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pottery making
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  “pottery making”译为未确定词的双语例句
     INFORMAL DISCUSSION ABOUT POTTERY MAKING ART IN CHINA——REFLECTIONS ON THE 1ST MODERN CHINESE POTTERY WORKS SHOW
     漫谈中国陶艺——由《首届中国现代陶艺展》想起的
短句来源
     The Decorating Techniques of Biscuits in The Process of The Original Pottery Making
     原始陶器坯体的装饰技术
短句来源
     In ancient China, the development of pottery making can be divided into five major periods: early Neolitmic, middle Neolithic, late Neolithic, Xia to Spring and Autumn,and Warring States to Han.
     中国古代制陶工艺的发展可分新石器时代早期、中期、晚期、夏至春秋、战国至汉五大时期。
短句来源
     This indicates that the technology of pottery making was quite developed in the Xishan period and that the ancients were already aware how to use the materials with different thermal conductivities to make pottery for different purposes.
     从而说明其时的制陶技术已经相当成熟 ,制陶工艺稳定并且古人已经有意识的根据陶器的不同用途 ,采用不同导热性能的原料配方来制作适用的陶器
短句来源
     Afterwards,the invention and improvement of firing kiln made the firing temperature greatly increased,and the recipe of raw materials for pottery making was also changed concurrently.
     其后随着窑的发明和窑技术的进步,达到1000℃以上的烧成温度,所用制陶原料亦相应发生改变。
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  相似匹配句对
     On the Course " Making and Enjoying Pottery
     关于《陶艺制作与欣赏》课程的几点思考
短句来源
     making;
     加工制作;
短句来源
     A Study of Salt Making with Pottery
     陶器制盐的研究
短句来源
     making suggestions;
     提出检察建议;
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     The Origin of Pottery
     陶的起源说
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  pottery making
The coast of Tanzania, its immediate hinterland, and the deep sea islands of Zanzibar and Mafia were settled by people who had knowledge of agriculture and pottery making probably from 3000 BC.
      
In 1995 a well preserved 3rd century BC Celtic kiln for pottery making was excavated at Schmiedorf in Lower Bavaria.
      
Three bentonites of varying purity were fired in air under controlled conditions up to 1300°C in an attempt to provide data for the assessment of firing techniques used in prehistoric pottery making.
      
We report on an investigation of several ancient clays which were used for pottery making in northern coastal Peru at a kiln site from the Formative period (ca.
      
Less care was taken in firing moulds used for pottery making.
      
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Jingdezhen Classical Workshop having evolved for a long time, began to shape into its completion about the Ming Dynasty (1368—1644 A.D) and lasted ever since then (seeing Fig. 1) It is an important part of valuable experiences in classical pottery-making of Jingdezhen. It provides us with a good subject and a careful investigation on Jingdezhen ceramic technology in history. By investigation and measuring the size of the existing classical workshop, the paper presents three sketches of the workshop...

Jingdezhen Classical Workshop having evolved for a long time, began to shape into its completion about the Ming Dynasty (1368—1644 A.D) and lasted ever since then (seeing Fig. 1) It is an important part of valuable experiences in classical pottery-making of Jingdezhen. It provides us with a good subject and a careful investigation on Jingdezhen ceramic technology in history. By investigation and measuring the size of the existing classical workshop, the paper presents three sketches of the workshop (seeing below). Based on the sketches as well as the technological cha- racteristies of classical pottery-makng here, the paper made some comments on its subtlety and rationality in both architecture and technological arrangements of the workshop. 1. The general appearance of the workshop, similar to the inhabited courtyard, stands independ, simple and quiet. 2. The technological arrangement inside keeps close touch, all processes of production are in good order. So it is convenient for workers to operate by hand. 3. Due to the close combination of the technological arrangements and the architecture, it has made optimal use of its plane and the upper space. Simple in construction, the workshop is economical, practical and subtle in design.

景德镇传统制瓷作坊,就其建筑总体形式来说,它起于何时?尚待考证,可能出现于明代。它是景德镇古典制瓷经验中的一个组成部分,是一个值得总结和研究的课题。本文以现存的传统制瓷作坊为实例,结合传统制瓷工艺特点,描述了这种作坊的建筑形式及其内部的工艺布置;论证了它在建筑上及其工艺布置上的巧妙与合理性。认为这种作坊,外形上似家居庭院:独立、朴素、幽静;内部与生产工艺紧密结合,布置紧凑、方便操作、构造巧妙、经济实用。

Prominent achievements have been obtained in the application of ~(14)C dating to Chinese prehistoric archaeology. More than 2,000 data have been given out,among which 70 per cent belong to prehistoric times,especially those for the Neolithic in the Huanghe River valley and middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River provide precise cultural sequences and isotopic chronology, which constitute relatively complete systems. Nevertheless, 53 data for the early Neolithic in South China are obviously erroneous....

