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definition of simultaneity
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  同时性定义
     For this reason, another definition of simultaneity,which obeys causality and is consistent with Sagnac experiment,is explicitly given. The new definition of simultaneity can be set up in whole space.
     明确提出了另一种满足因果性,并与Sagnac实验相符合,可在全空间建立的统一的同时性定义.
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  definition of simultaneity
A number of objections against the possibility of a nonstandard definition of simultaneity raised by various authors are discussed and are found to lack any physical or mathematical justification.
      
The most general position-independent definition of simultaneity is given, and an example of a position- as well as direction-dependent definition is exhibited in an Appendix.
      
For a particular closed light path, they derived a necessary condition and claimed that it could be violated by a nonstandard choice of the definition of simultaneity.
      
In a recent article, De Ritis and Guccioni claimed to give an easy way of falsifying the conventionalist interpretation of the definition of simultaneity of distant events within an inertial system.
      
We give an easy way of falsifying the Reichenbach-Grümbaum conventionalist interpretation of the definition of simultaneity of distant events.
      
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The relations among simultaneity,causality,and single-pass velocity of light are discussed in detail.It is pointed out that the definition of simultaneity given by Landau is inadequate.For this reason, another definition of simultaneity,which obeys causality and is consistent with Sagnac experiment,is explicitly given.The new definition of simultaneity can be set up in whole space.

本文详细讨论了广义相对论中同时性、因果性及单程光速之间的关系;指出了朗道同时性定义的不足;明确提出了另一种满足因果性,并与Sagnac实验相符合,可在全空间建立的统一的同时性定义.

In this review paper, I first give my comments on the history of the theory of relativity (special and general theories of relativity). It is shown that the discovery of the theory of relativity is an inevitable outcome of the progress in physics: The inconsistency between some experiments and Newton's theory had called for a new theory; Many studies of modifying Newton's theory to remove this inconsistency became the basic steps up to the theory of relativity; Discarded old concepts of spacetime and at the...

In this review paper, I first give my comments on the history of the theory of relativity (special and general theories of relativity). It is shown that the discovery of the theory of relativity is an inevitable outcome of the progress in physics: The inconsistency between some experiments and Newton's theory had called for a new theory; Many studies of modifying Newton's theory to remove this inconsistency became the basic steps up to the theory of relativity; Discarded old concepts of spacetime and at the same times developed new physical principles brought Einstein to discover his theory of relativity. The main part of this paper widely and briefly review the main contents and progress in the theory of relativity and the main experimental tests. This paper deals with Einstein's definition of simultaneity, the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light and the principle of special relativity, time dilation, contraction of length, mass-velocity relation, mass-energy relation, causality and superluminal, the equivalence principle and the principle of general covariance, Einstein's gravitational field equations, geodesic equation, the linearized theory of general relativity, gravitational red-shift, gravitational waves, light deflection and gravitational lensing, planet's perihelion precession, the delay of radar echo, neutron stars, gravitational collapse and black holes, the big-bang cosmological model, gravitational energy problem, the singularity theorem, the thermodynamics of black hole and the Hawking radiation, and quantum gravity.

首先简单扼要地评述了相对论(狭义相对论和广义相对论)的历史背景,指出它是物理学发展的必然结果:一些物理实验结果与牛顿理论的矛盾召唤着新理论的诞生;为解决这些矛盾而对牛顿理论所做的大量修补工作为相对论的发现奠定了基础;放弃旧的时空观、提出新的物理学原理使爱因斯坦最终建立了相对论.主要部分是广泛而扼要地介绍并评述相对论的主要结果及其实验检验以及最新进展,它们包括:同时性定义、光速不变原理与相对性原理、时间变慢、长度收缩、质-速关系、质-能关系、因果律与超光速;等效原理与广义协变原理、爱因斯坦引力场方程、测地线方程、广义相对论的线性化理论、引力红移、引力波、光线偏折与引力透镜、行星的近日点进动、雷达回波的延缓、中子星、引力塌缩与黑洞、大爆炸宇宙模型、引力能量问题、奇性定理、黑洞热力学与霍金辐射、量子引力等.

The problem of establishing a theory of measuring the one-way speed of light has not yet been further tackled since Galileo proposed the theory of measuring the two-way speed of light 400 years ago.It is due to the fact that the people involved have been trapped into the misconception of the necessity of introducing another synchronizing signal with a known speed to synchronize the clocks at different positions in measuring the one-way speed,which has been pushed even further especially by Einstein,who proposed...

The problem of establishing a theory of measuring the one-way speed of light has not yet been further tackled since Galileo proposed the theory of measuring the two-way speed of light 400 years ago.It is due to the fact that the people involved have been trapped into the misconception of the necessity of introducing another synchronizing signal with a known speed to synchronize the clocks at different positions in measuring the one-way speed,which has been pushed even further especially by Einstein,who proposed the definition of simultaneity and the idea of synchronizing the clocks at different positions by light signal.Based on the above analysis,the author thinks in order to solve this problem we must try to find some other way and proposes a completely new theory of measuring the one-way speed of light as well as an experiment method.Under this theory,the one-way traveling light is not only treated as the target of speed-measuring,but also functions as the timing standard and signal for synchronizing the two clocks at different positions,thus making it possible to measure the one-way speed of light and to test whether the light of speed is relevant to direction or not.

自伽利略提出双程光速测量原理以来,400年间人们一直未能进一步解决单程光速测量原理难题,其原因是由于人们陷入了测量单程光速必须引入另一已知速度的对钟信号来同步异地时钟的思维误区;尤其是爱因斯坦提出用光信号对钟和同时性的定义以后,人们在这一迷途上走得更远。在分析的基础上,笔者认为要解决这一问题必须另辟蹊径,并提出了一种全新的单程光速测量原理和实验方法。在这一原理中,把单向运行的光既作为被测速对象,又作为时间标准和对钟信号,从而使单程光速的测量和检验光速是否与方向有关成为可能。

 
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