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hydrological frequency
相关语句
  水文频率
     Study on the general model cf hydrological frequency analysis
     水文频率分析通用模型研究
短句来源
     Hydrological frequency analysis and its application
     水文频率分析及应用
短句来源
     On Software Development for Hydrological Frequency Analysis
     水文频率分析软件的开发
短句来源
     Application of regular polyhedron optimization algorithm to automatic calculation of hydrological frequency
     基于正多面体算法的水文频率自动计算研究
短句来源
     Hydrological frequency calculation principle of inconsistent annual runoff series under Changing environments
     变化环境下非一致性年径流序列的水文频率计算原理
短句来源
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  水文频率曲线
     The common two methods of drawing hydrological frequency curve are "seeking-matrix curve fitting" and "three-point curve fitting". In addition, there are other methods. Among these methods, "polynomial in one indeterminate" may be used to simulate hydrological frequency curve, it is very simple and practical, its mathematical model is Qp=a0+a1p+a2p2+.
     水文频率曲线的绘制常用的两种方法是"求矩适线法"及"三点适线法",除此以外,还可以用其它的方法,其中,用一元多次函数直接描述水文频率曲线,具有简单、实用的特点,其数学模型为Qp=a0+a1p+a2p2+……+anpn,n为奇数,一般取5或7即可。
短句来源
  “hydrological frequency”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Hydrological frequency calculation of flood control of the Yan'an city on the Yanhe River
     延安市延河防洪水文计算
短句来源
     In this paper, by using the regression analysis to calculate regional hydrological frequency, the advantage and shortage of different regression methods is discussed, and the application of regional frequency curve in the data-lacked area is specialized.
     本文还探讨了区域洪水频率分析的回归法,比较各种回归法的优劣,以及区域洪水频率曲线在无资料地区的应用。
短句来源
     A robust estimate method for Hydrological frequency analysis is developed by Combining Huber′s M estimate and Minimum Distance (MD) estimate in this paper.
     结合使用Huber的M估计和最小距离(MD)估计,构造了一种P-Ⅲ型总体下的频率分析方法。
短句来源
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  hydrological frequency
Unfortunately, the latter are generally more representative of the data sets generally available for hydrological frequency analysis.
      


This paper attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to derive the law of distribution of hydrological frequency theoretically(2) What type of distribution curve should be adopted as the model of hydrological frequency curve and how to determine their parameters? The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1. Hydrological phenomena are time series with concealed periodic fluctuations. The results from statistical analysis based upon the current assumption that...

This paper attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Is it possible to derive the law of distribution of hydrological frequency theoretically(2) What type of distribution curve should be adopted as the model of hydrological frequency curve and how to determine their parameters? The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1. Hydrological phenomena are time series with concealed periodic fluctuations. The results from statistical analysis based upon the current assumption that hydrological phenomena are independent stochastic variables should be accepted with due considerations. 2. In view of the regional nature of hydrological phenomena, the current parctice of analyzing samples taking from a single station only is, in effect, to narrow the sampling field arbitrarily from a larger area to a point, thus reducing the accuracy of the statistical results. Hence, the synthetic utilization of the data of all stations within the hydrologically homo- geneous region is an important measure to increase the accuracy of statistical analysis. 3. The belief that the flood frequency obeys the binomial theorem or Poisson's theorem is but to mix up the priori with the empirical probability problem. The binomial theorem, being a powerful weapon to deal with the problems of priori probability, has not been adquately and properly utilized in the hydrologieal frequency analysis. 4. Analyses have been made of the nature of distribution of shydrologieal series on the basis of Kaptyen's derivation of the skew distribution, which indicate: (1) That the theoretical interpretation of the log-probability law of the hydrologic phenomena by V. T. Chow is not sound; (2) that hydrologic phenomena being results of very complicated meteorological and hydrological processes, it is impossible to derive theoretically the law of distribution for the hydrological series. 5. The view that the flood frequency obeys the Gumbel's distribution is theoretically not sound and also not verified by actual data. 6. According to the nature of the mathematical treatments applied, the method of description of the empirical probability can be classified into three systems: (1) The methods of the generalization of the characteristic factors of the distributions, such as Pearson's curves, Goodrich's curves, etc.; (2) The methods of the modification of a fundamental distribution by series and polynomials, such as Gram-Charlier curves. curves, etc.; (3) The methods of transformed functions, such as the log-probability law, curves, etc. It should be remarked that not only Pearson's and Goodrich's curves are frequency curves of empirical nature, but even the theoretical laws, such as the normal law and the log-probability law, will be aceepted as curves of empirical nature, when used as models for empirical probability problem. 7. Hydrological frequency analysis should not be mystified and made absolute. Instead of free selections, the models of hydrological frequency curve should be uniquely selected and specified. Statistical parameters should be determined not solely by the short period data of single station, but also by the synthetic utilization of the data of possible more stations. 8. It is recommended that one of the two types of distribution, i.e. the log-normal frequency curve with both sides limited and the Pearson's type Ⅲ curve, may be selected as unified models. The author suggests that the K-value corresponding to recurrence intervals of say 10~4, 10~5, or 10~6 years may be selected as the upper and lower limits for the log-normal curve. For Pearson's type III curves, C_s should be treated not as independent but as dependent variables of C_v. 9. The proper way to select and determine the model frequency curve is to see whether it fits well with the actual data of grouped stations (stations to be grouped by regions for rainfall data and by C_v for runoff data) and the reasonableness of the extrapolating part. 10. Suggestions on the method of determination of x and C_v: For point rainfall, iso-x map may be utilized, and the mean C_v for each hydrologicregion may be adopted in order to minimize the errors from single stations and to avoid the discrepancies in results obtained from the same region. With regard to flood frequency analysis, flood mark reconnaissance must be utilized to determine the magnitude and the recurrence interval of the unusual flood. The x and C_v values of the floods and runoffs of hydrologically similiar river basins may be compared. Besides, the reasonableness of the results of frequency calculations as well as of the statistical parameters adopted therein may be checked by comparing runoffs and point-rainfall values of the same frequency.

