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hydrological impact
相关语句
  水文效应
     Progress in the Hydrological Impact and Flood Response of Watershed Land Use and Land Cover Change
     流域土地利用/覆被变化的水文效应及洪水响应
短句来源
     The progress in the hydrological impact and flood response of watershed land use and land cover change is analyzed and summarized, and the study contents, methods and deficiencies are discussed.
     通过分析和总结已进行的有关流域土地利用/覆被变化的水文效应及洪水响应研究工作进展,讨论了其研究内容、方法及现有工作的不足之处.
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Impact of Precipitation Variability on Hydrological Processes
     降雨变异性对水文过程模拟影响研究
短句来源
     STUDY ON THE IMPACT OF LAND USE CHANGES ON THE HYDROLOGICAL SYSTEM
     土地利用变化对水文系统的影响研究
短句来源
     Impact and Transform
     冲击与蜕变
短句来源
     The impact of learning
     中学生数学学习中的自我决定通过影响中学生的学习投入进而影响其数学成绩。
短句来源
     Informatization of Hydrological Service
     水文行业信息化研究
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  hydrological impact
The results provide both numerical and physical bases for the study of hydrological impact of climate change and variability in the region.
      
Transport-related imperviousness often exerts a greater hydrological impact than the rooftop-related imperviousness.
      
SWAT considers the spatial variability in hydrological impact by subdividing catchments in units with homogeneous site and land use characteristics.
      
As such, the model is a suitable tool for simulating hydrological impact of development and climate change scenarios.
      
An interface to transfer results from RCMs to hydrological impact models is therefore required.
      
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Having considered the snow-cover process,we developed a new version of the land-surface process model from the existing soil-vegetation-atmosphere model The new model describes additionally two major effects of snow-cover:the large reflectivity of solar radiation due to the high albedo of snow-surface and the lagged soil hydrological impact due to snow-melting A few experiments were designed against the meteorological and the surface radiation data observed during the HEIFE project,which was carried...

Having considered the snow-cover process,we developed a new version of the land-surface process model from the existing soil-vegetation-atmosphere model The new model describes additionally two major effects of snow-cover:the large reflectivity of solar radiation due to the high albedo of snow-surface and the lagged soil hydrological impact due to snow-melting A few experiments were designed against the meteorological and the surface radiation data observed during the HEIFE project,which was carried out at the Heihe region,in Northwestern China The modeled processes forced by atmospheric precipitation (both rainfall and snowfall) seem quite reasonable Some modeling elements such as the surface soil temperature and the surface net radiation coincide well with the observations

为了用气候模式研究冰雪圈变化的气候效应,我们在已经发展的土壤-植被-大气模式基础上,考虑积雪改变地表水文和反照率的参数化,建立了包含雪盖问题的陆面过程模式。利用中国西北黑河地区的HEIFE实测气象和辐射资料,检验了模式对大气降雨和降雪的响应。结果表明,该模式描写的各种物理过程合理,一些可观测要素(如地面温度和地表净辐射通量)的演变特征与实况相当一致

Runoff generation mechanism is one of the key research focuses in the hydrological study on which more and more attention is concentrated.The complexity of hydrological processes such as scale dependence and nonlinear behavior resulted from the widespread spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of hydrological environment and fluxes makes it very difficult,given that without detailed understanding of the physical processes,to extrapolate the information from one area to another or from...

Runoff generation mechanism is one of the key research focuses in the hydrological study on which more and more attention is concentrated.The complexity of hydrological processes such as scale dependence and nonlinear behavior resulted from the widespread spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of hydrological environment and fluxes makes it very difficult,given that without detailed understanding of the physical processes,to extrapolate the information from one area to another or from one scale to another.Current generation of physically based,distributed parameter models could accommodate the assessment of hydrological impacts of forest vegetation changes to certain degree in comparison with traditional approaches.However,the confidence of such models and the scale issues highlights current and future research needs in the forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation and delivery mechanisms.Three major research methods being adopted are hydrometry,tracer/isotope tracing,and dynamic calculation at the spatial scale from hillslopes to watershed.The current understanding of forest vegetation influences on the runoff generation could be summarized as (a)runoff is controlled by variable source area mechanisms for forested watershed,(b)major runoff components for forested watershed are saturated surface runoff,subsurface runoff,and groundwater runoff,(c)co existing and shifting of different runoff generation mechanisms,and (d)preferential flow is a key factor in controlling runoff generation for forested watershed.

