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standardized precipitation index
相关语句
  标准化降水指标
     COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX AND Z-INDEX IN CHINA
     标准化降水指标与Z指数在我国应用的对比分析
短句来源
     Through analysis and comparison of the drought record and three drought indices based on precipitation in Taihu Basin,it can be found out that the best method is Z-index,followed by standardized precipitation index(SPI) and precipitation anomaly index(PAI).
     通过太湖流域干旱记录与三种基于降雨的常用指标的对比分析,得出Z指数法的精度最高,标准化降水指标(SPI)次之,降水距平百分率(PAI)最低,而且Z指数法显示太湖流域的旱情主要发生在夏秋季节。
短句来源
  标准化降水指数
     The meanings and methods of several drought indices such as precipitation anomaly, Standardized Precipitation Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index etc. are presented and compared.
     分析比较了国内外常用的一些干旱指数如降水量距平、标准化降水指数及PDSI等的原理和计算方法。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARDIZED PRECIPITATION INDEX AND Z-INDEX IN CHINA
     标准化降水指标与Z指数在我国应用的对比分析
短句来源
     (b) precipitation of hydride;
     (b)在裂纹尖端形成氢化物并长大:k)主裂纹沿氢化物扩展;
短句来源
     On the Standardized Contract
     格式合同探析
短句来源
     Anesthesia was standardized.
     手术麻醉按常规方法进行。
短句来源
     precipitation and evaporation;
     降水与蒸发;
短句来源
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  standardized precipitation index
Spatial and temporal analysis of drought in greece using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI)
      
Next, we studied the extremes of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), which has been proposed as an indicator for monitoring wet and dry conditions.
      
The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) is used to assess the climatic conditions of the area, and principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to capture the pattern of co-variability of the index at different stations.
      
In this study, a new index, the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI) is proposed together with the well known Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the method of deciles.
      
Drought forecasting using the Standardized Precipitation Index
      
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A drought index equation is established by using the standardized precipitation index. It can be applied to monitoring drought in north China. Good results are obtained by the use of the equation to calculate and analyze the drought in north China in 1997 and wet and dry periods of previous years.

利用标准化降水指数建立了华北地区于旱指数计算公式,并对华北地区1997年的干旱和历年于温期进行了计算和分析,取得了较好的结果,试验表明该指数能运用于干旱监测业务。

Droughts are the world's costliest natural disasters, causing an estimated $6-$8 billion in global damages annually and affecting more people than any other form of natural disaster. Given the consequences and pervasiveness of droughts, it is important to assess the specialized indices that are used to assess drought severity. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) has several characteristics that are an improvement over previous indices, including its simplicity and temporal flexibility that...

Droughts are the world's costliest natural disasters, causing an estimated $6-$8 billion in global damages annually and affecting more people than any other form of natural disaster. Given the consequences and pervasiveness of droughts, it is important to assess the specialized indices that are used to assess drought severity. The standardized precipitation index (SPI) has several characteristics that are an improvement over previous indices, including its simplicity and temporal flexibility that allow it to examine both short term and long term drought conditions. Computation of the SPI involves fitting a gamma probability density function to a given time series of monthly precipitation totals for a weather station. The resulting parameters are then used to find the probability of a particular precipitation event over a given time scale. This probability is then converted to the standard normal random variable SPI index value. In this article, 1-month SPI are calculated and compared with the Z-index, the most widely used index in China. The results demonstrated that 1-month SPI calculated for 7 observational stations are greatly consistent with Z-index, but that the SPI rarely relates to distributing on precipitation, avoiding some of the irregularities associated with the Z-index. Thus, the SPI is superior to the Z-index in its application. We also investigated drought and flood events from 1951-1995 for Beijing in greater detail. By using the 24-month SPI (SPI 24), three well-defined drought and flood events were identified from the data series. In general, the same drought and flood events were observed using the 12-month SPI (SPI 12) as the SPI 24, although there were some interruptions where the SPI 12 values approached zero or became negative for short periods. For 3-month periods (SPI 3), the SPI values frequently fell above and below zero. These results highlight the SPI characteristics at different time scales. As the time scale increases from 1 to 24 months, the SPI responds more slowly to short-term precipitation variation, and the cycles of positive (wet conditions) and negative (drought) SPI values become more visible. The possibility of calculating the SPI for different time scales enhances its analysis capacity, since it allows the estimation of different antecedent conditions in the soils. Whereas the shortest scales (1 to 3 months) quantifies superficial soil water, which bears a direct significance for agriculture, the longest accumulation scales (12 to 24 months) indicate the state of subsoil moisture as well as other surface and subsurface water resources. The joint consideration of different SPI scales in the analysis contributed to a satisfactory explanation of risk conditions before each flood event reported. These results indicate that the SPI is an effective index for assessing drought conditions at different time scales and should be adopted for use in China.

利用分布于我国不同气候区的 7个气象台站 195 1~ 1995年的月降水资料 ,比较分析了标准化降水指标(Standardizedprecipitationindex,SPI)和在我国已成熟应用的Z指数。结果表明 ,SPI计算简单 ,资料容易获取 ,而且计算结果与Z指数有极好的一致性。同时 ,由于SPI是通过概率密度函数求解累积概率 ,再将累积概率标准化而得 ,具有稳定的计算特性 ,消除了降水的时空分布差异 ,在各个区域和各个时段均能有效地反映旱涝状况 ,优于在我国广泛应用的Z指数。此外 ,SPI还可以计算不同时间尺度的指标值 ,能够满足不同水资源状况分析的要求。以北京为例 ,探讨了应用 4种时间尺度的SPI值反映 195 1~ 1995年期间的旱涝事件 ,发现SPI能准确地反映北京4 5年间的旱涝趋势 ,对于旱涝灾害有着良好的预测作用 ,可用于我国的水资源评估以及不同时间尺度的干旱监测

The meanings and methods of several drought indices such as precipitation anomaly, Standardized Precipitation Index and Palmer Drought Severity Index etc. are presented and compared. The operational drought monitoring systems in the U.S.A. and China are also (introduced,) (including) the monitoring tools, magnitudes of drought and assessments of drought impacts.

分析比较了国内外常用的一些干旱指数如降水量距平、标准化降水指数及PDSI等的原理和计算方法。对美国和中国国家级干旱监测业务的发展与现状进行了综述,并详细地介绍了两国干旱监测业务流程、监测方法、产品内容及各自的干旱等级规定、影响评估及预警情况等。

 
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