我国近期水文频率计算方法的研究工作在选择方法,经验频率公式,参数的误差和利用我国水文资料检验各种频率线型等方面有了一定的成果和实用的结论[1],但是下面两个问题还没有获得解决: (1)能否从机率理论证明水文频率属于何种分布律? (2)水文频率曲线应当采用什么线型?如何确定参数?本文试图解答以上两个问题。本文分析了水文系列的时序性质和区域性质,把机率问题按先验、极限和后验三种基本性质对水文频率问题进行了分析;利用开布屯推导偏态分布的方法分析了水文系列的分布性质,并从而批判了有关水文频率肯定属于对数正态律,耿贝尔极限律或二项式定理等等说法。认为属于后验机率性质的水文频率,不能从机率理论证明它属于何种分布律。最后提出联合利用各站水文资料来选择线型和确定参数的方法,并建议在两端有限对数正态和皮尔逊Ⅲ型两种线型中选择一种作为统一采用的线型,对两端有限曲线提出了简易可行的确定上下极限的方法,对皮尔逊Ⅲ型曲线认为应该把Cs作Cv的倚变参数。

The major emphasis of the study is to demonstrate the effects of measurement error on the results from a flood flow frequency analysis.A Pearson Type Ⅲ distribution was mainly used in the analysis, LogPearson Type Ⅲ was also used. The moment method was used to estimate parameters in addition to a curve-fitting method, which is the prescribed technique for parameter estimation in hydrological frequency analysis in China. Unbiasedness and efficiency of the 100-year and 1,000-year design events are accepted...

The major emphasis of the study is to demonstrate the effects of measurement error on the results from a flood flow frequency analysis.A Pearson Type Ⅲ distribution was mainly used in the analysis, LogPearson Type Ⅲ was also used. The moment method was used to estimate parameters in addition to a curve-fitting method, which is the prescribed technique for parameter estimation in hydrological frequency analysis in China. Unbiasedness and efficiency of the 100-year and 1,000-year design events are accepted as the major criteria for comparing goodness of fit in frequency analysis. Results from the Monte Carlo method of generating sequentially synthetic hydrological records indicate that in the absence of historical outliers, effects are small and may be neglected if the magnitude of the error is of ordinary order. When a historical outlier is included whose error parameter in smaller than 0.3, consideration of the outlier in the analysis can improve the resulting frequency curve.

本文着重分析了洪水观测误差对洪水频率分析结果的影响。分析中主要使用P—Ⅲ型曲线,但对对数P—Ⅲ型曲线也作了部份计算。估计方法主要使用矩法,但也用适线法做了少数方案的计算。百年及千年洪水的估计值的不偏性与有效性作为评比估计优劣的标准。Monte Carnlo计算表明,在不存在历史洪水的,当测验精度符合规范要求时,误差的影响不大,可以忽略。在存在一个历史洪水时,考虑历史洪水可以改善估计的性质,假如历史洪水的误差参数小于0.3。

In case of defining the probability distribution curve, the hydrological frequency computation is to estimate the parameters of the curve from the observed series.A new simple method (two points method) is presented in this paper.lt can calculate the parameters directly by means of the K function tables.lt is simpler than the three points method (grapho-analytical method), and can satisfy with the accuracy for filing curve.

在概率分布线型确定下,水文频率计算就是根据样本资料估算其中包含的参数。计算P-Ⅲ型分布参数的方法很多,目前常采用的最简单的方法是三点法,用图解适线求参数。本文中笔者建议用二点法直接利用K值表求参数。该方法简便,且不易出错。同时又能保证适线法的精度要求。

 
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