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missionary strategies
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  传教策略
     Great change in earlier missionary strategies and the identity transfer of Jesuits who changed from Western Buddhists to Western Confucians are all reflected in the comparative study of the two different versions.
     早期来华耶稣会传教士传教策略的重大改变、以及早期耶稣会士从"西僧"到"西儒"身份转变的适错过程,均在不同版本比较中反映出来。
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  相似匹配句对
     The ? R Strategies?
     “3R”策略是银行营销的核心内容。
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     Strategies for Publications
     发表著作与论文的策略
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     The medical missionary of Gutzlaff
     郭士立的医药传教思想与实践
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In this paper, the history of the spread of Christianity in Taiwan is divided into four stages, and the developing trend in each stage is explored intensively. The spread of Christianity in Taiwan under the Dutch is the first stage of spread of Christianity in China,during which establishing school was initially developed as an instrument of spreading Christianity. After the Opium War, taking western medicine as an device, the Christians from British and Canada established a new age of the spread of Christianity...

In this paper, the history of the spread of Christianity in Taiwan is divided into four stages, and the developing trend in each stage is explored intensively. The spread of Christianity in Taiwan under the Dutch is the first stage of spread of Christianity in China,during which establishing school was initially developed as an instrument of spreading Christianity. After the Opium War, taking western medicine as an device, the Christians from British and Canada established a new age of the spread of Christianity in Taiwan and led to its rejuvenation from the state of almost extinction in 200 years. In the stage, the “three-self” movement began to emerge, while the missionary cases happened from time to time. When Taiwan under the Japan, the spread of Christianity fell into ebb. In the above three stages, it can be found that, in spite of the varying missionary strategies, the spread of Christianity in Taiwan is in the support of arms, the actual benefit was the basic consideration for the Chinese Christians, and the prime reason leading to missionary cases was anti-invasion. When Taiwan under China after 1945, Christianity in Taiwan possesses many scope of development, while it is involved in the intricate disputes with the field of politics.

本文将基督教在台湾传播的历史划分为四个时期 ,并对各个时期的发展态势作了扼要的论述。其中 ,荷据时期基督教在台湾的传播是中国基督教史上的第一页 ,开创了在华办学传教的先河。鸦片战争后英国和加拿大传教士以手术刀开创了基督教在台湾传播的新纪元 ,是基督教在台湾基本绝迹 2 0 0年后的复兴。这一时期基督教“三自运动”开始展开 ,教案时有发生。日据时期 ,基督教在台传播转入低潮。在以上三个时期 ,可以发现 ,传教士传教手段虽时有变化 ,但均以武力为后盾。现实利益是华人入教的基本考虑 ,反对外来侵略仍是教案发生的主要原因。 1 94 5年台湾回归祖国后 ,台湾基督教获得较大的发展空间 ,但却卷入了错综复杂的政教纷争

Profitable business activities have rarely been touched upon in the study of Jesuits. But there have been no more pure cultural and religious exchanges than pure culture or religion. This problem needs due attention in the research into the eastward transmission of the Catholic Church.On November 5, 1549, Francisco Xavier wrote to Governor of Malacca in the third month after he arrived in Japan, proposing the position of a business office and a list of appropriate goods to be managed by missionaries. On...

Profitable business activities have rarely been touched upon in the study of Jesuits. But there have been no more pure cultural and religious exchanges than pure culture or religion. This problem needs due attention in the research into the eastward transmission of the Catholic Church.On November 5, 1549, Francisco Xavier wrote to Governor of Malacca in the third month after he arrived in Japan, proposing the position of a business office and a list of appropriate goods to be managed by missionaries. On July 22, 1552, he proposed a similar business office in China on his way to China for the benefit of the King of Portugal and sent the letter in care of a Portuguese merchant.Missionary concern over worldly affairs is related to religious traditions, national interest and missionary strategy, but the most direct and important reasoning was the need of subsistence. Xavier's financial resource in Japan was the superior pepper offered by officials of Malacca. But with increased missionaries and expanded activities, the expenses soared, rising from 2 000 to 10 000 humctuzado in 1570-80.Theoretically, the financial resources of the Jesuits were divided into 3 parts: annuity from the King of Portugal, that from the Pope and income from the little realty bought for the local mission. However, the annuity was often absent due to different interests and the local income often scarce. Therefore, the only option was to get involved in business transactions.The business activities of Far Eastern Jesuits date back as early as 1571, and the earliest one to practice this might be Francisco Cabral, who was in charge of Japan and China congregations. He began “criminal commercial activities between China and Japan”, with the money donated by a Jesuit. During Alessandro Valignano's first Far East inspection in 1579-82, this was institutionalized. He signed a contract with Macao Authorities stipulating the share of silk at 2 500 kilos for the Church on the annual liner to Japan and appointed business agents in Japan and Macao in charge of material storage, flow, sales and fund allocation.Forces both within and without the church were against the move, and their monastery in Macao was called an “exchange”. Many people were worried about missionary merchants. There were decrees from the Pope, the Head of Jesuits and the King of Portugal against this. This dispute was complicated by contradictions between congregations. The business activities were severely attacked. However, the need for survival prevailed, and these controversial activities obtained sustained development. These activities played an important role in the formation of the maritime Silk Road and a new Far East trade system as well as the fashion and strategy of missionary work.

