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gross nitrification
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  总硝化
     1. Forest restoration stage had no significant effect on gross nitrification rates (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest types (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05).
     1.川西亚高山针叶林不同恢复阶段土壤的总硝化速率差异不显著(P<0.05),不同恢复阶段土壤总硝化作用的Q10值差异不显著(P<0.05)。
短句来源
     Accordingly, N transformation rates and soil respiration rates accelerated a lot, especially in soils of tilled pasture. For example, in soils of tilled pasture gross nitrification and N 2O flux rate were 5.1 times and 2.4 times that of natural pasture.
     氮转化速率和土壤呼吸大大加快 ,尤其是在翻耕草地 ,比如 ,翻耕草地的总硝化速率和N2 O排放速率分别是天然放牧草地的 5 .1和 2 .4倍。
短句来源
     In this paper, common analytical chemistry and barometric process separation methods were used to determine soil N and C pools, denitrification rates, gross nitrification rates, and N 2O and CO 2 flux rates of pastures under different management methods, including natural pasture, fenced pasture, tilled pasture and artificial pasture.
     采用常规化学分析和气压过程分离 (BarometricProcessSeparation ,BaPS)法 ,对不同类型草地 (天然放牧草地、围栏草地、翻耕草地和人工草地 )的土壤氮、碳库以及反硝化速率、总硝化速率、N2 O和CO2 排放速率进行了研究。
短句来源
     The results showed that there was obvious seasonal variation for gross nitrification rates in subalpine coniferous forest soil (P<0.01) and the highest value was found in July.
     结果表明,6至10月各月份之间的总硝化速率存在显著差异(P<0.01),在7月总硝化速率达到最大值;
短句来源
     3. The controlled laboratory experiment suggests that soil temperature and water content were positively related to gross nitrification rates (P<0.05) and had a profound interactive effect. Water content might play a more important role in the variations of nitrification rate compared with soil temperature.
     3.控制实验中土壤温度和水分含量与总硝化作用速率显著正相关(P<0.05),对总硝化速率的影响存在明显的交互作用,水分含量对川西亚高山针叶林土壤总硝化作用的影响可能比土壤温度更大,在季节变化中温度和水分含量可能对硝化作用产生直接和间接两种效应。
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  总硝化作用
     1. Forest restoration stage had no significant effect on gross nitrification rates (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest types (One-way ANOVA, P<0.05).
     1.川西亚高山针叶林不同恢复阶段土壤的总硝化速率差异不显著(P<0.05),不同恢复阶段土壤总硝化作用的Q10值差异不显著(P<0.05)。
短句来源
     2. There was obvious seasonal variation for gross nitrification rates in the naturalconiferous forest, the coniferous broadleaved forest and the 40 year-spruce plantation soil.
     2.原始针叶林、针阔混交林、40年人工云杉林三种典型的亚高山针叶林土壤的总硝化作用存在明显的季节变化,但不同的针叶林类型总硝化作用季节变化规律表现出不同的特点。
短句来源
     4. Gross nitrification rates were not related to the pH value, the organic matter, total nitrogen and C/N.
     4.总硝化作用速率与土壤pH值、土壤有机质、全氮及C/N相关不显著。
短句来源
     3. The controlled laboratory experiment suggests that soil temperature and water content were positively related to gross nitrification rates (P<0.05) and had a profound interactive effect. Water content might play a more important role in the variations of nitrification rate compared with soil temperature.
     3.控制实验中土壤温度和水分含量与总硝化作用速率显著正相关(P<0.05),对总硝化速率的影响存在明显的交互作用,水分含量对川西亚高山针叶林土壤总硝化作用的影响可能比土壤温度更大,在季节变化中温度和水分含量可能对硝化作用产生直接和间接两种效应。
短句来源
     Litterfall was negatively related to gross nitrification rates in the coniferous broadleaved forest and the 40 year-spruce plantation, but there were strong positive correlations between nitrification rates and litterfall from June to September in the natural coniferous forest (P<0.01).
     针阔混交林、40年人工云杉林森林凋落量与总硝化速率显著负相关,仅考虑6月至9月,原始针叶林森林凋落量与总硝化作用速率呈极显著正相关。
短句来源
  “gross nitrification”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Intact soil cores from winter-wheat, maize, and soybean fields were sampled through three successive growing seasons to determine the gross nitrification, denitrification, respiration rate.
     本文采用BaPS方法测定了冬小麦、大豆和夏玉米生长季旱作土壤的硝化-反硝化速率、呼吸速率;
短句来源
     Results from this research suggest that gross nitrification is more responsible for the nitrogen loss from soils as compared with denitrification.
     与反硝化作用相比,硝化作用对亚高山针叶林土壤氮损失的影响可能更大。
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  gross nitrification
Results suggest that the common response of net NO3- flux from disturbed soils is not a straightforward response of increased gross nitrification, but instead may be due to the balance of several factors.
      