径流形成机制研究在水文学领域中具有十分重要的意义 ,且受到越来越广泛的重视。水文环境以及水文通量的空间异质性和时间变化性导致了水文过程的尺度依赖性和非线性特征 ,没有对水文过程较为清晰的认识 ,就不能将某一地区某一流域森林植被变化水文生态效应的研究结果简单地外推到其他地区和其他流域。开发基于物理过程分布式参数水文模型可以为认识森林植被变化的生态学后效和客观评价森林植被水文生态效益提供可行的工具。但是要实现这一目标 ,研究森林植被影响径流形成机制是问题的核心所在。另一方面 ,认识森林影响径流形成机制有助于研究水文学中的尺度问题。研究森林植被影响径流形成机制的主要方法包括水文测验、同位素示踪和动力水文学计算等 ,研究的空间尺度则为坡面与流域相接合。从已有的研究成果来看 ,森林植被影响径流形成机制可以概括为 :①森林流域径流形成为变动源区产流机制 ;②森林流域径流形成主要受饱和地表径流、亚表层径流和地下径流的控制 ;③森林流域径流形成机制是相互作用和相互转化的 ;④优先流在森林流域径流形成中起到了至关重要的作用。

The impacts of land use and land cover change on hydrology is a focus task at present. In this paper, based on the analysis of runoff change in the Yunzhou reservoir basin, hydrological characteristic parameters which are tokens of hydrological impacts of human activities are selected and analyzed. The annual mean runoff from 1972 to 1991 is 1.33 m~3/s and annual mean precipitation is 440.3mm.This change trend of these two factors during this study periods indicates that annual mean runoff...

The impacts of land use and land cover change on hydrology is a focus task at present. In this paper, based on the analysis of runoff change in the Yunzhou reservoir basin, hydrological characteristic parameters which are tokens of hydrological impacts of human activities are selected and analyzed. The annual mean runoff from 1972 to 1991 is 1.33 m~3/s and annual mean precipitation is 440.3mm.This change trend of these two factors during this study periods indicates that annual mean runoff falls obviously but its degree of change becomes more and more weaken while the change of annual mean precipitation is not too obvious. In order to have a further analysis, prophase (from 1972 to 1981) and anaphase (from 1982 to 1991) are parted by 1981. Statistical indexes including standard deviation and coefficient of elasticity about the annual mean runoff and precipitation in two periods are calculated. Standard deviation of runoff in two periods is 0.63 and 0.24 while precipitation is 69.9 and 68.0. Elasticity of these two factors is 0.009 and 0.004 in prophase and anaphase. This trend shows the degree of runoff change responding to precipitation change goes weaken. Finally hydrological characteristic parameters such as annual mean runoff coefficient, mean peak flow, distribution uneven coefficient of runoff and variation coefficient of annual runoff which can assess hydrological effects of human activities are analyzed. Annual mean runoff coefficient is 9.3% in prophase while 6.8% in anaphase and annual mean peak flow is 20.3m~3/s and 18.7m~3/s. Distribution uneven coefficient of runoff is 0.9 and 0.8 while variation coefficient of annual runoff is 0.4 and 0.2.These parameters all show a downward trend. So the reason of runoff change is human activities such as more land use change and hydraulic engineers building. In conclusion, it's a simple and good way to indicate hydrological effects of human activities using hydrological characteristic parameters.

该文以地处半干旱地区的河北省张家口云州水库流域为研究对象,基于多年径流变化规律,探讨和归纳了评估流域人类活动水文效应的若干参数,并就这些参数值进行了分析。结果表明:研究时段内,研究流域年均流量呈明显的下降趋势且波动幅度明显减小,年均降水的上升或下降趋势并不太明显,径流变化对降水变化的响应程度趋于迟缓,而年径流系数、平均洪峰流量、径流年内分配不均匀系数、径流变差系数等水文特征参数均表现出下降趋势,初步得出了云州水库流域径流量的变化主要是土地利用和小水利工程建设等人类活动作用结果的结论。

 
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