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(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which...

(Consisting of two articles, the first one was published in 1938 in the Singchow Semi-monthly Singapore, the second is a much more detailed one written in 1957. Followingis a general sketch of both the two articles.) Ⅰ. What is the Malayan Stock? In common sense, Malayan stock means the Malayan race or Brown race, which isone of the five human races of the world. The classic method of the classification ofhuman races according to their skin colour gave the Malayans the pseudo-scientific name"Brown race" which has made the ethnic position of the Malayans as well as the ethnicrelationship between the Malayans and the other related peoples unclear scientifically. Therecent anthropological studies revealed the close ethnic relation between the brown raceand the yellow race, hence the Malayan stock is regarded as one branch of the Mongo-loids and given a new term "Oceanic Mongoloid". The Malayan stock now stands closelywith its two brothers the Northern Mongoloid and the Southern Mongoloid. The term "Malayans" is used here in its broader meaning which includes all thepeoples in Malaysia with a physical characteristics mostly of yellowish-brown colour.brachycephalie (broad) head form, black and straight hair, scanty beard, Malayan eye.medium stature and speaking branches of Malayo-Polynesian language which is agglutina-tive in its nature. Scientifically, both the "proto-Malays" and the "deutero-Malays", orboth the "true Malays" (Orang Malayu) and the other Malayans outside of it are to beconsidered here as the Malayan stock. Generally speaking, largest part of the peoplesliving in Malaya, Indonesia, Philippines and other islands bear this common name inscientific sense. Within the country of Indonesia the term Indonesians is most usuallyused, but in this article, the Indonesians is also included in the term Malayan stockbecause the latter is larger in its scope and more generally used in science. The Malayan stock is not a pure, single race but one of many elements intermixedtogether. The first element is the Oceanic Mongoloid which came from the north, pro-bable Chinese continent, its physical characteristics survived are the black, straight hair,broad head, yellowish-brown colour, medium stature and certain degree of Mongolian eye(narrow eye with Mongolian fold which covers the upper eye-lid). The second elementis the Indonesian stock, (This is used in scientific, narrower meaning instead of thatused in common sense) and early branch of the Caucasian race, originated in westernAsia and migrated eastward to Malaysia through Indo-China; it gives the present people the physical characteristics of Malayan eye, (broad eye without Mongolian fold hence theeye-lashes and a concave line on the eye-lid can be seen clearly) a certain degree of doli-chocephalie (long) head together with the agglutinative Malayo-Polynesian language. Thethird element is the Oceanic Negroid whose part contributed to the Malayans is not solarge that it still has pure descendants in present day viz. the Negritoes and the Papuans;while the fourth element is the Veddas came from India. The third and fourth one arri-ved earliest in probably Palaeolithic age, but played no important role in ethnic composi-tion of the Malayan stock because of their small number in population. The second onereached Malaysia after the above two probably in early period of Neolithic age, while thefirst one arrived latest in later period of Neolithic age. Though later in time, the OceanicMongoloids and Indonesians came in large numbers hence they formed the two principalelements of the Malayan stock. As the outcome of the intermixing of blood there appea-red a great mixed racial stock which looks different from its original elements, conseq-uently the original names are no longer suitable to be used. The term Indonesian is usedhere in its original meaning which is different from that of the so-called "Indonesians"in present day use. The mixed stock is no more called Indonesian but Malayan stock inthis article. Ⅱ. Is there Any Connection Between the Malayan Stock and the Ancient Peoples in Southern China? The cradle of the mix-blooded Malayan stock may be in the meeting point of the twoprincipal elements. Indo-China, a necessary meeting point on their ways, was naturally thecradle of the Malayan stock. From Indo-China floods of racial migration appeared fromtime to time and peopled the islands of Malaysia from west to east. As the Oceanic Mongoloid might be originated in the east Asia continent and mig-rated southward to Indo-China, naturally there must be a time in which they lived insouthern China as well as in Indo-China. Furthermore, the ancient peoples in SouthernChina consisted of various aboriginal tribes different from the Chinese Proper, it seemsnot very unreasonable to suggest that besides the Mongoloids there