Similarly, the gas flow speed or the equivalence ratio conditions were studied, which of the flame into the HPM from outside or of the flame away from the HPM.

Late injection gives relatively low NO x emission. Combustion efficiency maintains high value in the range of equivalence ratio from 0.5 to 0.8,combustion efficiency decreases for both φ>0.5 and φ>0.8.

2. The temperature distribution and the maximum temperature inside the porous medium combustor, the combustion efficiency and the levels of NO and CO emissions dependstrongly on the major parameters (gas flow velocity, fuel-air equivalence ratio and half cycle period).

When the equivalent ratio was in the range of 0.3-1.4, the temperature in the porous media increased to a certain level and then decreased with the increase of equivalent ratio.

The main results are: The measuring points temperature decreases, the flame center shifts up, and the top temperature of the burner decreases as functions of equivalent ratio , during <1;

Secondly, these validated models are employed to predict the flashback limit in methane premixed combustion and the result is compared with the test data in quantity and leads to a conclusion: Equivalent Ratio is directly proportional to flashback velocity in methane Cone-shaped flame and the highest flash back velocity will appear when the value of ER is approached to 1;

Using a combustion model some problems such as: the relationship between ignition delay and fuel concentration, the relationship between soot concentration and the equivalent ratio of mixture have been helped forward on further investigation in combustion and soot formation in diesel engine.

The results showed the reduced model could simulate the cool-flame and hot-flame combustion process of n-heptane in HCCI engines, and that the reduced model generally agreed well with those of the detailed model(544 species and 2446 reactions) within the range of equivalence ratios from 0.2-1.2, temperature from 300-3000 K.

Ignition delays for premixed air NG diesel fuel at different temperatures of ignition and different equivalence ratios as well as different pressures are disposed and calculated by using the code. The variation histories of concentrations of reactions,main products and radicals as well as temperature are predicted as time goes on.

Similarly, the gas flow speed or the equivalence ratio conditions were studied, which of the flame into the HPM from outside or of the flame away from the HPM.

Experimental studies are done for the quenching effect of premixed flames in the HPM. It was found that the quenching diameter of porous media is a multi-parametric complicated function, related to the mixture flow speed, the premixed gaseous laminar flame velocity, the pipe flow Reynolds numbers, the coefficient of temperature conductivity, the equivalence ratio and the solid temperature.

The contents included temperature distribution, pollutant emission, flame speed and pressure loss, as the functions of the equivalence ratio and firing rate, moreover, the gas velocity and equivalence ratio limit for steady combustion in the GVPM burners.

Ignition delay time behind a reflected shock wave is measured for a lean propane-air mixture with an equivalence ratio of ? = 0.5 in wide temperature and pressure ranges (T = 880-1500 K, P = 2-500 atm).

Both experiment and numerical simulation were made at inlet temperature of 553 K, inlet velocity of 3 to 7 m/s and equivalence ratio of 0.3 to 0.5.

The combustion timing advances with the increase of DTBP concentrations, coolant temperature and equivalence ratio.

The chemical form of the nitrogen affixed to the PP surface is strongly dependent on the flame equivalence ratio.

With both models, the dependence of the results on the stoichiometric coefficient and the equivalence ratio can be expressed in an explicit manner.

The nuclease activity was either suppressed or stimulated in the presence of PCMB depending on the C7H5O2Hg+ to nucleotide equivalent ratio.

When Cu(II) bis(isobutyl) dithiocarbamate was used in an equivalent ratio with an initiator, the polymerization of MMA proceeded as a well-controlled process and yielded a monodisperse polymer.

When Cu(II) bis(isobutyl) dithiocarbamate was used in an equivalent ratio with an initiator, the polymerization of MMA proceeded as a well-controlled process and yielded a monodisperse polymer.

A model approach to inflation is generated through a newIS-LM analogous synthesis of money, output and prices incorporating several capacity equivalent ratio variables of the product, the factor and the money markets.

The high contribution of (Ca+Mg) to the total cations, high concentration of dissolved silica, relatively high (Na+K)/TZ+ ratio (0.3) and low equivalent ratio of (Ca+Mg)/(Na+K) suggests combined influence of carbonate and silicate weathering.

Under such conditions we have calculated extremely small lethal equivalence ratios in demes where probably a great deal of consanguinity takes place.

