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the rats
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  大鼠
     The Study of Establishment of Small-for-Size Liver Transplantation Animal Model,the Mechanism of Graft Injury in Early Stage after Reperfusion and the Graft Protection of Fk409 in the Rats
     大鼠小体积肝移植模型的建立,移植物早期损伤机理及FK409的移植物保护作用研究
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     Research on the Mechanism of Colon Dysmotility after MODS in the Rats and the Effect of KangYanLing and Emodin
     MODS大鼠结肠动力障碍机制和抗炎灵及大黄素治疗作用的研究
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     Ultrasound-Mediated Transdermal Drug Transport of PGE1, Heparin and VEGF and Their Effects on Flap Survival in the Rats
     低频超声介导的PGE1、肝素和VEGF经皮给药及其对大鼠超长宽比例皮瓣存活的作用
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     Effects of Youguiwan on the Expression of GluT-4 in Skeletal Muscle and Cardiac Muscle Tissue and bcl-2/bax of Follicular Cells in the Rats with Experimental Hypothyroidism
     右归丸对实验性甲减大鼠骨骼肌及心肌GluT-4和甲状腺滤泡细胞bcl-2/bax表达的影响
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     The Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in the Pathogenesis of Asthma, Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension, and the Effect of Chinese Herbs 814 in the Rats
     血红素氧合酶-1在大鼠哮喘和肺动脉高压发病中的作用及中药814干预的探讨
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     The protection of vitamin B_1 on the myocardium in the rats receiving the grains from Keshan disease area
     维生素 B_1 对克山病病区粮所致心肌损伤的预防作用
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     The Effect of Nd: YAG Laser Irradiation on the Submandibular Gland and Submandibular Lymph Nodes of the Rats
     Nd:YAG激光辐射对大白鼠颌下腺及颌下淋巴结的影响
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     Research on Distribution of the virus in the Rats Inhaling EHFV Aerosol
     大白鼠吸入EHFV气溶胶后病毒在各脏器的分布
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     Results Compared with the blank group,all the nine berbs were downtrend to the contents of MTL in the gastric mucosa and PGE2 in gastric mucosa and blood of the rats;
     结果与空白组比较,9味苦寒药对胃黏膜MTL、血与胃黏膜PGE2均有降低趋势;
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     The rats in Gluc,18AA and 20AA group were infused with 2.5% of glucose,18AA,and 20AA solutions respectively through central vein intubation for 14 days.
     非手术对照组动物不作任何处理,其余组行创伤和中心静脉插管手术,分别输注葡萄糖、18AA和20AA注射液,浓度均为2.5%。 实验期14 d。
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     Rats in Vit.
     Vit.
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     All rats
     ②手术对照组:给大鼠施予与实验组大鼠相同
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     METHODS The rats
     方法用075%的腺嘌呤(W/W)长期饲养大鼠。
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     The testis of rats were detected U.U.
     大鼠的睾丸组织中培养出 U .
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  the rats
Serum samples from the rats with the two kinds of doses of light rare earths were obtained after 48 h and analyzed by a 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectrometer.
      
An intestinal I/R injury model of rats was made; the rats were grouped according to the time of after 60 min ischemia.
      
The rats in group A was subjected to retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate via the pancreatic duct, and those in group B received chondroitin-sulfate therapy after ANP induction.
      
The levels of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), its receptor (Tie-2) and CD34 of the rats' endometria in each group were examined by using the S-P method of the immunohistochemistry 30 and 180 days after insertion, respectively.
      
The ratio of left ventricle weight to body weight (LV/BW) of the rats in pAT1a-shRNA1, pAT1a-shRNA2, and valsartan groups decreased significantly than in the control group (P >amp;lt; 0.01), similar to those of the normal SD rats (P >amp;gt; 0.05).
      
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α-, β-, and γ-Dichroine—3 isomeric alkaloids from the Chinese antimalarial herb "Chang Shan" (Dichroa febrifuga, Lour.), were investigated on anesthetized dogs for their effects on blood pressure, respiration, splenic and kidney volumes, and the activities of the heart, uterus and small intestines. Parallel observations were also made on isolated hearts, uteri and small intestines from several other species of animals. In the doses used the pharmacological actions of these alkaloids appeared to be identical...