might existed too acertain primitive branch of Caucasian race or even Negroid race in southern China eventhough in small number before the Chinese Proper migrated southward. Possessing theability of migrating southward by the difficult way of water, why the Indonesians couldor would not proceed further eastward from Indo-China by an easier way of land tosouthern China During or preceding Chow dynasty (before 250 B. C.) in the coastal regions of sout-hern China (Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kiangsi, Kwangsi provinces) there existedan ancient aboriginal stock with the name of "Yueh" which was looked by the Chineseproper as a different race because they lived in different way, followed their own queerhabits and customs and spoke in a different tongue. This stock was indeed more strangethan the other aboriginal stocks in southem China. The formation of such a stock mightbe the outcome of blending of the Mongoloids arrived from the north with some other peoples came from the southwest. As there really existed a different people-the In-donesians-migrated from the west and the blending of the two races-the Indonesiansand the Mongoloids-was actually taking place in Indo-China, it is far from impossiblethat such a phenomenon might extend and appear also in southem China. Being theproduct of mixing blood of the two principal races-the Mongoloids and the Indonesians-the Yueh stock might be in the same condition as the Malayan. If the intermixing of the Mongoloids with the Indonesians really took place in sout-hern China, the ancient people Yueh then was the brother of the Malayan stock. At thebeginning they might resemble to each other, but in later days both of them lived indifferent places and mixed with more other peoples, hence appeared also different fromeach other. Since the Chin dynasty (220 B. C.) the Yueh stock began to be assimilatedby the Chinese Proper from the north; the process of assimilation of culture and theblending of blood reached its conclusion in about 6th century. Later on no survivor ofYueh stock with pure blood or tribal name ever appeared in China. Their mix-bloodedoffspring, however, have existed up to present time as the population of the southeastcoastal region viz. Chekiang, Fukien, Kwangtung Provinces. Ⅲ. Three Evidences From the historical and geographical point of view, we get the above hypothesis ofthe ethnical Connection between the Malayan and the Yueh stock in southern China. Ifthis is true there must be, between them, physical and cultural resemblances which aresound enough as the evidence. Three sorts of facts, as I seek, may do this service: (1) Resemblances in Physical Characteristics--Though there is still no enoughamount of prehistoric skeletons of both the Indonesians and the Oceanic Mongoloidsunearthed in Malaysia and southern China for scientific research, the Iiving offsprings ofboth the two ancient races may give us some hints about this question,. It is often observedthat the physical characteristics of the southern Chinese of present day are different insome respects from the northern ones although basically they are of the same type viz.the Chinese type. Among them, the peoples of Kwangtung and Fukien have espicially adifferent appearence: Firstly, the eyes of them are broader and less in degree of Mongolian fold on theupper eye-lid. The eye of this type is the medium form between the Mongolian and theMalayan eye, and may be called Half-Malayan eye. Generally most of the Mongol Properand the northern Chinese have the Mongoian eye, while the Malayans have the Malayaneye. The intermediate eye suggests that the human group possessing it must be the mixedblood of the two kinds of peoples with these two sorts of eyes. Wherefrom did the sout-hern Chinese get the half-Malayan eye? Unless they had as one part of their compositeelement a sort of people with Malayan eyes, it is quite impossible to explain the derivationof this eye form. this eye form, therefore, tells us that the southern Chinese, especiallythat of Kwangtung, Fukien and perhaps Chekiang provinces had as one part of theirancestors a people with Malayan eyes. The Malayans may get their malayan eye from the Indoncsians, because the Indonesians belong to the Caucasian race whose eye is calledEuropean eye which is the same as the Malayan one. In fact, the European eye formappeared on the Malayan face is called Malayan eye. The eyes of the southern Chinesetherefore might he derived from the same way as the Malayans. Secondly, the stature of the southern Chinese especially those of Kwangtung andFukien is generally lower than that of the northern Chinese; while compared with theMalayans, they are nearly the same with each other. Thirdly, some of the faces of the southern Chinese looks different from the northernones but appears resembling the Malayans. The Southerns have a shorter face while thenortherners have a longer one. As the physical characteristics