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premolar
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  premolar
A few teeth of an undescribed species tentatively referred to 'Protadelomys' provide an archaic element, whereas a single milk premolar of Patriotheridomys? suggests a considerable range for the genus prior to the middle Priabonian.
      
The OCT images of an extracted human premolar taken with and without the spectral filtering are presented and compared with each other.
      
To examine variability at the dentition level, enamel samples of the upper incisor, second deciduous premolar, and molars were sectioned.
      
The new fossil is a juvenile individual of late growth stage, preserved with interesting features of the premolar replacement.
      
Ontogenetic Evidence for Dental Homologies and Premolar Replacement in Fossil and Extant Caenolestids (Marsupialia)
      
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The male healthy rabbit is used as the study object,the implanting positionsare the both lower first premolar areas of mandible.The hydroxyapatite cera-mics,and the bioactive glass ceramics are implanting materials,the titaniumalloy Tc_4 implant is used as the control implant.The operation is provided tobe going on under the general anaesthesia.During the time in the experiment,the authors took samples periodically to observe respectively with opticalmicroscope,enzyme histochemical microscope and X-ray...

The male healthy rabbit is used as the study object,the implanting positionsare the both lower first premolar areas of mandible.The hydroxyapatite cera-mics,and the bioactive glass ceramics are implanting materials,the titaniumalloy Tc_4 implant is used as the control implant.The operation is provided tobe going on under the general anaesthesia.During the time in the experiment,the authors took samples periodically to observe respectively with opticalmicroscope,enzyme histochemical microscope and X-ray examination.In the 7-days specimens,the small openings between the implants and boneare full of fibroblasts,lymphoid cells and some foreign body giant cells.In thealveolar bone proper area,a number of osteoblast can be seen,many new boneshas been formed.In the connective tissue area,ossteoid tissue can be seen.Thetwo kinds of new bones may be connected.This may be useful to the implantstability.Increased AKP,MDH,LDH et al stain intensity has been observed inosteoblasts.There are new bones deposited on the surface of the bioceramic imp-lants and of the primary bone.The boundary between new bones and primarybones are very clear.New bones deposited layer by layer,but the surround oftitanium alloy Tc_4 implant,only a small amount of new bone can be seen.Onthe surface of titanium alloy Tc_4 implant,no new bone can be seen.

本文采用国内新合成的两种生物陶瓷种植材料——锆磷灰石陶瓷、活性玻璃陶瓷种植体植入兔子新鲜拔牙窝中,采用一般组织学、酶组织化学及X线片综合考查其对拔牙创愈合过程的影响,并以钛合金Tc_4作为对照。结果发现,放置有种植体的拔牙区与未放种植体的拔牙区,愈合过程相同,出现两种方式的成骨,即膜内成骨和结缔组织内成骨,并有融合趋势。新骨组织增生以放置有锆磷灰石陶瓷、活性玻璃陶瓷种植体较为活跃,放置钛合金Tc_4种植体区骨生长较次之。

The mental and mandibular foramina of 500 adult Chinese mandibles were studied. Mandibles whose mental foramina lie beneath the second premolar tooth account for 78.0±1.3%. The index of anteroposterior positions of mental foramina is 27.1 in males and 27.4 in females. The index of upward and backward positions of the foramina in males and females are 50.8 and 49.4 respectively. The most common shape of mental foramina is oval, such mental foramina making up 80.9±1.24% of the total. The average dimension...

The mental and mandibular foramina of 500 adult Chinese mandibles were studied. Mandibles whose mental foramina lie beneath the second premolar tooth account for 78.0±1.3%. The index of anteroposterior positions of mental foramina is 27.1 in males and 27.4 in females. The index of upward and backward positions of the foramina in males and females are 50.8 and 49.4 respectively. The most common shape of mental foramina is oval, such mental foramina making up 80.9±1.24% of the total. The average dimension of the foramen was measured, being 4.05mm×3.30mm in males and 3.94mm×3.16mm in females. The average distances from the lowest margin of the mandibular foramen to the mandibular notch and to the basal margin, the anterior and posterior of the mandibular ramus in males and females are 26.5±0.15mm and 24.1+0.18mm, 29.6+0.13mm and 26.9+0.17mm, 20.3±0.10mm and 19.1±0.12mm, and 16.8±0.09mm and 15.0+0.11mm. The indexes of anteroposterior positions of mandibular foramina are 54.6 (in males) and 55.9 (in females)and those of the upward and downward positions of the mandibular foramen are 46.7 (in males) and 47.2 (in females). Sex difference is statistically significant. However, no statistical difference was found on both sides.

对500个成人下颔骨的颏孔和下颌孔进行了研究。颏孔与第二前磨牙相对的最多,占78.0±1.3%。颏孔前后位置指数和上下位置指数,男性分别为27.1及50.8,女性为27.4及49.4。颏孔以卵圆形最多,占80.9±1.24%。颏孔的大小,男性为4.05mm×3.30mm,女性为3.94mm×3.16mm。颏孔开口朝后上者占88.7%。下颌孔至下颌切迹、下颌支的下缘、前缘及后缘的距

This research was made in a mandibu-lar that simulated dynamic relationship between occlusion, masticatory muscles and TMJ and that has full and normal teeth excepting the right second premolar was lost. This study measured and analysed the stress distribution and changing in the abutments and the supporting alveolar bone with strain gauge when the edentulous area was restored by T-type attachment and rest type connectors semifixed bridge. The results suggested that: 1. The stress of the abutments and...

This research was made in a mandibu-lar that simulated dynamic relationship between occlusion, masticatory muscles and TMJ and that has full and normal teeth excepting the right second premolar was lost. This study measured and analysed the stress distribution and changing in the abutments and the supporting alveolar bone with strain gauge when the edentulous area was restored by T-type attachment and rest type connectors semifixed bridge. The results suggested that: 1. The stress of the abutments and alveolar bone increased by prematurity and it's distribution and changing were different according to the place of prematurity and type of the connectors. 2. T-type connector has stress broken action and rest connector hasn't obvious such an action when prematurity of central occlusion.

采用电阻应变片电测技术,在具有模拟双侧颞肌、嚼肌和颞下颌关节盘、胎关系正常的头颅综合力学模型上,对右下颌第二双尖牙缺失区分别用T型栓道式半固定桥和胎支托式半固定桥(简称T栓道式桥)修复后,模拟产生正中(牙合)位及正中(牙合)位下的早接触,测试基牙和牙槽骨受力后的应力分布。结果:早接触增加半固定桥早接触区基牙和牙周组织的负担。依早接触区牙位的不同和活动连接体形式的不同,其应力分布有异;正中(牙合)位早接触时,T栓道式桥存在应力缓冲作用,(牙合)支托式桥则缓冲作用不明显。

 
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