α-, β-, and γ-Dichroine—3 isomeric alkaloids from the Chinese antimalarial herb "Chang Shan" (Dichroa febrifuga, Lour.), were investigated on anesthetized dogs for their effects on blood pressure, respiration, splenic and kidney volumes, and the activities of the heart, uterus and small intestines. Parallel observations were also made on isolated hearts, uteri and small intestines from several other species of animals. In the doses used the pharmacological actions of these alkaloids appeared to be identical qualitatively, and neither was there any marked quantitative difference. The lack of marked quantitative difference in their general pharmacological behavior is thus in strong contrast to their antimalarial activities, which vary tremendously from one another. These alkaloids, 2.5—10mg/kg given intravenously, produced a fall of blood pressure in all anesthetized dogs, usually associated with depressed cardiac contractions, and frequently an increase of the splenic and kidney volumes, while the respiration was not significantly affected. On the perfused rabbit heart, 0.2—2mg of them injected into the side tube of the cannula, always depressed the contractions, but in some cases slight augmentation preceeded the depression. The isolated frog heart was usually stimulated by the low concentrations of the alkaloidsand always depressed by their higher concentrations. In anesthetized dogs, the effects of these alkaloids on small intestines were inconsistent, stimulating in some cases and depressing in other cases; while the uterus was more commonly stimulated by them. In the concentrations used, these alkaloids always depressed the rabbit and dog intestines in vitro, but their effects on the isolated ileum of the guinea pig were dependant on the concentration, depressant in low concentrations, but usually stimulating or stimulating after transient depression in high concentrations. Their effects on the isolated uteri were still more complicated. On the rabbit nongravid uterus, their effects were in general not marked, in some cases there was slight stimulation and in other cases stimulation was preceeded by slight depression; but the gravid uterus was always stimulated by them. The nongravid uterus of the guinea pig was not significantly affected. As for the rat uterus, these alkaloids usually depressed the non-gravid and stimulated the gravid ones. α-, and β-Dichroine were also tested on the isolated non-gravid uterus of a monkey; only stimulation was observed.

(一)本文報告常山鹼甲、乙、丙對於麻醉犬血壓、呼吸、聛腎容積、心收縮、在位小 腸與在位子宮的作用,並佐以它們對於離體心臟、小腸和子宮的作用觀察。三種常山鹼的藥理作用,在所用劑量時並無質的不同,亦無明顯的量的不同。和它們抗瘧作用的強弱懸殊,形成強烈的對此。 (二)對於麻醉犬,靜脈內注入2.5—10毫克/千克後,三種常山鹼都能降低血壓,呼吸無顯著變化。脾容積與腎容積多增加,心收縮則呈現振幅減小。 (三)離體兔心灌注時,從導管的側枝內注入0.2—2毫克常山鹼,能引起顯著的抑制,有時在抑制前可見輕微的興奮作用。對於離體蛙心,低濃度多產生興奮,高濃度則抑制之。 (四)對於麻醉犬的在位小腸,三種常山鹼在上述劑量時作用並不一致,有時興奮之,有時抑制之,對於子宮則多興奮之。 (五)對於離體兔腸與犬腸,常山鹼在所試劑量時,恆引起抑制。對於豚鼠空腸,則低濃度時抑制,高濃度時往往興奮之,或在短暫的抑制後繼以興奮。 (六)對於離體子宮的作用更為複雜,對家兔未孕子宮,一般作用不著,有時輕微興奮之,有時在興奮前略呈抑制。對於有孕子宮則均興奮之。豚鼠未孕子宮對常山鹼的效應一般不顯著。對大白鼠未孕子宮多抑制之,對其有孕子宮則多呈興奮作用。曾...

(一)本文報告常山鹼甲、乙、丙對於麻醉犬血壓、呼吸、聛腎容積、心收縮、在位小 腸與在位子宮的作用,並佐以它們對於離體心臟、小腸和子宮的作用觀察。三種常山鹼的藥理作用,在所用劑量時並無質的不同,亦無明顯的量的不同。和它們抗瘧作用的強弱懸殊,形成強烈的對此。 (二)對於麻醉犬,靜脈內注入2.5—10毫克/千克後,三種常山鹼都能降低血壓,呼吸無顯著變化。脾容積與腎容積多增加,心收縮則呈現振幅減小。 (三)離體兔心灌注時,從導管的側枝內注入0.2—2毫克常山鹼,能引起顯著的抑制,有時在抑制前可見輕微的興奮作用。對於離體蛙心,低濃度多產生興奮,高濃度則抑制之。 (四)對於麻醉犬的在位小腸,三種常山鹼在上述劑量時作用並不一致,有時興奮之,有時抑制之,對於子宮則多興奮之。 (五)對於離體兔腸與犬腸,常山鹼在所試劑量時,恆引起抑制。對於豚鼠空腸,則低濃度時抑制,高濃度時往往興奮之,或在短暫的抑制後繼以興奮。 (六)對於離體子宮的作用更為複雜,對家兔未孕子宮,一般作用不著,有時輕微興奮之,有時在興奮前略呈抑制。對於有孕子宮則均興奮之。豚鼠未孕子宮對常山鹼的效應一般不顯著。對大白鼠未孕子宮多抑制之,對其有孕子宮則多呈興奮作用。曾試常山鹼甲、乙於一猴的未孕子宫,均有興奮作用。

Acetylcholine(I;X=OH,n=1)is a substance possessing intense physiological activity toward the vegetative nerves.It would be interesting to see the variation of physiological activity in the homologous series of choline esters(I). C_nH_(2n+1)·CO·OCH_2·CH_2·N~+(CH_3)_3X~- (I) The literature methods for the preparation of choline esters either by the interaction of β-halogen-substituted ethyl esters with trimethylamine or by the acylation of choline salts are not satisfactory in the purification of the products....