of both the southem Chinese and the Malayans resem-bling each other, it is hardly possible to distinguish some Chinese in Malayan costumesand vice versa. The Chinese new comers in Malaysia are often astonished to find thatthe so-called strangers or foreigners viz. the Malayans, look quite like themselves in theirphysical respect. Sometimes it is not easy too for the Europeans to distinguish betweenthe Chinese and the Malayans, because most of the Chinese immigrated to Malaysiancountries were from the southeastern coastal regions which was the home country of theancient Yueh people. (2) Resemblances in Early Cultural Respects--Of course the cultural life ofthe southern Chinese and the Malayans in present day are different to each other, butthe historical records about the ancient Yueh people reveal that the Yueh stock had intheir material life, social customs and languages some points suggesting the connectionwith the Malayans. These may be enumerated as the following: 1, Hair cutting: The ancient northern Chinese never cut their hair, the Miao stockbound their hair too, only the Yueh people was noted for their hair cutting. The primitivebranches of the present Malayan also cut their hair, the early Malayans probably had thiscustom in ancient times too. 2, Tattooing: The Yueh was also well-known for their tattooing which made themlook quite wonderful to the other Chinese, The Malayans of today still have kept thiscustom in Borneo, Philippines etc. 3, Snake worship: The Yueh worshipped the snakes and those in Fukien even tookthe snake as their totem. The aborigines in Taiwan province, which belong to Malayanstock too, still preserve the remnant of such belief, Snake worship is not unknown tothe Malayans in Malaysia too. 4, Pile-house: At present the pile-houses of the Malayans is quite well-known forits specialty; such form of building, however, was also adopted by the ancient southernChinese because it is recorded that the Yueh lived in nest, and the later southern peopleslived actually in the pile-houses which was called "kan-lan". 5, Naked foot: The Yueh's naked foot custom was also noted in ancient times.while the Malayans in history also kept their feet naked even though they were officersin the kings courts. 6, Agglutinative language: The Yueh spoke in a different and queer tongue fromthe Chinese Proper and even the other peoples in ancient times, the translation of Yuehwords gave the Chinese Proper a hard question; to denote the sound of a Yueh word,one Chinese word is not enough, while two or three words sound too much. Thiscondition suggests that though the Chinese language was isolating in its nature, that ofthe Yueh might belong to agglutinative one, because one agglutinative word usually pro-nounces just like two or more isolating words connected. Heine-Geldern and other scholarealso suggested that the Malayo-Polynesian or Austro-Asiatic language was originated inthe continent. The present south-eastern Chinese still speak in different dialects whichproves that the ancient Yueh language was quite strange to the northern Chinese. Thedifficulty to compare the ancient Yueh language with the Malayan one lies in the factthat both the present tongues used by the modern Malayans and the southern Chinesehave been changed by nearly two thousand years' assimilation with other languages. (3) Resemblances of Prehistoric Remains--Before the prehistoric archaeologicaldiscoveries took place in southern China, the question of the derivation or origin of someprehistoric objects in malaysia and even Polynesia had been very hard to be solved. Poly-nesia is famous for one special type of stone implements viz. the tanged adze or steppedadze, the origin of it was traced to that unearthed in Philippines; the derivation of thestepped adze of Philippines, however, was also very hard to be traced. Since about 1930the prehistoric findings began to take place in southern Chinese continent. the newmaterials enable the old questions easier to be solved. The prehistoric remains are difte-rent to those found in northern China, the latter consists of the painted pottery, blackpottery, thick stone axe, holed stone axe etc., whilc the former consists of the pressedgeometric-designed pettery, the stepped adze, the shouldered axe etc.. Strange to say thatthe southern prehistoric objects of China really resemble those of Malaysia and evenPolynesia. These objects may be pointed as the following: 1, Stepped stone adze: Stepped adze is found in large numbers in the south-easternregions viz. Fukien, Kwangtung, Chekiang, Kiangsi, Kiangsu etc., but appears veryrare in the eastern part of northern China and is entirely unknown in the western partof it. The shape suggests that it was developed in three stages just like that of Phi-lippines and Polynesia. Furthermore, the stepped adze of primary and intermediate stagesappeared more in number in south-eastern China, while that of the higher stage appearedmore in Philippines and Polynesia; such a condition reveals that the stepped adze of Phi-lippines and Polynesia was derived from south-eastern China. The way of transmigrationof the stepped adze is probably through Taiwan, Philippines and other islands. 