The critical energy as the equivalence ratio (j)=2 was much more than that as =1. This result was consistent with the experimental one in gas detonation.

The results show that there are a minimum of the critical initiation energy for a at the equivalence ratio 1.05,1.12,1.15,1.17 for the PO air, C 6H 14 air, C 10 H 22 air and C 5H 8.68 air respectively.

Under the condit ions of the experimental system, there is minimum critical initiation energy f or propylene epoxide air at equivalence ratio of 1.05, the hexane air at eq uivalence ratio of 1.12, and the decane air at equivalence ratio of 1.15 respe ctively.

(2) Improving the sooted-foil technique, the detonation cellular structures of several fuel-air mixtures are studied respectively under the normal pressure and negative pressure. Evident imprints are gained and the relationship among detonation cell size and initial pressure, equivalence ratio, initiation energy is too obtained.

When the other venting conditions were fixed, the probability of the secondary explosion in low equivalent ratio(less than 1.0) of fuel-air mixtures was lower than the high (more than 1.0).

In this paper, with a cylindrical vented vessel connected to a duct, the experiments on the venting to air under different venting conditions (failure pressure, vent area, equivalent ratio of the methane-air gas mixture and the location of ignition source) were performed and the pressure-time profiles of the external flow field were obtained.

The direct initiation of detonation in a pr op ylene epoxide spray in air, a hexane spray in air and a decane spray in air has been studied respectively using a vertical shock tube with a diameter of 240mm. The critical energy for the direct initiation of detonation has been measured fo r the three fuel air mixtures at different equivalence ratios.

The critical energy as the equivalence ratio (j)=2 was much more than that as =1. This result was consistent with the experimental one in gas detonation.

The results show that there are a minimum of the critical initiation energy for a at the equivalence ratio 1.05,1.12,1.15,1.17 for the PO air, C 6H 14 air, C 10 H 22 air and C 5H 8.68 air respectively.

Under the conditions of this experimental system, there are a minimum of the critical initiation energy for a propylene epoxide air at the equivalence ratio Φ =1.05, for a hexane air at the equivalence ratio Φ =1.12, for a decane air at the equivalence ratio Φ =1.15 respectively.

Ignition delay time behind a reflected shock wave is measured for a lean propane-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of ? = 0.5 in wide temperature and pressure ranges (T = 880-1500 K, P = 2-500 atm).

Both experiment and numerical simulation were made at inlet temperature of 553 K, inlet velocity of 3 to 7 m/s and equivalence ratio of 0.3 to 0.5.

The combustion timing advances with the increase of DTBP concentrations, coolant temperature and equivalence ratio.

The chemical form of the nitrogen affixed to the PP surface is strongly dependent on the flame equivalence ratio.

With both models, the dependence of the results on the stoichiometric coefficient and the equivalence ratio can be expressed in an explicit manner.

The nuclease activity was either suppressed or stimulated in the presence of PCMB depending on the C7H5O2Hg+ to nucleotide equivalent ratio.

When Cu(II) bis(isobutyl) dithiocarbamate was used in an equivalent ratio with an initiator, the polymerization of MMA proceeded as a well-controlled process and yielded a monodisperse polymer.

When Cu(II) bis(isobutyl) dithiocarbamate was used in an equivalent ratio with an initiator, the polymerization of MMA proceeded as a well-controlled process and yielded a monodisperse polymer.

A model approach to inflation is generated through a newIS-LM analogous synthesis of money, output and prices incorporating several capacity equivalent ratio variables of the product, the factor and the money markets.

The high contribution of (Ca+Mg) to the total cations, high concentration of dissolved silica, relatively high (Na+K)/TZ+ ratio (0.3) and low equivalent ratio of (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) suggests combined influence of carbonate and silicate weathering.

Under such conditions we have calculated extremely small lethal equivalence ratios in demes where probably a great deal of consanguinity takes place.

Results are presented for initial pressuresPo and equivalence ratios Φ ranging from 0.3 to 1 bar and from 1 to 2 respectively, for the two initial temperaturesTo, 123 K and 293 K.

Mixtures of hydrogen, ethylene, propane, and methane with air at ambient conditions over a range of equivalence ratios are used.

For equivalence ratios less than approximately 1.2 the detonation exhibits a short-period oscillatory mode, characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude waves.

The acetylene fluorescence signal is easily detected in propane flames over equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.2, although it increases under fuel-rich conditions.

With both models, the dependence of the results on the stoichiometric coefficient and the equivalence ratio can be expressed in an explicit manner.

These initial conditions are expected to depend mainly on four parameters: the equivalence ratio of the mixture, the amount of the initial energy deposition, the initial temperature and pressure of the mixture.

As forCH4/C4H10 mixed fuel, detonation velocities and detonation limits as a function of the equivalence ratio of the whole mixture of mixed fuel coincided with those ofCH4 single fuel.

The numerical results show that the equivalence ratio $\Phi$ of the gas-mixture is high enough in order to have a non-reactive gas close to the wall which keeps constant the hydrogen temperature along the centre-body.

The equivalence ratio (test/reference) for the pharmacokinetic characteristics AUCnormwas 1.03 (geometric mean; 0.95-1.11, 90% confidence interval) and Cmax,norm1.01 (0.94-1.08).

The critical initiation energy for detonation of butane air mixtures was measured in confined (shock tube tests) and unconfined (plastic bag tests) conditions. Based on the concept of explosion length proposed by Ramamurth, a formula for estimating the initiation energy of detonation under unconfined condition was presented. Good agreement was found between the formula and experiments.

This paper presents the experimental results of the initiation and stabilization of an oblique detonation by launching a hypervelocity projectiles at velocities of 1700～2100m/s,into H 2 air mixtures.The influences of the conical vertex angle,the velocity of projectile and equivalence ratio of combustible mixture on the generation of the standing oblique detonation are discussed.

In this paper, the experiments were conducted in a vertical shock tube, critical initiation energy of some fuel and air mixture was measured. Meanwhile these results were used to calculate theoretical critical initiation energy of fuel air mixture in unconfined conditions, and calculated results agree well with experimental ones. The investigation results maybe of directive purpose on accidental explosion prevention, and on application researchs in military.