However, they subsequently tended to decrease in favor of gross nitrification, which was significantly higher at the NWT plot as compared to?the?NWC plot during all field campaigns after?thinning except for April 2004.
      
The size of the microbial biomass N pool was found to correlate positively with both gross ammonification and gross nitrification as well as with extractable soil NO3- concentrations.
      
The mean value of gross nitrification rates showed only little seasonal differences between summer (0.99?μg?N?kg-1 SDW ?d-1) and autumn measurements (0.89?μg?N?kg-1?SDW ?d-1).
      
The respiratory quotient (ΔCO2?resp ΔO2 resp-1) for the uppermost mineral soil, which is needed for the calculation of gross nitrification via the Barometric Process Separation (BaPS) technique, was 0.8978?±?0.008.
      
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This experiment was carried out in L. chinensis grasslands in northeast China. Grasslands that were 1) protected; 2) overgrazed and 3) mown were compared for gross rates of mineralization, nitrification and consumption during growth seasons. The 15 N isotope pool dilution technique in intact cores was used to study differences in nitrogen transformation within three management systems of L. chinensis grasslands. Sampling was carried out in the middle April, July and September respectively. In brief,...

This experiment was carried out in L. chinensis grasslands in northeast China. Grasslands that were 1) protected; 2) overgrazed and 3) mown were compared for gross rates of mineralization, nitrification and consumption during growth seasons. The 15 N isotope pool dilution technique in intact cores was used to study differences in nitrogen transformation within three management systems of L. chinensis grasslands. Sampling was carried out in the middle April, July and September respectively. In brief, Zincified iron cylinders (4cm diameter×10cm deep)were driven into soil, and then larger cylinders(8cm diameter×10cm deep)were driven into soil around the smaller ones in concentric form. The pair were removed and the soil between the two cylinders was placed in plastic bags, mixed, and subsampled for extraction with 2 mol/L KCl(about 30g dry soil to 150 ml KCl), the remaining soil was used for gravimetric moisture test. The inner cores were taking out, covered one end, solution of 95% 15 N enrichment 80μg 15 N/ml concentration of ether ( 15 NH 4) 2SO 4 or K 15 NO 3 was injected in 6 times from both ends as even as possible,the proportion is about 1g dry soil to 2μgN, after the injection, covered the both ends, placed into soil for incubation 24 hours, and then placed the soil in the core into a plastic bags, mixed, extracted with 2mol/L KCl. Filtrated the extraction, the filtrate then was used for NH + 4 and NO - 3 content analysis, distillation methods were used for the analysis. After acidification and concentration of the distillation, the 15 N enrichment was analyzed. The initial pool sizes were calculated from the sum of the ambient pool and the amount of N injected. The ambient pool sizes were estimated from KCl extracts of soil collected between the two cores in concentric circles. The amount injected was calculated from the volume times the concentration of injecting solutions divided by the mass of soil sample in the core. The equations of Kirkham and Bartholomew(1954) were used to calculate the gross rates of mineralization, nitrification, and consumption in the three management systems. Overall results indicate that gross mineralization rates of all the three management system were higher in July compared to the other months of testing, this is close related to soil moisture and temperature. As the grasslands have more rainfall in summer than any other seasons, also temperature is higher, this is benefit for microbe's activity. And rates of mineralization were highest in overgrazed L. chinensis grassland during the month of April at 21.3μg N/(g soil·d) while rates for mown grassland was highest in July at 38μg N/(g soil·d). The rate of protected L. chinensis grasslands was highest during September at 15.6μg N/(g soil·d). The gross rates of soil N mineralization are higher in protected L. chinensis grassland in average, the reason is that protect L. chinensis grassland have more organic N compared with the other two management systems. The patterns of gross nitrification rates have some differences with gross mineralization rates in the three management systems, the gross nitrification rates are higher in September in general. The rates were significant high in the overgrazed system compared to mown or protected systems in April and July, and the difference is not significant compared with mown region in September, the difference between overgrazed system and protected system is not significant. consumption of NH + 4 includes the sum of immobilization, autotrophic nitrification, volatilization, and other possible fates. The pattern of NH + 4 consumption rates has similar pattern with soil gross mineralization under the three management systems. The highest NH + 4 consumption occurred in July. Consumption of NO - 3 includes the sum of microbial denitrification, dissimilatory NO - 3 to NH + 4, and microbial assimilation. The pattern of NO - 3 consumption rates has similar pattern with soil gross nitrification under t