2, Shouldered stone axe: The shouldered axe appeared in Indo-China. Malay pe-ninsula, Philippines etc., but was not found in the intermediate islands viz Sumatra,Java etc.. It was unearthed in Taiwan and Hainan islands too. In the southern part ofthe Chinese continent it appeared less in number but more will be found in future. Inthe north-eastern China very rare was obtaine(?) too. The shouldered axe might be ori-ginated in Indo-China and then spreaded eastward to the south-eastern coastal region of Chinese continent, therefrom it crossed the sea and arrived in Philippines through Tai-wan island, On the way a northward route led it to the north-eastern region. Anotherroute led it southward to Malay Peninsula. Shouldered axe is also an object of evidenceshowing the relation of the Malayans and the southern Chinese, because the prehistoricpeoples in Indo-China was the Malayans instead of the Annamese etc.. 3, Pressed geometric-designed pottery: In southern, especially south-eastern China,the prehistoric pottery was that with geometric designs pressed with pottery prints, thisis quite different to the painted pottery of north-western China and the black pottery ofnorth-eastern China. In Malaysia and Indo-China the prehistoric potteries found resembleto that of south China, some of the shape of the potteries as well as the pressed designsare quite like each other. Some potteries of this type were actuaily found in Indo-China,Java and Sulawesi, which are comparable with that of south China. This kind of potteryalso suggests the prehistoric connection between Malayans and the southern Chinese. Ⅳ. Conclusions (1) The Malayan stock is a mixed blood of chiefly the Oceanic Mongoloid raceand the Indonesians which is an early branch of the Caucasian race. These two raceshave been blended to such a degree that a new stock appeared which is called the Ma-Jayan stock, and the two elements have no more pure offsprings survived. The presentMalayans show more Mongolian physical features than the Indonesian ones, hencs it istaken as a branch of Mongoloids. (2) The Oceanic Mongoloid came from southern China, hence these should beethnic connection. between the Malayans and the ancient southern Chinese. Moreover,the other two elements of the Malayans, the Indonesians and the Negritoes probablyalso arrived and lived in southern China earlier than the Mongoloids and became partof the ethnical elements of the southern Chinese in later days, therefore the Malayansand the southern Chinese may have the same ethnical element. (3) The present southern Chinese, especially the south-eastern ones have some phy-sical characteristics like the Malayans, their ancestor Yueh stock had some customs andlanguage showing some resemblances to the Malayans, finally, the prehistoric discoveriesalso show the relationship between these two races. (4) The processes of the formation of the Malayan stock might proceeded in Indo-China and southern China. Since Neolithic age the Malayans migrated step by step toMalaysian islands, while those remained in Indo-China and southern China were assimi-lated by the Chinese Proper, Annamese, Siamese and Burmese. The ancient Yueh stockin southern China might have nearly the same ethnic composition as the Malayans, butwas assimilated by the Chinese Proper since two thousand years ago. (5) There might be two routes of southward migration of the Malayans. The firstand principal one was the west route which started from Indo-China, penetrated Suma-tra, Java and Borneo, and finally reached Philippines; the evidences are the pressedgeometric designed pottery and the shouldered axe. The second was the east route whichstarted from the south-eastern coast of Chinese continent, passed Taiwan and other islets,finally reached Philippines, Sulawesi and eastern Borneo. The stepped adze, the shoul-dered axe, and the pressed geometric-designed pottery are the eviden

林惠祥同志三十多年来除了对人类学(包括古学、民族学)进行系统的研究,并获得很大的成就和贡献外,他一生对南洋问题的研究,也曾下过工夫,做过不少工作和贡献。“南洋马来族与华南古民族的关系”这篇论文是林惠祥同志关于南洲问题最后的遗著。前篇于一九三八年以“马来人与中国东南方人同源说”为题曾在南洋发表过,后篇是他二十年后对这问题进一步深入研究的成果,提出更丰富、更可靠的有关人类学(包括考古学、民族学)的材料和证据,把我国和南洋民族的历史关系以及将东南亚这一大片地方过去被遗忘的历史补充起来,这是他三十年多年来对南洋研究的重要贡献,也是他一生对南洋问题研究总结的一部份。

A fossil human mandible was discovered at Chenchiawo village in Lantian county, Shensi Province in 1963 and it was named provisionally Sinanthropus lantianensis(Woo, 1964). Further excavations were made in 1964.A fossil hominid skull was found at another site near Gongwangling village,east of the Lantian county seat.The fossil material con- sists of the frontal bone,large parts of the parietal bones,the right temporal bone,the basal parts of the nasal bones,large parts of the right and left maxillae with the...