传教士进行商业活动的基本原因是生存需要。在沙勿略传教日本期间 ,经费来源是马六甲地方长官赠送的 3 0桶上等胡椒。随着传教活动的开展 ,经费缺口越来越大。最迟在 1 5 71年 ,耶稣会开始进行有组织的商业活动。在范礼安首次远东巡视期间 ,这一活动被制度化了。他与澳门商人行会订立契约 ,每年为教会提供 5 0担生丝份额 ,并任命专事此职的管区代表负责商品储备及流通、销售、资金调配等商务活动。耶稣会士的商业活动在教会内外引起轩然大波 ,教皇、耶稣会总会长及葡萄牙国王多次下令禁止 ,教会内外的派系之争又使得这一争执趋于复杂 ,但生存需要仍使得这一备受争议的活动经久不衰。

The Produrador is the crucial figure in the Society of Jesus undertaking business activities in the 16—17centuries. It is generally recognized that the establishment of the system of the Procurador was closely related to the missionary work of the Jesuits in Japan. Partly because of certain strategic considerations, partly because of the more realistic needs of existence, the Jesuits decided to engage in the profitable activities. As for the former, the Jesuits took the profits of foreign trade as a bait...

The Produrador is the crucial figure in the Society of Jesus undertaking business activities in the 16—17centuries. It is generally recognized that the establishment of the system of the Procurador was closely related to the missionary work of the Jesuits in Japan. Partly because of certain strategic considerations, partly because of the more realistic needs of existence, the Jesuits decided to engage in the profitable activities. As for the former, the Jesuits took the profits of foreign trade as a bait to exchange for the permission of missionary work granted by the local authorities. As for the latter, the business activities served to provide for the ever-growing missionary expenditure and everyday necessities of missionaries whose number was ever-growing as well. According to the extant data, the system of the Procurador, initiated not later than the 1560s, was formally established in 1579 when Alessandro Valignano made his first inspection tour to Macao and reached agreements about raw silk with the Macao authorities. According to ″The Regulations for the Procurador″ which, originally formulated in 1580, had been revised repeatedly since then, the main tasks of the Procurador in Macao were as follows: raising money, purchasing and transporting the provisions for the churches, transmitting mails and supplying personnel. As his tasks were so special, the Procurador usually had his own business agencies and possessed various privileges so as to guarantee the smooth performance of business activities. He not only possessed his own offices which were located outside of his residence, but also lived in the monastery separately from others. He could disregard the commandment of his superiors in the monastery, have his meals separately and pray in a prayer room specially built for him. He had the privilege to live as a genuine businessman. He could go to Canton in anytime suitable for him and hold trade negotiations with Chinese businessmen in his offices. He purchased various materials in low prices that the churches needed and stored up them for speculation as well.Because of the contrast between the double identity of the Procurador, namely, the identity as a businessman undertaking profitable business activities and the public identity as a missionary, the activities of the Procurador brought out fierce controversies within and without the churches. Almost everybody had to make known his position on the matter. And with some more secret contradictions between sects and among different persons, the controversies even escalated to personal attack. What's more, other missionaries took it as a pretext to criticize the Society of Jesus and they brought the accusations against the Jesuits to the Vatican time and again. However, in spite of many objections, the system of the Procurador persisted mainly because the contradiction between the demand of missionary strategy and the pressure of existence couldn't be solved all the time. In a sense, the study of the system of the Procurador taken by the Society of Jesus is not confined to the limited scope of Chinese churches or simple history of missionary. It will surely be helpful to the investigation in a wider angle of vision of the history of missionary in the whole Far East area, as well as to the study of the complicated international relationship after the Great Geographic Discovery.

管区代表 (Procurador)是 1 6— 1 7世纪耶稣会进行商业活动的关键人物。这一制度的创立不会晚于 1 6世纪 60年代 ,并由于范礼安 (AlessandroValignano)作于 1 5 80年的《管区代表规则》而趋于制度化。根据这份不断修订的《规则》 ,驻澳门管区代表的主要工作包括筹措资金、为教会购买并运送补给品、传递信件及输送人员等。因工作的特殊性 ,管区代表拥有自己的事务所和独断专行的种种特权。由于商业活动与传教士身份的出入以及各方面对于现实利益的追求 ,管区代表的行为在教会内外引发了激烈的争议。但是 ,迫于传教策略和生存需要的多重压力 ,管区代表制度一直延续了下来。很显然 ,探讨管区代表的工作内容及其相关问题 ,是对传统教会史以及文化交流史研究的突破与深化

 
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