Acetylcholine(I;X=OH,n=1)is a substance possessing intense physiological activity toward the vegetative nerves.It would be interesting to see the variation of physiological activity in the homologous series of choline esters(I). C_nH_(2n+1)·CO·OCH_2·CH_2·N~+(CH_3)_3X~- (I) The literature methods for the preparation of choline esters either by the interaction of β-halogen-substituted ethyl esters with trimethylamine or by the acylation of choline salts are not satisfactory in the purification of the products. Loury prepared a few choline ester salts by the acylation of 2-dimethylaminoetha- nol and the subsequent quaternization of the tertiary amines so obtained,but he did not give the details including the physical constants and the analyses of the products.In the present work this method has been extended,a series of fatty acid esters of choline iodide has been synthesized.The products are well-defined crystalline solids.The lower members of the series are soluble in water,methanol or ethanol;the higher members are only slightly soluble,and the solid substances are greasy and the solutions are soap-like.The higher members gave two melting points,heating to high temperature caused the decomposition of these compounds, trimethylamine hydroiodide was isolated in several cases. When these compounds were used on the isolated rabbits' heart the lower members produced an acetylcholine-like effect,i.e.a slowing of the heart rate, the octanoyl compound was more or less inactive,and from then onwards with increasing chain-length an increasing degree of inhibition of the response to acetyl- choline was produced.From the decanoyl compound onwards with increasing chain length they inhibited spontaneous gastric secretion and the secretion of the vagotomised stomach stimulated by prostigmine in the rats as well if administered intramuscularly.

2-二甲氨基乙醇用相应的脂醯氯醯化后得到的叔胺再用碘甲烷季铵化,合成了一系列晶体的胆碱脂酸酯氢碘酸盐,其中并包括了两个不饱和脂酸酯.在这系列化合物中,短链的化合物对神经系统的作用与乙醯胆碱相仿,但长链化合物却抑制了乙醯胆碱的作用.致谢:本文大部分实验工作系在英国 Birmingham 大学药理系所作,作者对 A.C.Frazer教授的鼓励与协助致谢.

The stability of synthetic phosphoramides of aniline,p-chloroaniline,p-amino- benzoic acid,o-methoxyaniline sulfanilamide and benzylamine has been tested separately in acid and alkaline(pH 5.0 and pH 9.0)solutions.It was found that all these compounds are hydrolyzed in different degrees;among which N-(p-chlorophenyl)amidophosphoric acid is the most stable.This compound was thus used as substrate for most enzyme studies in spite of its low solubility.Phosphoramides of p-aminobenzoic acid and benzylamine are unsuitable...

The stability of synthetic phosphoramides of aniline,p-chloroaniline,p-amino- benzoic acid,o-methoxyaniline sulfanilamide and benzylamine has been tested separately in acid and alkaline(pH 5.0 and pH 9.0)solutions.It was found that all these compounds are hydrolyzed in different degrees;among which N-(p-chlorophenyl)amidophosphoric acid is the most stable.This compound was thus used as substrate for most enzyme studies in spite of its low solubility.Phosphoramides of p-aminobenzoic acid and benzylamine are unsuitable as substrates,due to their instability in solution in which the enzyme activity is measured. The phosphoamidase aetivity of the purified enzyme preparation from ox spleen on the phos- phoramide compounds is higher at pH 5.0 than at pH 9.0.The rate of hydrolysis and the affinity of the enzyme with the substrate are different for different phosphoramides.It is therefore evident that phosphoamidase activity is closely related to the structure of the substrate. Among the splitting products of phosphoramides,amines have little effect on the enzyme activity,while phosphate ion has quite significant inhibitory effect. From the experiments on the enzyme activity of rat tissue ertracts,it is seen that: (1)The ratio.of the activities on substrates with similar structures is parallel in all tissues, but different in substrates with different structures,indicating that there may exist more than one phosphoamidases. (2)The content of phosphoamidase in the various tissues of the rat varies to a considerable extent.Spleen has the highest phosphoamidase content. (3)Muscle-tissue extract contains a considerable amount of phosphoamidase activity upon synthetic compounds containing P-N linkage.It would appear that phosphocreatine,which is rich in muscle,might be the natural substrate for this enzyme.

(一)磷酰胺类化合物在酸性及碱性溶液中都不稳定。在所试过的化合物中,以磷酰对氯苯胺最稳定,但它的溶解度较小。磷酰参羧基苯胺和磷酰苯甲胺的自行分解速度甚大,不过宜用为底物。 (二)牛脾部分提纯制剂在 pH5.0对于磷酰胺类化合物的活力比在 pH9.0的高。而对于不同底物的水解速度与亲和力都不相同,显示磷酸氨基酶活力与底物的结构有密切关系。在分解产物中,胺类对于该酶的活力无大影响,而磷酸根离子则有较为显著的抑制作用。(三)大鼠组织提取液对于结构相似的底物的活力之比也相似,而对于结构不同的底物,则活力之比也不相同,显示有不同磷酸氨基酶存在的可能。(四)各组织中磷酸氨基酶的含量不同,以脾脏的含量最高。(五)肌肉组织中合有磷酸氨基酶的活力,它的研究可能对于肌肉中磷酸肌酸代谢的了解有所帮助。

 
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