A fossil human mandible was discovered at Chenchiawo village in Lantian county, Shensi Province in 1963 and it was named provisionally Sinanthropus lantianensis(Woo, 1964). Further excavations were made in 1964.A fossil hominid skull was found at another site near Gongwangling village,east of the Lantian county seat.The fossil material con- sists of the frontal bone,large parts of the parietal bones,the right temporal bone,the basal parts of the nasal bones,large parts of the right and left maxillae with the right second molar in situ,and the right third molar in distorted position.A fossil left up- per hominid molar found in the field at the Gongwangling site in May,1964 was iden- tical in morphology,size,colour,degree of wear with the right second molar in situ,and thus can be ascertained to belong to the left maxilla. A large amount of mammalian fossils was found with the hominid skull.According to Chow et al.(1965),a total of 25 mammalian species were recognized in the fauna which was considered to be of Early Middle Pleistocene age. The hominid skull is of light earthy red colour mixed with light grayish white colour. The posterior part of the parietal bones is dotted with small black spots.The material is highly fossilized. The skull cap is slightly distorted by compression.The central part of the outer sur- face of the frontal bone is markedly rugged in appearance.All the depressions have rather sharp edges,which probably indicate the corrosion process during fossilization.Ow- ing to pressure,the right orbit extends more forward than the left one and the lower margin of the left parietal bone is slightly more expanded outward than normal.But as a whole,the general morphology of the skull-cap is only slightly affected. The petrosal portion of the right temporal bone is fairly well preserved.It seems more closer to the temporal squama than normal,probably also due to pressure.The cochlea and the semi-circular canals within the pyramid can be clearly identified in the X-ray films. The anterior surfaces of the maxillae are also flattened by pressure.The right third molar is distorted in position though still connected to the alveolar process.The broken crowns and their roots of the right first premolar and the right first molar are still kept in their sockets. The coronal suture of the Lantian skull cap was already fused though it still can be clearly seen.The right second molar is worn to the second grade according to the stan- dard for modern Northern Chinese.According to both standards of modern man,it is about forty years of age.Since the suture closure and the wearing of the teeth of the fossil hominid is earlier and quicker than that of modern man,it is estimated that the Lantian hominid is over thirty years of age. The sex is difficult to identify.It seems to be a female individual judging from the smaller size of teeth(see Table 1 for measurements of the upper second and third molars),of the maxillae,the pyramid of the temporal bone and also the middle cranial fossa. The morphological features of the bones of the skull were described.The supraor- bital tori are very large and heavy,and form a continuous bar throughout the glabellar region.They have the same general character as in Sinanthropus of Choukoutien and Pithecanthropus of Java.However,contrary to the conditions in Sinanthropus,the tori are not separated from the squama by a distinct sulcus.The torus glabellaris projects somewhat more forward.The lateral parts of the tori extend even more sidewards than those in Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus.The postorbital constriction is also more pro- nounced. The orbits are rectangular in form.The roof of the orbit is very flat.There is no supraorbital foramen.The lacrimal fossa is absent. The forehead is very low and distinctly receding.There is indication of the presence of a sagittal crest though it cannot be clearly distinguished owing to corrosion of the external surface of the frontal bone.As in all of the skulls of Sinanthropus,there is a cross-like elevation where the coronal suture meets the sagittal suture. In accordance with the sharply receding forehead the bregma is situated almost ver- tically above the porion.The temporal lines rise to real ridges. The measurements of the sagittal arcs and chords of pars glabellaris and pars cere- bralis of the frontal bone were taken and their indices were computed.It is seen from Table 2 that the linear measurements of the glabellar region of the Lantian specimen are much larger than those in Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus,which indicate the massi- veness of this region.The chord-arc index of the cerebral region of the frontal of the Lantian skull approaches the upper limit of both Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus.It shows the lowness of the forehead of the Lantian skull. The frontal sinus is missing.The supraorbitals are solid as illustrated in the skiagram on Plate Ⅳ. On the interior surface of the frontal bone,the crista frontalis is preserved in the