Prominent achievements have been obtained in the application of ~(14)C dating to Chinese prehistoric archaeology. More than 2,000 data have been given out,among which 70 per cent belong to prehistoric times,especially those for the Neolithic in the Huanghe River valley and middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River provide precise cultural sequences and isotopic chronology, which constitute relatively complete systems. Nevertheless, 53 data for the early Neolithic in South China are obviously erroneous. Exaggeration of antiquity appeared even at the beginning of the examination of specimens from there. It was believed as errors caused, perhaps, by special environments in limestone areas. Later, analyses of modern samples show that aquatic flora and fauna in such areas may be assigned to a period more than 1,000—2,000 years earlier. It seemed that such data could be taken as real ages after deducting these numbers. As ~(14)C data increased on, the exaggeration became more serious, which brought about the opposition between the recognition and the suspition of the reliability of ~(14)C dating to the early Neolithic in South China. The exaggeration of antiquity and the confusion appearing in ~(14)C dating can be analysed in the following aspects: 1) Regional anomalies A regional anomaly of the ~(14)C dating is found in limestone areas in South China. Experiments for such areas indicate that not only specimens of aquatiea are ~(14)C-dated older than their true ages, but also samples of terrestrials may be a little anomaly in ~(14)C dating. Are there other factors that affect the ~(14)C data of the samples which were buried underground for a long period? This question remains to be further resolved. 2) The contradiction of stratigraphic horizons with ~(14)C data There is usually a gap between the ~(14)C data of samples of different materials from the same strata, the ages of shells frequently older than that from other materials. Objects taken from older layers may occasionally have younger ~(14)C data, or conversely. 3) The oldest pottery in the world? Early Neolithic layers in South China often yield pottery shards, which are dated to the period as early as 20,000—10,000 a B. C., and taken as the oldest ceramics. However, pottery-making came into West Asia only by 7,000—6,500 a B. C., which shows that the beginning of ceramics in South China appeared too early by the above opinion. 4) The inconsistency of ~(14)C dates with levels of cultural development The Palaeolithic ended approximately in 10,000—9,000 a B. C., all over the world, and is similarly in North China. The early Neolithic in South China, however, is dated back to the time roughly corresponding to those of the late Palaeolithic in North China, yet it has polished stone tools, pottery, as well as fauna of modern species. Thus its ~(14)C datings come into inconsistency not only with its stratigraphic evidence, but also with its faunas and cultural features. In short,the isotopic chronology of the early Neolithic in South China remains,so far,a lot of problems to be further studied in connection with field investigation, which will facilitate the study on the early Neolithic in Southeast Asia.

~(14)C断代在中国史前考古学中取得了显著的成果,但华南早期新石器的五十多个年代数据却呈现偏老的趋势,甚至还有明显的误差。由于华南的石灰岩地带属于~(14)C断代的异常区,某些样品的层位和年代反映出一定的矛盾,所测定的陶器年代过于古老,特别是时代和文化的发展过程,也与其它地区不相平衡。因此,华南早期新石器的年代数据尚待深入验证,至少目前还不可能作为可以信赖的绝对年代。

Hulu River drainage area is located in eastern Gansu and southern Ningxia, which is west of Lupan Mountain in middle Loess Plateau. The middle Holocene strata were well developed on the first terrace of the Hulu River and its tributaries. The paleoenvironment is established by the analyses of sedimentary characteristics, clay minerals, carbonates and pollens in the deposits ors the terrace. The climate changes remarkablly affected the ancient civilization in the region.The early Holocene stratum can be seen...

Hulu River drainage area is located in eastern Gansu and southern Ningxia, which is west of Lupan Mountain in middle Loess Plateau. The middle Holocene strata were well developed on the first terrace of the Hulu River and its tributaries. The paleoenvironment is established by the analyses of sedimentary characteristics, clay minerals, carbonates and pollens in the deposits ors the terrace. The climate changes remarkablly affected the ancient civilization in the region.The early Holocene stratum can be seen at the bottom of the first terrace, which mainly consists of alluvial loessic deposits. The clay minerals are mainly illites and the pollens are mainly herbs,which shows a relatively dry and cool paleoclimate. There was no ancient civilization during this period in this region.The early-middle Holocene stratum lies in the lower part of the first terrace, which is mainly composed of alluvial and lacustrine silts and clay. The alluvial gravels can also be found in some places, which indicates a warm and humid paleoclimate. A climate change is found by the sedimentary analyses. It was the warmest and the most humid from 8 000 to 6 000 aBP. The contents of kaolinite and montmorillonite are high. The pollens indicates a wooded grassland or a forest flora of coniferous and broadleaf trees. The favourable natural conditions resulted in the appearances andrapidly development of ancient civilizations. The first stage of Dadiwan civilization (7 800- 7 300aBP) shows some relatively advanced characteristics with big ancient communities (based on the size of the sites), appearances of colourful pottery and agriculture. The early Yangshao civilization (6 800- 6 000 aBP) shows some developmental features. The communities were still big and the number of communities was increased. From 6 000- 5 000 aBP the clay mineral association and the pollen spectrum indicate a slighty dry and cool paleoclimate. The technology of production and pottery making of the middle and late Yangshao civilization during this period had some development, the number of ancient communities were also increased but the size of communities was not increased and some were even decreased.The late middle Holocene (about 5 000- 3 000 aBP) stratum mainly consisting of alluvial loessic silts lies in the upper part of the first terrace, representing a distinguish aggradation of loessic silts.The fact that the content of illite increased and the contents of the kaolinite and montmorillonite decreased and the pollen is mainly herbs indicates a drier and cooler paleoclimate. The number and the size of the communities of the Changshan civilization(4 800-4 200 aBP) decreased. Thete were some cave like residences. The technology of pottery makinghad some retrogradation. The communities of Qijia civilization(4 400-3 900 aBP) were widely distributed but the size of them were very small indicating that the civilized area increased but the production of per unit area decreased, and also the proportion of animal husbandry increased. The ancient civilization from 3 900-3 300 aBP has not been found out yet. The Shiwa civilization(about 3 000 aBP) was also very limited in scale. All of these are because of the deterioration of the paleoenvironments during this period.

本文对甘肃葫芦河流域第一级阶地剖面的地层进行了观察,并对秦安大地湾附近第一级阶地沉积剖面的沉积相、粘土矿物、碳酸钙、孢粉等古环境指标进行了分析,据此初步恢复了该地区大约距今8000年至3000年左右的环境演变过程。并讨论了该地区古环境变化与古人类活动规模和古文化特征的变化之间的关系。

 
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