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universal constraints
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  “universal constraints”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Holders of the theory of Goverment and Binding have been claiming that the Subjacency Condition,the Specific Subject Condition, and the Tensed Sentence Condition are universal constraints.
     生成语法学的“管辖、控制理论”认为,英语中的“领属条件”、“时态句条件”和“明确生语条件”为普遍适用的词组移动限制条件。
短句来源
     It is widely known that universal constraints play a pivotal role in OT analysis.
     制约条件是OT语法分析的基础。
短句来源
  相似匹配句对
     Mining Sequence Patterns with Universal Temporal Constraints
     通用时间约束的序列模式挖掘
短句来源
     Cultural Constraints: Universal Principles of Editorial Work
     编辑规律探微
短句来源
     universal spirit.
     天地精神。
短句来源
     Universal Relay
     万用继电器
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     THEORY OF CONSTRAINTS
     约束理论
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  universal constraints
We describe a set of functional universal constraints for classification algorithms that correspond to particular systems of symmetric universal constraints.
      
Application of universal constraints in the analysis of classification algorithms
      
Completeness and universal constraints in the correction problem for heuristic classification algorithms
      
The conflicting nature of prosodic and syntactic constraints determines a complex crosslinguistic typology from a single set of universal constraints with interface conditions kept to an absolute minimum.
      
As a result, Semitic morphology can be viewed as arising from a language-particular combination of cross-linguistic and universal constraints.
      
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Holders of the theory of Goverment and Binding have been claiming that the Subjacency Condition,the Specific Subject Condition, and the Tensed Sentence Condition are universal constraints. To verifythe validity of such claims for Mandarin Chinese, this paper investigates four types of Chinese NP-Mo-vement and then applies the three constraints to see if they work. The result shows that these constraintsare non-valid in the Chinese case. Instead, the A-over-A principle and the Coordinate Structure...

Holders of the theory of Goverment and Binding have been claiming that the Subjacency Condition,the Specific Subject Condition, and the Tensed Sentence Condition are universal constraints. To verifythe validity of such claims for Mandarin Chinese, this paper investigates four types of Chinese NP-Mo-vement and then applies the three constraints to see if they work. The result shows that these constraintsare non-valid in the Chinese case. Instead, the A-over-A principle and the Coordinate Structure Cons-traint (replaced by the above-mentioned constraints) are found to be applicable to Chinese.

生成语法学的“管辖、控制理论”认为,英语中的“领属条件”、“时态句条件”和“明确生语条件”为普遍适用的词组移动限制条件。本文将上述三种英语词组移动限制条件应用于汉语进行研究,结果表明,汉语的名词词组移动不受其限,而被上述条件取代了的“A盖A原则”和“平行结构限制”等却适用于汉语。

This paper reviews the heated debate on the interaction of Syntax and Phonology, a debatewhich has been going on in American Linguistics for several decades. Various hypotheses have beenpresented, among them the Principle of Phonology-free Syntax and the Principle of Superficial Constraintsin Phonology. These two universal constraints will restrict the set of possible grammars and consequentlyreduce the power of a theory of grammar.

限制语法集,从而达到限制语言集,是生成语法学家面对的紧迫课题。尽管削弱语法理论的表达力可能有各种办法,保持语法组成部分的独立性是一条理想的路子。句法独立于音系原则和表层制约音系原则就是两条严格约束句法学与音系学关系的假设。 本文探索的是理论之争,但理论的争论归根结底是素材的争论。素材还是这些,但认识深化了。撇开理论之争不管,重新认识原有素材对教学也有裨益。

This article presents a survey of Optimality Theory (OT hereafter), a constraint based phonological theory , in terms of the historical background against which it emerged, its theoretical framework and mechanisms and its extended applications to various complex phonological processes such as vowel harmony and tone phenomena. The survey shows that the emergence of OT is the inevitable development of generative phonology where the focus of interest has shifted from phonological rules and underlying representation...

This article presents a survey of Optimality Theory (OT hereafter), a constraint based phonological theory , in terms of the historical background against which it emerged, its theoretical framework and mechanisms and its extended applications to various complex phonological processes such as vowel harmony and tone phenomena. The survey shows that the emergence of OT is the inevitable development of generative phonology where the focus of interest has shifted from phonological rules and underlying representation onto constraints imposed on surface representation. It also shows that OT is an advantageous and promising linguistic theory in that it enjoys a full substitution of universal constraints for language specific rules and is able to make unified generalizations of seemingly unrelated phenomena and to offer a better solution to some long standing unsatisfactorily solved problems in particular by reconsidering them in a novel perspective, and in that, more significantly, it provides an unprecedented approach to human language in general. Briefly discussed in the final section of the article are some current issues internal to OT such as the properties of Gen and the configuration of underlying representation, and issues related to language acquisition, language universals / (un ) markedness and diachronic phonology as well.

本文主要从其产生的历史背景/基本原理和在音系分析中的具体应用方面对以制约条件为基础的优选论作一概要性的介绍。优选论的产生是在生成音系学发展过程中研究的重点从音系规则和底层表达转移到对作用于表层表达的制约条件的必然结果。优选论为认识音系现象提供了一个新的视角,能够发现一些表面上看起来似乎没有关系的现象之间的内在联系并给予最大限度的概括,对音系学中一些长期没有得到解决的具体问题提出了新的分析方法。更重要的是,优选论为人类语言的研究开辟了一个新的途径。从这个意义上讲,优选论是一种值得研究的语言学理论。本文的最后部分简要讨论了优选论理论框架内关于生成装置特性和如何构建底层表达两个热点问题以及某些相关问题,如语言习得语言普遍现象/(无)标记性和语言历时变化。

 
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