form of a wide and fairly high elevation.This is a distinct human characteristic,for it is missing in anthropoids. The parietal bone is almost rectangular.The frontal angle or angle at the bregma is almost a right angle.The mid-sagittal arc is shorter than that of the frontal bone. The long axis of the pyramid of the temporal bone has an intermediate direction bet- ween that of modern ape and modern man.The pyramid itself is slender as that of modern female.The anterior and posterior surfaces slope more abruptly than those of modern man. One distinct peculiarity of the Lantian skull is the extraordinary thickness of the cranial wall.Measurements of the thickness at different locations are given in Table 4. It is seen that it has the greatest thickness among the pithecanthropines.The thickness is chiefly due to the enlargement of the external and internal tables and not to the di- plo■ of the cranial bones. The two nasal bones form an angle of about 130°.The nasofrontal suture is com- pletely preserved.This suture,together with the frontomaxillar suture,takes an almost horizontal course.The nasal bones are distinctly wider and shorter than those of mo- dern man. The maxilla is small in size.Its remarkable feature is the marked alveolar progna- thism.The anterior surface of the maxilla forms almost a right angle with the floor of the nasal cavity.A small but distinct spina nasalis anterior is present.This is also a distinct human character.The lateral region of the right maxilla shows the fairly marked jugum alveolare of the canine.Lateral to the jugum is a sulcus-like depression. The crown of the upper second molar is rectangular in shape.The paracone extends more antero-buccally and thus forms a fairly marked proximal buccal angle.The upper third molar has similar features as the second,but has more smaller crown length and relatively greater width.The occlusal surface of the crown of the third molar is nearly triangular in shape. As not only the skull cap and the right temporal but also parts of the facial skele- ton were preserved,a reconstruction of the skull was possible.The reconstructed skull has a length of 189 mm,breadth,149 mm and auricular height,87 mm.Its height is not only smaller than that of the Sinanthropus skull but also than those of Pithecanthropus from both Trinil and Djetis beds. The cranial capacity of the reconstructed skull is computed according to Pearson's for- mula.It is 778 cc.As the two parietals are largely preserved,the biparietal vaults were reconstructed and measured to be 417.6 cc.According to the proportion of the total endocast volume to the biparietal endocast volume in early hominids(Tobias,1964),we get the total endocast volume of 775—783 cc for the Lantian skull.The values obtained from both methods are remarkably close.Thus the cranial capacity of the Lantian speci- men is estimated to be 780 cc. From the main features shown by the specimen described above,such as the massive supraorbital ridges and the pronounced postorbital constriction,the very lowness of the frontal squama and the cranial height,the extraordinary thickness of the cranial wall,and the rather small cranial capacity,we can ascertain that the Lantian skull is more primitive than the Sinanthropus of Choukoutien and the Pithecanthropus from the Trinil beds of Java.It seems morphologically to be more closer to the Pithecanthropus robustus from the Djetis beds of Java.Thus the Lantian specimen represents one of the earliest forms of the pithecanthropines. It has been considered by many anthropologists and taxonomists that all the pithe- canthropine forms are of the same species,Homo erectus.This concept is obviously more logical and is gaining ground.Accordingly,the name Sinanthropus lantianensis represent- ed by the Lantian mandible found in 1963 should be changed to Homo erectus lantian- ensis.As the Lantian skull and mandible are of similar pattern and of the same geolo- gical age of Middle Pleistocene,it is suggested that they should belong to the same sub- species.However,for the expedience of reference to the older literatures,it is suggested to retain the old nomenclature in square brackets after the generic name.Thus,the Lantian specimen has the nomenclature as Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus lantianensis.Like- wise,Sinanthropus pekinensis should be changed to Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus pekinensis; Pithecanthropus erectus,to Homo[Pithecanthropus]erectus erectus;and Atlanthropus mau- ritanicus,to Homo[Atlanthropus]ere

1.蓝田公王岭发现的猿人头骨化石材料,计有完整的额骨,顶骨的大部分,右侧颞骨的大部分,左鼻骨的大部分和右鼻骨的鼻根部,右上颌骨的体部和额突部,以及右上第二、三臼齿和左上第二臼齿。2.头盖骨的骨缝已经愈合,上第二臼齿的磨耗已达二度,估计蓝田猿人的年龄大约是三十多岁。3.由牙齿、上颌骨、颞骨锥体和颅中窝等较为细小来判断,蓝田猿人可能是女性。4.额骨前部的眶上圆枕硕大粗壮,在眼眶上方几形成一直条横行的骨嵴。圆枕的两侧端明显向外侧延展,圆枕之后明显缩窄。眼眶约呈方形,眶顶很平,没有眶上孔和泪腺窝。额骨的鳞部明显后斜,颞线隆起成为明显的骨嵴。眶上圆枕与额鳞之间没有明显的宽沟相隔。没有额窦。额骨内面的正中有宽阔而较高的额嵴。测量数值表明眉间部粗壮,额骨脑部的弧度极小,额骨极为宽阔。5.顶骨约成长方形,在正中矢状面上,顶骨短于额骨。6.颞骨锥体长轴的方向大约介于现代猿与现代人之间,与北京猿人相似。锥体较为细致,其形状和大小与现代人的女性较为接近。锥体的前后面倾斜度较大,上绿较锐,与现代人相近。7.蓝田猿人头骨的明显特点之一是其骨壁极厚,接近甚至超过北京猿人和爪哇猿人头骨相当部分厚度的上限。8.两鼻骨在根部相交约成130°角...