采用同位素15N库稀释技术研究了 3种不同利用类型羊草草地土壤氮的总矿化、硝化速率以及无机氮总消耗速率 ,3种类型草地分别为 :保护区 (无人为扰动 )、割草场、过度放牧地。结果表明 :4月份过度放牧场的总矿化速率最高 ,为2 1 .3μg N/ ( g土· d) ,7月份割草场的值最高 ,为 38.5μg N/ ( g土· d) ,9月份保护区最高 ,值为 1 5 .6μg N/ ( g土· d) ,总的来看 ,保护区的总矿化速率高于其它利用类型草地 ,这与土壤有机氮的含量较高有关 ,3种类型草地铵态氮的消耗速率与总矿化速率有类似的趋势。 3种利用类型草地的氮总矿化速率均以 7月份为最高 ,分别为 36 .5、38.5、2 9.8μg N/ ( g土· d)。总硝化速率放牧场最高 ,保护区、割草场、放牧场 7月份的总硝化速率分别为 1 8.6、2 1 .4 5、35 .4 5 μg N/ ( g土·d)。 3种利用类型草地中放牧场的硝态氮含量最高 ,其消耗的速率也高于其它两种利用类型草地

N isotopic pool dilution in intact soil core method was used to study soil nitrogen gross minera lization, nitrification rates in northeast Leymus chinensis grasslands. Results indicated that gross rates of N mineralization are increasing from April to July, and reach the maximum peak value in July, the value is 36.35 μg·g -1 soil·d -1 , but the rate declines after July, and the consumption rates of NH + 4-N are higher than soil N mineralization rates from July to August. Gross rates of N nitrification...

N isotopic pool dilution in intact soil core method was used to study soil nitrogen gross minera lization, nitrification rates in northeast Leymus chinensis grasslands. Results indicated that gross rates of N mineralization are increasing from April to July, and reach the maximum peak value in July, the value is 36.35 μg·g -1 soil·d -1 , but the rate declines after July, and the consumption rates of NH + 4-N are higher than soil N mineralization rates from July to August. Gross rates of N nitrification fluctuate greatly with soil moisture and basic medium, the peak of gross nitrification rate appears in August, it is 46μg·g -1 soil·d -1 . The intact soil core methods was adopted to study soil nitrogen net mineralization, nitrification rates. The net rate of soil mi neralization and nitrification is 31.1kg·ha -1 ·yr -1 for 0-10 cm soil of the grassland.

采用管式取样法和15N库稀释技术研究了东北羊草草地土壤氮总矿化、硝化速率的季节动态 ,将其与土壤主要环境因子进行相关分析。结果表明 ,羊草草地土壤总矿化速率在 4~ 7月呈增加的趋势 ,7月份达到最高(以干土计 ,以下同 ,值为N 36 .35 μg·g-1·d-1) ,7月份以后矿化速率降低 ,7、8月份土壤中铵态氮的消耗速率大于氮的矿化速率 ;总硝化速率随土壤水分及硝化基质含量的变化而变化 ,波动性很大 ,硝化速率最高值出现在 8月份 (N 4 6 μg·g-1·d-1) ,硝态氮含量的变化趋势与总硝化速率的变化趋势相类似。

Different methods of pasture management have been adopted in individualized pastures of northwestern Sichuan, one of the most important pastoral areas in China. In this paper, common analytical chemistry and barometric process separation methods were used to determine soil N and C pools, denitrification rates, gross nitrification rates, and N 2O and CO 2 flux rates of pastures under different management methods, including natural pasture, fenced pasture, tilled pasture and artificial pasture. The results...

