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cofactor regeneration
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    coli M15 (pQE30-gdh223) were recombinant strains harboring the ALR gene from Sporobolomyces salmonicolor ZJU0307 and the gdh223 gene from Bacillus megaterium. The cells of these two strains were mixed to construct a reaction system with cofactor regeneration. To reduce the inhibition of the substrate and the product, the reaction was carried in a water/n-butyl acetate two-phase system.
    结果表明,在水/乙酸丁酯的体系中,32℃时在pH 6.0的缓冲溶液中,100g/L的重组菌(M15(pQE30-ALR)/M15(pQE30-gdh223)=4/1)在滴加底物条件下将360mM的COBE还原为(R)-CHBE,产物得率为78.5%,e.
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  cofactor regeneration
Chemoenzymatic galactosialylation with integrated cofactor regeneration
      
The results suggest that vapour-solid methodology can be used with whole yeast cells to generate volatile products that require multi-enzymic bioconversions, as well as cofactor regeneration or conversion of ADP to ATP.
      
A mathematical model for the acetophenone reduction with cofactor regeneration describing the behaviour in a batch, repetitive-batch and continuously stirred tank reactor was developed.
      
To achieve 98% conversion of acetophenone, cofactor regeneration by oxidation of 2-propanol with the same enzyme was used.
      
Coenzyme recycling and electrochemical redox cycling as methods for cofactor regeneration are described and commercial applications indicated.
      
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Cofactor engineering, a vital part of metabolism engineering, changes the redox cofactor regeneration approach. Its main goal is to rebuild the components of metabolic products. The bioconversion of xylose for the production of ethanol is being studied intensively because ethanol is an alternative energy source and a potential liquid fuel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been traditionally used in producing ethanol from fermentable sugars but it cannot utilize xylose, only its isomer xylulose. Introduction...

Cofactor engineering, a vital part of metabolism engineering, changes the redox cofactor regeneration approach. Its main goal is to rebuild the components of metabolic products. The bioconversion of xylose for the production of ethanol is being studied intensively because ethanol is an alternative energy source and a potential liquid fuel. Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been traditionally used in producing ethanol from fermentable sugars but it cannot utilize xylose, only its isomer xylulose. Introduction of the xylose fermentation pathway from Pichia stipitis into S. cerevisiae enables xylose utilization in recombinant S. cerevisiae, but the ethanol yields of xylose fermentation with recombinant S. cerevisiae has been low and large amounts of the byproduct xylitol are produced. The major reason is that the catabolism of xylose with the fungal pathway leads an imbalance of redox cofactor. The process of the catabolism of xylose requires NADPH and NAD~+, both of which have to be regenerated in separated processes. More and more attention has therefore focused on the redox cofactor balance in S. cerevisia. The research progress of cofactor engineering to solve the imbalance of redox cofactor in xylose metabolism recombinant S. cerevisiae was introduced. This included expression of transhydrogenase, increasing the utilization of NADPH, and achieving the anaerobic reoxidation of NADH. Reversing the cofactor specificity of enzymes is another effective way.

辅酶工程(cofactor engineering)是代谢工程的一个重要分支,它通过改变辅酶的再生途径,达到改变细胞内代谢产物构成的目的。介绍了酿酒酵母(Saccharomyces cerevisiae)木糖代谢工程中,利用辅酶工程解决氧化还原平衡问题的研究进展,包括引入转氢酶系统,增加代谢中可利用的NADPH,实现NADH的厌氧氧化等策略。同时介绍了改变XR、XDH辅酶偏好的研究进展。

Oxygenases are enzymes that introduce one or two atoms of molecular oxygen into an organic molecule and can oxidate organic compounds selectively.So oxygenases continue to be widely studied.Protein engineering has resulted in heme and flavin monooxygenases with widely altered substrate specificities,or has increased their stability and improved their regioselectivity or enantioselectivity.In the industry,many attempts have been made to scale-up reactions catalyzed by these enzymes.Cofactor regeneration...

Oxygenases are enzymes that introduce one or two atoms of molecular oxygen into an organic molecule and can oxidate organic compounds selectively.So oxygenases continue to be widely studied.Protein engineering has resulted in heme and flavin monooxygenases with widely altered substrate specificities,or has increased their stability and improved their regioselectivity or enantioselectivity.In the industry,many attempts have been made to scale-up reactions catalyzed by these enzymes.Cofactor regeneration is still a key issue in these developments.Protein engineering also contributed to understanding of structure versus function in dioxygenases.

加氧酶是可以将单个或双个氧原子加入到一个有机化合物分子中的一类酶,且具有选择性生物氧化特性,所以被广泛研究。用蛋白质工程来改造血红素和黄素单加氧酶,可以改变它们底物的特性,或增强加氧酶的稳定性及其对映异构体或区域选择性。在工业上,正尝试着将加氧酶所催化的生物转化技术进行放大应用,但辅因子再生仍是影响这类酶工业化应用的关键问题。通过蛋白质工程还可以进一步地弄清加双氧酶的结构与功能的关系。

 
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