1.蓝田公王岭发现的猿人头骨化石材料,计有完整的额骨,顶骨的大部分,右侧颞骨的大部分,左鼻骨的大部分和右鼻骨的鼻根部,右上颌骨的体部和额突部,以及右上第二、三臼齿和左上第二臼齿。2.头盖骨的骨缝已经愈合,上第二臼齿的磨耗已达二度,估计蓝田猿人的年龄大约是三十多岁。3.由牙齿、上颌骨、颞骨锥体和颅中窝等较为细小来判断,蓝田猿人可能是女性。4.额骨前部的眶上圆枕硕大粗壮,在眼眶上方几形成一直条横行的骨嵴。圆枕的两侧端明显向外侧延展,圆枕之后明显缩窄。眼眶约呈方形,眶顶很平,没有眶上孔和泪腺窝。额骨的鳞部明显后斜,颞线隆起成为明显的骨嵴。眶上圆枕与额鳞之间没有明显的宽沟相隔。没有额窦。额骨内面的正中有宽阔而较高的额嵴。测量数值表明眉间部粗壮,额骨脑部的弧度极小,额骨极为宽阔。5.顶骨约成长方形,在正中矢状面上,顶骨短于额骨。6.颞骨锥体长轴的方向大约介于现代猿与现代人之间,与北京猿人相似。锥体较为细致,其形状和大小与现代人的女性较为接近。锥体的前后面倾斜度较大,上绿较锐,与现代人相近。7.蓝田猿人头骨的明显特点之一是其骨壁极厚,接近甚至超过北京猿人和爪哇猿人头骨相当部分厚度的上限。8.两鼻骨在根部相交约成130°角。鼻额缝与额上颌缝互相连续,约在水平位。鼻骨宽度远大于现代人,鼻骨长度明显比现代人为短。9.上颌骨及其附连的臼齿较为细致。上颌骨呈明显的齿槽凸颌。上颌骨前面与鼻腔底约成直角,两者之间有明确的分界。有小而明显的鼻前棘。右上颌骨外侧面的内侧缘有相当明显隆起的犬齿齿槽轭,在该轭与上颌骨颧突之间有从上向下延伸的沟状低凹。上第二臼齿齿冠呈长方形,前尖较为向前外方突出,有较明显的近侧颊角。上第三臼齿的形态大体与第二臼齿相似,但其齿冠长度较小,其相对宽度更大,齿冠咬合面近乎三角形。10.参考北京猿人和爪哇粗健猿人的复原头骨,进行了蓝田猿人头骨的复原。11.根据复原头骨颅内的长、宽和高计算了蓝田猿人的脑量。又根据复原的顶骨,依照比例,计算了脑量。两种方法所得的结果极为接近,估计其脑量大约为780c.c.。12.从眶上圆枕的形态和圆枕后的明显缩窄,额鳞的非常低平,头骨壁极厚,头骨高度很小,脑量很小等一系列特征,明显表示蓝田猿人的形态比北京猿人和爪哇猿人为原始,而大致与最早的爪哇粗健猿人相近,两者的地层层位也大致相当。13.为了符合人类学上的新的分类系统,建议蓝田猿人的学名为 Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus lantianensis,即把蓝田猿人和所有其他的猿人都归入直立人种;又为了便于与过去的文献资料相对照,建议把原先的属名放在新的属名之后的方括弧内,在过一定时期之后,再取消方括弧内的旧属名。

The Sixth International Seminar of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture on "The Changing Rural Habitat" was held Oct. 19-21 in Beijing, and was attended by about 70 delegates from more than 20 countries. His Highness the Aga Khan personally presided over the meeting. On behalf of ASC, President Yang Tingbao first expressed hearty congratulations and warm welcome to His Highness the Aga Khan and all the celebrated delegates. He pointed out that it was a valuable academic activity. Speaking of the rural development...

