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reciprocal principles
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  互利原则
     The paper analyzes the rudiments and development of pragmatism in the United States,and illustrates the profound influence of the reciprocal principles on the American cultural values,along with which the American society has been promoted.
     本文通过分析实用主义在美国的萌芽及发展形式,探讨了实用主义带来的互利原则在美国文化价值观上的体现,及其对美国社会的发展带来的巨大作用。
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  “reciprocal principles”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Behind these factors, the "equity" consciousness and the reciprocal principles, which formed during the long history of survival competition and frequent interaction, and the goals for improving livelihoods have become the primary impetus.
     在这些调解机制背后,农村社区居民在长期的生存竞争和频繁的互动中所形成的“公平”意识和“互惠”原则,以及他们谋求生计改善的目标追求成为他们有效组织起来的主要推动力。
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  相似匹配句对
     The principles of G.
     介绍了G.
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     principles.
     2、系统论的整体原理。
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     On Equivalents of the Reciprocal Theorem to Superposition Principles
     关于功的互等定理与叠加原理的等价性
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     The Reciprocal Theorem and Linear Elastic Variational Principles
     功的互等定理和线弹性变分原理
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     On Reciprocal Competition
     论相容性竞争
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  reciprocal principles
Variational and reciprocal principles in thermoelasticity without energy dissipation
      
Reciprocal principles are also derived for both the generalized Maupertuis and the Hamilton principles.
      


This paper presents two rules of the least weight reciprocal principle and derives the basic formulas of various adjustment methods,such as condition adjustment,para- meter adjustment,condition adjustment with parameters and parameter adjustment with condition of unknowns. Comprehending all the methods mentioned above,the unified adjustment and the Law of conservation of adjustment are obtained.

本文给出了最小权逆原理的两个法则,导出了各种平差方法的基本公式。包括条件平差、间接平差、附有未知数的条件平差和附有条件的间接平差,并且将这几种平差方法加以综合,得出了统一平差和平差守恒定律。

The paper proves a theorem of active multi-terminal networks, suggests a "reciprocal principle" , and derivea some rules of operating connection-connection rules, such as rules of parallel connection and series connection of multi-terminal networks, It can be used to reduce any time-invariant multi-terminal networks.

本文证明了有源多端网络定理;提出并证明了逆转原理,也证明了若干个有源多端网络的联接运行定理—接网定理,如多端网络的并联定理、串联定理等.它可用于简化任意时不变多端网络.

In accordance with the Theological and dissipative phenomena in the process of crack propagation, the thermodynamical balance equations of cracked body in the course of crack propagation are established. Then we transform the problem of crack propagation into a problem of diffusion motion which contains the source of mass flow, and investigate the crack extension force by the use of internal body-force field. We transform the problem of energy dissipation into a problem of heat conduction by the introduction...

In accordance with the Theological and dissipative phenomena in the process of crack propagation, the thermodynamical balance equations of cracked body in the course of crack propagation are established. Then we transform the problem of crack propagation into a problem of diffusion motion which contains the source of mass flow, and investigate the crack extension force by the use of internal body-force field. We transform the problem of energy dissipation into a problem of heat conduction by the introduction of external heat sink. On this basis, the theory of variable-mass fracture model is proposed, and the existence of mass flow and the corresponding inhomogeneous temperature field of plastic-rheological zone at the crack-tip is experimentally demonstrated. Let Clausius non-compensatory heat to be a non-negative value, the generalized entropy inequality in the process of crack propagation is established. The dissipative potential function is introduced by the use of operator theorem of decomposition, and with the condition of generalized Onsager reciprocal principle, the generalized entropy inequality is transformed into an integrable differential inequality of a certain functional so as to obtain its complete solution. Finally, the concrete nonlocal constitutive relations for rheological materials are given and the rheological memory functional of Lyapounov function model is adopted to describe the whole process of crack propagation, In accordance with this, the whole course of crack propagation is divided into three stages, that is, the incubation period, the stable propagation period and the unstable propagation period. Then the incipient cracking criterion, the stable and unstable criteria of crack propagation are established in accordance with the non-equilibrium thermodynamical stability, and the direction of crack propagation is indicated. It shows that only when the symmetry is lost, the unstable propagation start. Therefore, in this paper, a theoretical foundation for rheological fracture is laid.

根据裂纹扩展过程中的流变与耗散现象,建立了裂纹扩展过程中裂纹体的热力学平衡方程。从而我们把裂纹扩展问题转化为一个含质量流源的扩散运动问题,并应用内部体力场论研究了裂纹扩展力。引入外部热汇后,我们将能量耗散问题转化为一个热传导问题。在此基础上,提出变质量断裂模型理论,并实验验证了裂尖塑性流变区存在有质量流及相应的非均匀温度场。令Clausius非补偿热为非负值,建立了裂纹扩展过程的广义熵不等式。应用算子分解定理引入耗散势函数,再依据广义Onsager互易原理,我们将广义熵不等式化为某一泛函的可积微分不等式,从而得到它的完全解。最后,给出流变性材料的严格非局部本构关系,并借助Lyapounov型的流变记忆泛函来描述裂纹扩展的全过程。据此,我们将裂纹扩展全过程分成三个阶段,即孕育期、稳定扩展期和失稳扩展期。再根据非平衡态热力学稳定性建立起起裂判据、裂纹扩展的稳定和失稳判据,并指明了裂纹扩展的方向。结果表明,仅当对称性破坏时,才能出现失稳扩展。因此,本文为流变断裂学提供了一个理论基础。

 
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