An energy-injecting virtual-mass (EIVM) resonant column system was employed to investigate the small strain behavior of dry sand; and the effects of effective mean normal stress, density of soil samples, amplitude of shear strain, as well as number of loading cycles on shear modulus and damping ratio are studied.

The test results show that the shear modulus increases with effective mean normal stress and soil density, while the damping ratio exhibits the opposite response. Moreover, the effects of effective mean normal stress on the small strain behavior of dry sand are more than those of soil density.

Systematic introduction of the development of experi mental study and constitutive formulation of small strain behavior of geomaterials are presented in this paper.

The small strain behavior cannot be predicted by present continuum plasticity theories, whereas the large strain behavior agrees with the isotropic hardening rule.

We show that the composite has the small strain behavior of the full QM treatment of the nano-rod.

Geomaterials exhibit many special characteristics in small strain stage which are different from those in middle or large strain stage. Field measurement showed that the strain in most of geotechnical engi neering regions belongs to small strain. In recent years intensive studies of many research groups have con centrated on the small strain behavior of geomaterials. Systematic introduction of the development of experi mental study and constitutive formulation of small strain behavior of geomaterials...

Geomaterials exhibit many special characteristics in small strain stage which are different from those in middle or large strain stage. Field measurement showed that the strain in most of geotechnical engi neering regions belongs to small strain. In recent years intensive studies of many research groups have con centrated on the small strain behavior of geomaterials. Systematic introduction of the development of experi mental study and constitutive formulation of small strain behavior of geomaterials are presented in this paper. In order to improve the constitutive description of mechanical properties of small strain, several problems need to be studied further are suggested.

An energy-injecting virtual-mass (EIVM) resonant column system was employed to investigate the small strain behavior of dry sand; and the effects of effective mean normal stress, density of soil samples, amplitude of shear strain, as well as number of loading cycles on shear modulus and damping ratio are studied. The test results show that the shear modulus increases with effective mean normal stress and soil density, while the damping ratio exhibits the opposite response. Moreover, the effects of...

An energy-injecting virtual-mass (EIVM) resonant column system was employed to investigate the small strain behavior of dry sand; and the effects of effective mean normal stress, density of soil samples, amplitude of shear strain, as well as number of loading cycles on shear modulus and damping ratio are studied. The test results show that the shear modulus increases with effective mean normal stress and soil density, while the damping ratio exhibits the opposite response. Moreover, the effects of effective mean normal stress on the small strain behavior of dry sand are more than those of soil density. As the shear strain increases, the shear modulus become smaller; but the damping ratio become larger. The number of loading cycles has no significant effects on shear modulus, but it influences the damping ratio to a quite extent.

>=A nano-composite model of filler-rubber system is proposed. Contrary to the well-known Einstein-Guth-Smallwood hydrodynamic model, which was developed from low filler loading then increased to a practical level, the proposed model starts with the maximum filler concentration. That is, the filler network junction width is initially zero, then "diluted" to an average width in order to ob tain the correct filler volume fraction. By assuming a simple cubic arrangement of the aggregates, the small strain behavior...

>=A nano-composite model of filler-rubber system is proposed. Contrary to the well-known Einstein-Guth-Smallwood hydrodynamic model, which was developed from low filler loading then increased to a practical level, the proposed model starts with the maximum filler concentration. That is, the filler network junction width is initially zero, then "diluted" to an average width in order to ob tain the correct filler volume fraction. By assuming a simple cubic arrangement of the aggregates, the small strain behavior of the junction rubber is analyzed in extensional mode. Using only a few parameters from carbon black morphology, a formula for the filler loading effect on the Young's modulus is obtained with results similar to those from the hydrodynamic models. However, this is achieved without resorting to the "occluded rubber" correction factor. At small extensional strains, it is assumed that there is no slippage induced frictional energy loss on the filler surface. To account for the hysteresis, it is proposed instead to consider the friction between rubber molecular chains as a result of deformation and the boundary condition effect on the junction rubber. This model suggests that the hysteresis, tanδ, is inversely proportional to the average junction width of the filler network. Finally, the Payne effect with its various facets is discussed in terms of the network junction model, with results that are interesting and encouraging.