Results are presented for initial pressuresPo and equivalence ratios Φ ranging from 0.3 to 1 bar and from 1 to 2 respectively, for the two initial temperaturesTo, 123 K and 293 K.

Mixtures of hydrogen, ethylene, propane, and methane with air at ambient conditions over a range of equivalence ratios are used.

For equivalence ratios less than approximately 1.2 the detonation exhibits a short-period oscillatory mode, characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude waves.

The acetylene fluorescence signal is easily detected in propane flames over equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.2, although it increases under fuel-rich conditions.

Energy Dispersive X-ray Detector quantitative analysis gave a 2: 3 stoichiometric ratio of Bi to Te, which was consistent with X-ray Diffraction results.

NOx emission increased obviously with the increase of stoichiometric ratio.

Chemical kinetics calculation and experimental research were used to find out the mechanism between N2O and N-agent species, N-agent/NO nitrogen stoichiometric ratio (NSR), reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.

In the nitrification, the average stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity consumption and ammonia oxidation is calculated to be 7.07 mg CaCO3/mg NH4+-N.

In the denitrification, the average stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity production and NO3--N reduction is about 3.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3--N.

The generalized spherical symmetrical, unsteady, non-dimensional fundamental equations describing the thermal ignition process by a hot gas sphere in the homogeneous combustible gaseous mixture have been analyzed numerically. There are 5 independent concentration equations describing the behaviour of 5 species during chemical reaction, variable thermal properties of different components at different temperatures were used during calculation. The relation between the critical diameter and pressure or chemical...

The generalized spherical symmetrical, unsteady, non-dimensional fundamental equations describing the thermal ignition process by a hot gas sphere in the homogeneous combustible gaseous mixture have been analyzed numerically. There are 5 independent concentration equations describing the behaviour of 5 species during chemical reaction, variable thermal properties of different components at different temperatures were used during calculation. The relation between the critical diameter and pressure or chemical reaction rate constant, the temperature and concentration distributions varying with time for different fuel-air ratio, and also the influence of fuel-air ratio upon the critical ignition diameter have been investigated numerically which agree to experimental data of other authors to a well extent. The effects of different reaction orders of oxygen and fuel on the ignition process have been analysed and compared to the experimental results of other authors.

An attempt is made to investigate the characteristics of a simple emission model for predicting nitric oxide (NO) from gas turbine combustors and to explain why this model yields good predictions of the trend in NOx emissions. Based on such an effort, the author extends the model to make it able to predict carbon monoxide (CO) levels-another important pollutant in gas turbine combustors. A global kinetic equationfor CO oxidation, coupled with an empirical correlation relating the initial concentration of CO...

An attempt is made to investigate the characteristics of a simple emission model for predicting nitric oxide (NO) from gas turbine combustors and to explain why this model yields good predictions of the trend in NOx emissions. Based on such an effort, the author extends the model to make it able to predict carbon monoxide (CO) levels-another important pollutant in gas turbine combustors. A global kinetic equationfor CO oxidation, coupled with an empirical correlation relating the initial concentration of CO with the equivalence ratio of the primary zone, have been employed in the model. Good agreement is obtained between predicted and experimental data.

NOx concentrations within the cylinder of an operating single-cylinderversion of a passenger-car type,indirect-injection diesel engine have beenmeasured using a total cylinder sampling system.Measurements have beenmade for 11 different operating conditions.Engine speeds of 1000 and 1500r/min and the load range corresponding to equivalence ratios ranging from0.32 to 0.94 were explored.The influences of fuel injection timing andexhaust recirculation were also examined.The experimental data werecompared with model...

NOx concentrations within the cylinder of an operating single-cylinderversion of a passenger-car type,indirect-injection diesel engine have beenmeasured using a total cylinder sampling system.Measurements have beenmade for 11 different operating conditions.Engine speeds of 1000 and 1500r/min and the load range corresponding to equivalence ratios ranging from0.32 to 0.94 were explored.The influences of fuel injection timing andexhaust recirculation were also examined.The experimental data werecompared with model predictions made using MIT's stochastic combustionmodel for this engine.In general,the modeled results were in goodagreement with the experimental results.The major difference was thatthe model did not predict the measured higher NOx concentrations in thecylinder than in the exhaust.