Different methods of pasture management have been adopted in individualized pastures of northwestern Sichuan, one of the most important pastoral areas in China. In this paper, common analytical chemistry and barometric process separation methods were used to determine soil N and C pools, denitrification rates, gross nitrification rates, and N 2O and CO 2 flux rates of pastures under different management methods, including natural pasture, fenced pasture, tilled pasture and artificial pasture. The results indicated that SOM (Soil organic matter) and total N in soils of the study area were 101.8 and 5.1 g·kg -1 , respectively, which were notably lower than 181.3 and 7.4 g·kg -1 of other typical sub-alpine soils. In contrast to common belief, the content of NO 3 --N was three-to-eleven times higher than that of NH 4 +-N, which was probably caused by the anthropogenic disturbance. There was a significant effect of different methods of pasture management to N and C pools, N transformation rates and soil respiration. After fence, SOM and total N increased notably. For example, fenced pasture was 61% and 58% and tilled pasture was 46% and 51% higher than natural pasture in these two respects, respectively. Accordingly, N transformation rates and soil respiration rates accelerated a lot, especially in soils of tilled pasture. For example, in soils of tilled pasture gross nitrification and N 2O flux rate were 5.1 times and 2.4 times that of natural pasture. Thus, although tillage in spring might help to enhanced crop yields (or pasturage), it also runs a great ecological risk including increased emissions of CO 2 and N 2O to the atmosphere and leaching of NO 3 - to ground water. This research also found that the gross nitrification rates were 20-93 times higher than net nitrification rates, and thus net nitrification rates do not provide valuable information on the dynamic character of soil nitrification in this high-altitude region.

川西北地区是我国的主要牧区之一。草地承包后 ,草地建设中出现了各种草地经营管理方式———围栏、翻耕和完全的人工建设。采用常规化学分析和气压过程分离 (BarometricProcessSeparation ,BaPS)法 ,对不同类型草地 (天然放牧草地、围栏草地、翻耕草地和人工草地 )的土壤氮、碳库以及反硝化速率、总硝化速率、N2 O和CO2 排放速率进行了研究。结果表明 :研究地点土壤有机质、全氮含量分别为 10 1.8和 5 .1g·kg-1,比典型的亚高山土壤有机质和全氮含量 (分别是 181.3和 7.4 g·kg-1)明显低 ,而且 ,与通常的观念不同的是 ,土壤NO3 - N含量是NH4+ N含量的 3~11倍。这可能是由于研究地过度的人为干扰造成的。研究还发现 ,不同管理措施对土壤氮、碳库 ,氮转化速率和土壤呼吸有显著影响。天然放牧草地围栏后 ,土壤有机质和全氮含量明显升高 ,比如 ,围栏草地和翻耕草地的有机质、全氮含量分别比天然放牧草地高 6 1%、5 8%和 4 6 %、5 1%。氮转化速率和土壤呼吸大大加快 ,尤其是在翻耕草地 ,比如 ,翻耕草地的总硝化速率和N2 O排放速率分别是天然...

川西北地区是我国的主要牧区之一。草地承包后 ,草地建设中出现了各种草地经营管理方式———围栏、翻耕和完全的人工建设。采用常规化学分析和气压过程分离 (BarometricProcessSeparation ,BaPS)法 ,对不同类型草地 (天然放牧草地、围栏草地、翻耕草地和人工草地 )的土壤氮、碳库以及反硝化速率、总硝化速率、N2 O和CO2 排放速率进行了研究。结果表明 :研究地点土壤有机质、全氮含量分别为 10 1.8和 5 .1g·kg-1,比典型的亚高山土壤有机质和全氮含量 (分别是 181.3和 7.4 g·kg-1)明显低 ,而且 ,与通常的观念不同的是 ,土壤NO3 - N含量是NH4+ N含量的 3~11倍。这可能是由于研究地过度的人为干扰造成的。研究还发现 ,不同管理措施对土壤氮、碳库 ,氮转化速率和土壤呼吸有显著影响。天然放牧草地围栏后 ,土壤有机质和全氮含量明显升高 ,比如 ,围栏草地和翻耕草地的有机质、全氮含量分别比天然放牧草地高 6 1%、5 8%和 4 6 %、5 1%。氮转化速率和土壤呼吸大大加快 ,尤其是在翻耕草地 ,比如 ,翻耕草地的总硝化速率和N2 O排放速率分别是天然放牧草地的 5 .1和 2 .4倍。因此 ,虽然春季翻耕可能提高作物 (包括牧草 )产量 ,但它同时也承担了巨大的生态学风险 ,包括增加排放到大气中的CO2 和N2 O的量以及淋溶?

 
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