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traditional chinese scholars
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  中国传统文人
     Split personality is multiplicity of human character which took shape early in traditional Chinese scholars.
     人格分裂就是人的品格的多重性的同时外化,在中国传统文人中早有体现;
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     Chinese Traditional Ophthalmology
     中医眼科
     On Traditional Chinese Happiness
     中国传统幸福观论析
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     Scholars Platform
     名师讲坛
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     Prominent Scholars
     著名学者介绍
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     Famous scholars R.
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Traditional Chinese scholars concerned very much about human beings while they are doing the research about nature. They believed that the human being is the most important factor in agriculture, military affairs and other activities, which is more important than heaven and earth. As the human factor was often mentioned as ren li (人力, manpower) and ren he (人和, harmonious relations), and manpower is composed of physical power and intelligence, and harmonious relations are maintained by morality, it was...

Traditional Chinese scholars concerned very much about human beings while they are doing the research about nature. They believed that the human being is the most important factor in agriculture, military affairs and other activities, which is more important than heaven and earth. As the human factor was often mentioned as ren li (人力, manpower) and ren he (人和, harmonious relations), and manpower is composed of physical power and intelligence, and harmonious relations are maintained by morality, it was divided into three aspects of virtue, intelligence and physique. This paper discusses some topics, such as manpower. diligence, intelligence, choice and use of talents, and family and neighbor relations that related with the knowledge about human beings in traditional Chinese agricultural theory, and the influence of this knowledge upon the development of science and technology. It suggests that the unilateral knowledge about human of less science than virtue and less intelligence than diligence hindered the development of science and technology in China, and reversely, it enhanced the effect of human harmony and physical power.

中国古代农学家在探讨农业技术的同时,始终要考虑人的因素。他们认为,天、地、人三才之中,人是农业生产中最重要的因素,而人的因素又是由“人和”及“人力”构成,人和需要靠道德来维系,人力又包括智力和体力两个部分,于是三才中的人又可分解为德、智、体三个方面。传统农学理论中有关“人”的论述方面,虽然认识到了“智力”或“知识”的作用,但尊重知识并没有成为一种社会的共识。重体轻脑、重德轻艺的片面认识,阻碍了科学技术的进步,也影响了生产力的发展,反过来又强化了体力和道德的作用。

Abstract;Xu Wei's the Sorrowful Ape is composed of four tragedies. They are organised into a whole by strong tragic consciousness which is also implied by the topic. The first tragedy, Suxaring at Cao Coo ,is a realistic one. From the popular point of view , "Good will be rewarded with good, and evil with evil",Xu Wei makes the character Mi Heng who takes his revenge on Cao Cao. In fact, this plot is not feasible, but an illusory spiritual console. The second one, the Chan Master , is a tragedy of humanity....

Abstract;Xu Wei's the Sorrowful Ape is composed of four tragedies. They are organised into a whole by strong tragic consciousness which is also implied by the topic. The first tragedy, Suxaring at Cao Coo ,is a realistic one. From the popular point of view , "Good will be rewarded with good, and evil with evil",Xu Wei makes the character Mi Heng who takes his revenge on Cao Cao. In fact, this plot is not feasible, but an illusory spiritual console. The second one, the Chan Master , is a tragedy of humanity. It suggests that love and hatred are the origins of tragedies. No one,even the Chan Master named Yu Tong who has practised Buddhism for more than twenty years , can not free himself from the two universal psychologies of human beings. The third, the Heroine , is a dirge for women living in the feudal society. Even though given conditions help her to becoming a heroine,Hua Mulan is still a tragic victim and there is no difference between herself and the other sisters. In the forth tragedy, the Woman Number One Scholar , a tragedy of the feudal officials, Xu Wei likens himself to a woman (just like the other traditional Chinese scholars do) and reveals that the system of feudalism confines the intelligence and wisdom of the officials and reduces them to the status of flunkeys.

徐渭《四声猿》题名寓有悲意,以浓深凄凉的悲剧意识为主线连成整体。《狂鼓史》为现实悲剧:祢衡向曹操复仇是作者利用传统善有善报、恶有恶报的大众心理作幻想式的精神安慰,非现实可行之路。《玉禅师》为人性悲剧:以清修廿余载的玉通禅师无法摆脱“情”和“复仇”两大人类普遍心理暗示尘世凡人更难以摆脱,而“情”和“复仇”恰是悲剧的根源。《雌木兰》为妇女悲剧:特定条件成全了女英雄花木兰,但除去特定条件,木兰就像广大封建社会妇女一样成为悲剧的牺牲品。《女状元》为官宦悲剧:徐渭以女子自比是基于传统文人心态,但官宦的终点是禁锢个人的聪明才智,成为奴才。

Renowned documentarist and historicist ZHANG Shun hui, first Chairman of China Historical Document Research Society, accomplished traditional Chinese scholar, worked as professor and Dean of Chinese Department from 1946 to 1949, during which period Mr. Zhang accumulated a tremendous body of academic writings. The present paper is intended to outline his academic activities and achievements at Lanzhou during this time.

张舜徽是著名的文献学家、历史学家。生前曾任中国历史文献研究会第一任会长 ,被誉为当代成就卓著的国学大师。他于 1946~ 1949年在兰州大学担任教授、中文系系主任。兰州的三年是张舜徽学术生涯中一个十分重要的阶段。通过对他的著作及相关资料的爬梳 ,勾勒出其在兰州大学的学术活动及成果

 
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