The Sixth International Seminar of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture on "The Changing Rural Habitat" was held Oct. 19-21 in Beijing, and was attended by about 70 delegates from more than 20 countries. His Highness the Aga Khan personally presided over the meeting. On behalf of ASC, President Yang Tingbao first expressed hearty congratulations and warm welcome to His Highness the Aga Khan and all the celebrated delegates. He pointed out that it was a valuable academic activity. Speaking of the rural development in China, he reviewed the past experiences and the present-day need for rural reconstruction and housing, and the problems concerned. He believed that discussion with fellow architects and specialists of various countries would be very beneficial and significant and would give great help in subsequent work. Mr. Han Guang, Director of State Capital Construction Commission of PRC, spoke of the importance of rural habitat as a topic of great concern in the world today. He reviewed the rural development in New China, the encouraging perspective of rural economy, the increased pace of rural reconstruction, and the policy of "self-built with public aid" adopted in China. He looked at the seminar as a good opportunity to learn from experiences of other nations.Speaking of the seminar, his Highness the Aga Khan said: "This as an historic occasion. The people gathered here represent a unique concentration of intelligence and expertise in the topic that is to be delt with and on the questions that will be raised and must be answered. The place-the People's Republic of China-will provide the stimulus to encourage the innovation so desperately needed to solve the problems of rural peoples all over the world, but especially of the poor among them-and it will also supply the kind of perspective that only a country with millennia of history behind it can inspire. Finally, the ocassion coincides with-and is indeed a response to-the increasingly urgent demands on the part of rural peoples in the developing world not only for a longer, happier, and healthier life, but for achieving it without violating the regional differences, obliterating the traditional cultures, and destroying the natural environment that make life worth living." He explained that the word "habitat" refers not only to places where people live, but also the places where people ought to live.He further pointed out that the problem of the rural habitat is an almost overwhelming one for the developing countries of Asia and Africa. "The great cities of Asia and Africa are already almost at the point of collapse beneath the unrelenting pressures of immigration from the rural hinterlands. Somehow ways have to be found to make the countryside itself a more desirable place to live in, which in turn demands an ability to earn more and to save enough as individuals or families or communes to begin the process of self-generated economic growth and thus social wellbeing. The Aga Khan Award for Architecture seeks to identify and premiate all successful efforts in the resolution of man's built environment, and cearly the fate and future of the rural habitat must be of prime concern tous.......... Our central purpose here, then, is to increase understanding of the ruralhabitat and, from that understanding, to devise appropriate strategies for change, both for our colleagues in planning, architecture and other related fields, and for a wider audience of decision makers and concerned people everywhere."The following papers were read and discussed in the seminar:1. CHOLISTAN......................................................Kamil Khan Mumtaz2. THE PESANTREN: RURAL HOUSING AND DEVELOPMENT IN JAVA, INDONESIA.......................Hasan Uddin Khan, Farokh Afshar3. DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL HOUSING IN CHINA.........Zhao Bainian4. A SYSTEM OF SELF-HELP CONSTRUCTION ADOPTED IN RURAL SENEGALPart 1. .........................................................Brian Brace TaylorPart 2. ................................................................Kamal El Jack5. RATIONALIZED BUILDING SYSTEMS

以“变化中的乡村居住建设”为主题的阿卡·汗建筑奖第六次国际学术讨论会,共发表了十三篇论文,其中有中国提供的三篇论文。此外,还散发了《乡村发展政策:居民点和住房的比较评价》等五篇参考材料,其中有中国提供的《有关中国农村住宅建设的一些情况》等两篇参考材料。 除《河南荥阳田禄窑居》一篇论文的详细内容已在本刊1981年第10期《向黄土地层争取合理的新空间》一文中发表以外,现将其余十一篇论文的摘要刊登,供读者参考。

 
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