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In the early 1960s research into radar signal synthesis produced important formulas describing the action of the two-dimensional Fourier transform on auto- and crossambiguity surfaces.
      
At the end of the article, the method is tested on real magnetic field data measured by the German geoscientific research satellite CHAMP.
      
The extensive research and applications obtained for the continuous wavelet transform can therefore be directly applied to the Stockwell domain.
      
Nauk SSSR 134:536-539, [1960]) in his research related to the hyperplane Radon transform in??n.
      
Analogue-Based Drug Research: Lead and Drug Optimization
      
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Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The...

Hair-line cracks or flakes in steel are known to be associated with the presence of hydrogen. A prevailing theory states that the crack formation is due to disruptive hydrogen pressure being built up in defects in steel. However, little was known regarding to the nature of these defects and the detailed mechanism of the hair-line crack formation. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. The preliminary experiments show: (1) The presence of hydrogen in certain steels may give rise to the appearance of an internal friction peak when internal friction is plotted against the temperature of measurement; (2) a slight amount of cold-work or soaking at a given temperature has a considerable effect on the optimum temperature of the observed internal friction peak, which indicates that the internal friction peak may be connected with the defects or stress condition in steel; (3) the internal friction peak shows an anomalous amplitude effect, i.e., at a given temperature of measurement an internal friction peak is obtained when the internal friction is plotted against the stress amplitude. Such an anomalous behavior is similar to that previously observed by. one of the authors (Ke) in the case of aluminimum containing 0.5% Cu. It is therefore considered that the internal friction peaks observed may be related to the interaction of hydrogen with the dislocations in steel.

钢的内部发裂已经公认为与钢中的氢气有关。现有的理论认为这是由于氢气聚集于钢中的内部缺陷产生破裂压力所引起,然而关于缺陷的性质和引起内部发裂的详细机构迄今还没有明确的了解。本文尝试用内耗测量的方法来研究这个问题。初步实验的结果指出: (1)氢在钢中可以引起内耗峰(将内耗表示为测量温度的函数时); (2)轻微冷加工或保温对于内耗峰的颠值温度有着显著的影响,这表示所得的内耗峰与钢中的缺陷和应力状态有关系; (3)所得的内耗峰表现有反常的振幅效应,即在一定的观测温度时,如将内耗表示为外加应力的函数,则也得到一个内耗峰。这与本文作者之一以前在铝铜合金中所观测到的反常内耗峰的性质和表现相同,因而所得的内耗峰可能是由于氢与钢中的原子脱节的交互作用所引起来的。

It is well-known that blue brittleness and temper brittleness of steel are related to diffusion and precipitation in steel. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. Experiments show that the diffusion of carbon in α-iron is not affected by carbon concentration, alloying elements and the stage of precipitation in iron. The diffusion of nitrogen in α-iron is, however, hindered by the addition of alloying elements, and is enhanced...

It is well-known that blue brittleness and temper brittleness of steel are related to diffusion and precipitation in steel. An attempt was made in the present research to investigate this problem by means of internal friction measurements. Experiments show that the diffusion of carbon in α-iron is not affected by carbon concentration, alloying elements and the stage of precipitation in iron. The diffusion of nitrogen in α-iron is, however, hindered by the addition of alloying elements, and is enhanced during the initial stage of precipitation.

一般认为钢的变脆例如蓝脆和回火脆都与钢中的扩散和沉淀有关系。本文尝试用内耗测量的方法研究碳与氮在α-铁及碳素钢中的扩散、脱溶和沉淀,从而进一步地了解钢的变脆的机构。实验的结果指出,碳在α-铁中的扩散不受自身浓度、合金元素和沉淀历史的影响。氮的情形与碳显著不同,合金元素使氮的扩散变慢,在沉淀初期使氮的扩散加速。 较有系统地研究了碳、氮在加工后的α-铁中脱溶时所引起的内耗峰(当振动频率约为每秒1周时出现在250℃左右),发现了高温淬火在含碳或氮较多的试样中所产生的内应力也可以引起这个内耗峰。实验指出:①这个脱溶内耗峰的出现条件与钢的蓝脆的出现条件相同,都是一种应变时效或淬火时效的现象;②与这个内耗峰有关的碳、氮是处于原子的状态。这些联系使我们认为钢的蓝脆是一种应变脱溶或淬火脱溶的过程,是由于原子状态的碳或氮聚集于钢中的内应力区域或晶体缺陷(例如原子脱节)中所引起来的。关于这方面的深入研究正在继续进行中。 根据本实验及以前关于钢铁中碳氮的扩散、脱溶和沉淀所得的结果,对于钢的回火脆的机构也提出了一种初步的看法。回火脆是一种回火沉淀的过程,引起回火脆的沉淀似乎是氮化物而不是碳化物。

Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin...

Plasticizing agent is an organic surface-active admixture for cement mortar and concrete. It may be introduced also as an "addition" to the clinker during the grinding process in the manufacture of plasticizing Portland cement. In the USSR, the plasticizing agent under the name of "has been extensively and successfully used in construction works.The plasticizing agent is prepared by chemical treatment of the waste from the alcoholic fermentation of sulfite liquor in pulp manufacture. It contains calcium lignin sulphonate as an effective component and thus possesses hydrophilic property. Due to the adsorption of the agent, a colloidal layer is formed on the surface of the cement particle; hence the effective dispersion and the increase of lubricity between the particles.Following the Soviet experience of CCB, the Materials-Testing and Research Laboratory of Shanghai Civil Engineering Bureau successfully experimented with the preparation of thermal polymer of the plasticizing agent, and a series of tests on the characteristics of the agent were made. This paper attempts to describe the method of preparation and the main properties of the agent.The addition of the agent in an amount of 0.1—0.2% of cement (dry weight) markedly improves the workability and the texture of the mortar and concrete mixtures. It reduces the water requirement and the cement content. It improves the impermeability and durability of the hardened mortar and concrete.The agent has a retarding effect on the setting of cement. It lowers the early strength of mortar and concrete, while the strength of later age is higher than those without admixtures. The use of CaCl_2 accelerator in 0.5—1% of cement by weight speeds up the rate of development of the early strength.The proper dosage of the agent depends upon the properties of cement. Therefore, certain tests should be made with the specified cement and aggregates on the job before the adoption of the agent.

本文介紹亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓塑化劑實驗室中的試製以及對於水泥膠砂及混凝土技術性能方面的作用。首先說明一些塑化劑的理論及亞硫酸鹽酒精液滓的技術規格,再簡要的介紹上海市政工程局材料試驗研究所試驗研究的經過和結果;最后综合蘇聯對於塑化劑和塑化水泥使用的先進經驗。塑化剂是一種有機的表面活動性物質,利用造紙工業发液進行酒精發酵所得的液滓。加入微量的塑化劑——約為水泥重量的0.1—0.25%,可以顯著的改善膠砂和混凝土的性質。在增加流動性、改善和易性和提高耐久性方面,有十分的效用,尤其是對節約水泥用量有极大的意義。祖國的建设事業正迫切需要這類新型的建築材料,因此提供一些试驗研究結果,以供国家主管機關和科技工作同志們深入研究和推廣使用時的參考。

 
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