature. In operation, they could reach the international prevailing standard, "the three 0.4′s", i.e., the coefficient of utilization of useful capacity 0.4m~3/t·day, coke ratio 0.4t/t iron and the silicon content in hot metal 0.4%. It is established that in...

This paper discussed the necessity to construct ultra large blast furnaces with a inner volume up to 4000~4500m~3 in our country. These large furnaces should have high quality raw materials and operate with superhigh top pressure and superhigh blast temperature. In operation, they could reach the international prevailing standard, "the three 0.4′s", i.e., the coefficient of utilization of useful capacity 0.4m~3/t·day, coke ratio 0.4t/t iron and the silicon content in hot metal 0.4%. It is established that in the construction and operation of modern blast furnaces the high quality raw materials should be considered as the basis and the saving of coke as the main link in order to bring the capacity of the blast furnace equipment into full play and to ensure a quick return of the capital investment.

论述了我国建设4000~4500米~3巨型高炉的必要性,巨型高炉应以精料为基础,采用超高压、超高温的操作技术;新建巨型高炉投产后应达到三个0.4的国际水平(利用系数0.4米~3/吨·日,焦比0.4吨/吨铁,生铁含硅0.4%).提出了现代高炉的建设和生产中,应贯彻"以精料为基础,以节焦为中心,充分挖掘高炉设备潜力.尽快发挥投资效果"的方针.

 
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