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family variation
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     Provenance and family variation of nitrogen fixation ability during the seedling stage of Alnus cremastogrne were discussed. The random complete block design was adopted in the test.
     对 1年生桤木种源 (家系 )苗期的根瘤固氮能力进行研究 ,结果表明 ,桤木苗期的根瘤鲜重、固氮酶活性、固氮量在种源间和种源内家系间都存在着显著或极显著差异 ;
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  family variation
InTaraxacum, within-family variation is commonly found at the levels of ploidy, aneuploidy, recombination and single gene mutation.
      
Family variation within provenances was significant for height growth and leaf number.
      
Family variation in fine root allocation was observed under low but not high N treatment, but for the majority of physiological and growth traits, family variation was stable under varying N treatment.
      
Parent × taxa interaction was significant, suggesting that within these taxa, family to family variation occurred, but different maternal parents were associated with the freeze hardly families in different taxa.
      
Family variation in stem breakage ranged from 0 to 44% in Colombia and 0 to 33% in South Africa at 5 years of age and were highly significant.
      
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Four kinds of occurrence patterns of somaclonal variation of several major traits were found in the R2 generation of common wheat, i.e. R2 family non-segregation or stable variation. R2 family segregating variation, R2 line chimeric stable variation and R2 line chimeric segregating variation. Among these the stable variations occurred more commonly in the R2 population, and amounting to one third of the total variation in this study. Frequency of R2 family variation, which probably had occurred from the...

Four kinds of occurrence patterns of somaclonal variation of several major traits were found in the R2 generation of common wheat, i.e. R2 family non-segregation or stable variation. R2 family segregating variation, R2 line chimeric stable variation and R2 line chimeric segregating variation. Among these the stable variations occurred more commonly in the R2 population, and amounting to one third of the total variation in this study. Frequency of R2 family variation, which probably had occurred from the single original cell of the callus at an early stage, was higher than that of R2 line chimeric variation, which might have occurred during the process of plantlet regeneration. Different traits had their own distinctive patterns of variation occurrence: plant type, spike type and leaf colour were subject to segregating variation: maturity was liable to stable variation, and plant stature and waxiness had both the pattern of stable variation and that of segregating variation. Part of the variations have proved to be resulted from gene(s) mutation in the dominant direction. Most of the segregating variations displayed simple segregation ratios. Chimerism in R2 segregating lines was rarely seen. The frequency of R2 variant individuals was estimated to be at least 10 times as much as that in the M2 population from radiation and chemical mutation.

小麦R_2代体细胞无性系变异存在4种发生方式,即全株性稳定变异,全株性分离变异,穗系嵌合稳定变异,穗系嵌合分离变异。其中稳定变异相当普遍、约占总变异的1/3。发生阶段较早的全株性变异多于发生较迟的穗系嵌合变异。不同的变异性状有不同的发生方式。株型、穗型、芒型和叶色变异多为分离变异,熟期为稳定变异,株高、腊质等兼有稳定及分离变异,其中某些性状是显性突变的结果。多数分离性状的分离均属简单分离,且很少见到基因突变的嵌合现象。R_2代的平均单株变异率要比理化诱变的相应突变频率高出一个数量级。

Provenance and family variation of nitrogen fixation ability during the seedling stage of Alnus cremastogrne were discussed. The random complete block design was adopted in the test.The result showed that except the number of nodule, there were significant or very significant differences for index of nitrogen fixation ability among provenances and single trees within provenances during the seedling stage of the alder. The heritabilities of the number of nodule,amount of nodulation,nitrogenase activity...

Provenance and family variation of nitrogen fixation ability during the seedling stage of Alnus cremastogrne were discussed. The random complete block design was adopted in the test.The result showed that except the number of nodule, there were significant or very significant differences for index of nitrogen fixation ability among provenances and single trees within provenances during the seedling stage of the alder. The heritabilities of the number of nodule,amount of nodulation,nitrogenase activity and amount of nitrogen fixation were (0.176 0),0.917 2,0.119 9 and 0.189 6,respectively,and it showed the amount of nodulation was genetically highly controlled.The correlation between the index of nitrogen fixation and EGA was significant.

对 1年生桤木种源 (家系 )苗期的根瘤固氮能力进行研究 ,结果表明 ,桤木苗期的根瘤鲜重、固氮酶活性、固氮量在种源间和种源内家系间都存在着显著或极显著差异 ;根瘤个数种源间差异不显著 ,种源内家系间差异极显著。根瘤个数、根瘤鲜重、固氮酶活性和固氮量的种源遗传力分别为 0 .176 0 ,0 .9172 ,0 .1199,0 .1896 ,首次揭示出根瘤鲜重为高度遗传 ,而其他 3个性状属于弱度遗传。根瘤鲜重、固氮酶活性和固氮量与生态梯度值 (EGA)的正相关均达到显著水平 ,呈以经度为主的梯度变异

Provenance and family variations of nitrogen fixation ability during the seedling stage of Alnus cremastogrne were discussed. The random complete block design was adopted in the test. The result showed that except the number of nodule, there were significant or very significant differences in indexes of nitrogen fixation ability among provenances and single trees within provenances during the seedling stage of the alder. The heritabilities of the number of nodule, amount of nodulation, nitrogenase activity...

Provenance and family variations of nitrogen fixation ability during the seedling stage of Alnus cremastogrne were discussed. The random complete block design was adopted in the test. The result showed that except the number of nodule, there were significant or very significant differences in indexes of nitrogen fixation ability among provenances and single trees within provenances during the seedling stage of the alder. The heritabilities of the number of nodule, amount of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and amount of nitrogen fixation were 0.176 0, 0.917 2, 0.119 9 and 0.189 6, respectively, and it showed that the amount of nodulation was genetically controlled in strong degree. The relationships between growth traits and indexes of nitrogen fixation ability were closely positive correlation, and the correlation coefficient varied from 0.399 9~0.630 2. The correlations between the indexes of nitrogen fixation and EGA were significant. Provenances from Luding and Jintang are better, which have been selected according to the comprehensive index of growth and nitrogen fixation ability, and the genetic gains of amount of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and amount of nitrogen fixation were 5.14%, 1.56% and 8.15%.

对 1年生桤木种源 /家系苗期的根瘤固氮能力进行了研究 ,结果表明桤木苗期的根瘤鲜质量、固氮活性、固氮量种源间和种源内家系间都存在显著或极显著差异。根瘤个数种源间差异不显著 ,种源内家系间差异极显著。根瘤个数、根瘤鲜质量、固氮活性和固氮量的种源遗传力分别为 0 .176 0、0 .9172、0 .1199、0 .1896。揭示出根瘤鲜质量为高度遗传 ,而其它 3个性状属于弱度遗传。根瘤个数、根瘤鲜质量、固氮活性、固氮量 4者相互之间均为极显著正相关 ,揭示了在固氮能力的 4个性状中 ,仅需根据固氮鲜质量这一性状 ,就可评判出综合固氮能力的高低 ,简化了固氮性状选育的内容和过程。苗高、根瘤鲜质量、固氮活性和固氮量与EGA的正相关均达到显著水平 ,呈以经度为主的梯度变异。综合考虑固氮效应及苗木生长量评价的生态环境效应的选择指数 ,认为适宜于生态环境林的优良种源是四川泸定、金堂和邛崃 ,根瘤鲜质量、固氮酶活性、固氮量的遗传增益分别为 5 .14 % ,1.5 6 %和 8.15 %。

 
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