Two data sets from JODC obtained by the R/V Ryfou were used tocalculate the volume transport along 137°E between 1°S - 34° N. Routine1967 - 1989 meridional hydrographic data, from 23 repeated cruises in winterand 18 cruises in summer were used to calculate the geostropic volume transportbetween 3 - 34°N (referred to 104kPa ).

The interannual variations of the Luzon Strait transports at 0—145m and 145—915m layers are closely related to ENSO,especially the volume transport at 145—915m layer.

It has been confirmed that near Lat. 21 °N, one branch of the Kuroshio separates from its main current and goes westward through Long. 120 °E into the South China Sea with a velocity of 1.6kn and and volume transport cf 11-12×106m3/s. The 15-17℃ isotherms at 200m are the indicators of the branch at the sea surface.

According to the climatological model results,the volume transport of Kuroshio is larger in spring and summer,and smallest in autumn. Annual mean of volume transport through PN section of the East China Sea is 29.7×10~6 m~3/s.

(2) the volume transport of this northeastward surface current is about 6×106m3/s.

(2)这支表层东北向流的流量约为6×106 m3/s.

Volume transport of PN section of East China Sea is 29.7Sv annual mean, the maximum value is 27.1Sv in spring and summer, the minimum value is 30.0Sv in autumn and winter.

the interanual variations of ITF volume transport are correlated with those of Southern Oscillation index (SOI), and their correlation coefficient reached the maximum of 0.72 when the latter led the former by 2 months;

The interannual variations of ITF volume transport are negatively correlated with those of Nio 3 area index, and their negative correlation coefficient reached the maximum of -0.81 when the Nio 3 area index led the ITF volume transport by 2 months;

(2) The net northern volume transport (VT) of the Kuroshio and the offshore branch of Taiwan Warm Current (TWCOB) through Section PN is about 26 2×10 6 m 3/s in June 1999. The inshore branch of Taiwan Warm Current (TWCIB) through the investigated region is about 0 4×10 6 m 3/s.

Since the volume transport across the pycnocline is much smaller than that in the mixed layer, the current in the mixed layer can be regarded as non-divergent.

Real-time observations of coastal sea level, coastal sea surface temperature, coastal HF radar-derived surface current maps, and FC volume transport are used to verify and validate EFSIS.

Based on a ship survey during January 1998, the characteristics of the flow, the thermohaline properties and the volume transport of the Arabian Sea are discussed.

Volume transport calculation suggests that the tidal transport is one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the total transport in this region and it becomes more important near the coast.

Volume transport fluctuations of the Florida Current (Gulf Stream), generated within the Straits of Florida by local meridional wind stress, is investigated.

Based on the deep sea (to 1200 m) observation data from Japanese R/V Komahashi (Feb. 26-Mar. 2, 1940), the Kuroshio path, especially in deep layer, is investigated as a case study from temperature distribution and dynamic height topography. Main results are as follows.1. 500-600 m being as a boundary, the temperature distributions in the upper and deep layers are quite different from each other. The temperature in upper layer increased, and that in deep layer decreased with the increasing of distance from the...

Based on the deep sea (to 1200 m) observation data from Japanese R/V Komahashi (Feb. 26-Mar. 2, 1940), the Kuroshio path, especially in deep layer, is investigated as a case study from temperature distribution and dynamic height topography. Main results are as follows.1. 500-600 m being as a boundary, the temperature distributions in the upper and deep layers are quite different from each other. The temperature in upper layer increased, and that in deep layer decreased with the increasing of distance from the shore. A cold water area appeared to the east of Lanyu Island, its northward extension became wider with the increasing of the depth.2.Dynamic height topographies (referred to 1200 db) at each level show that a cyclonic eddy appeared in the region east of Lanyu Island. The Kuroshio south of Taiwan, passing through both sides of the eddy, flowed toward the north as a whole. But in the near surface layers, it flowed mostly toward the East China Sea. While in the deep layers, the amount of water flowing northward along the west side of the eddy decreased with increasing of depth, and that flowing eastward and southeastward along the southern and eastern part of the eddy increased, which we considered that to. be the result of the blocking effect on the northward flowing of the deep water due to the existence of submarine ridge northeast of Taiwan.From about 200 m, the path of the northward flowing Kuroshio southeast of Taiwan began to meander cyclonically around the cold eddy, the deeper the depth it located, the more it meandered. The path of main current was no longer straight northward, but turned to E-SE. At 800-1000m level around 23°N, the Kuroshio was almost entirely eastward flowing. The dimension of the cyclonic eddy is about 100X200 km.3.Volume transport (referred to 1200 db) of the Kuroshio flowing from south of Taiwan to the east coast of Taiwan is around 24 sv. Volume transport of the Kuroshio flowing toward the East China Sea is around 17 sv. Therefore, as a rough estimation, about 5-6 sv (-25%) of the Kuroshio water flowed eastward to the Pacific Ocean.4.The above-mentioned meander and cold eddy of the Kuroshio east of Taiwan occurred just in time of the appearance of the large meander and cold water mass of Kuroshio south of Japan in 1934-1944. Whether there is some intrinsic relation between these two phenomena is worth studying.5.It is suggested that the deep layer water blocked by the submarine ridge and flowing eastward may flow southward .as a reeirculation. And there is another possibility that it may be related to the deep western boundary current southeast of Ryukyn Islands (Kawabe, 1980).It is expected that the deep-sea expedition east of Taiwan and south of Ryukyn Islands would be systematically carried out in the near-future, a necessary and important event for exploring the Kuroshio path in deep layer.

In this paper it is presumed that the mass transport of current is composed of constant current and wind drift current, of which the mass transport of the constant current is invariable in a short period, and that the wind factor and current deviation angle of the wind drift mass transport vary with wind direction. The wind factor with current deviation angle of mass transportion can therefore be decomposed into north wind factor with current deviation angle and east, wind factor with current de- viation angle....

In this paper it is presumed that the mass transport of current is composed of constant current and wind drift current, of which the mass transport of the constant current is invariable in a short period, and that the wind factor and current deviation angle of the wind drift mass transport vary with wind direction. The wind factor with current deviation angle of mass transportion can therefore be decomposed into north wind factor with current deviation angle and east, wind factor with current de- viation angle. In general the above four elements of the wind drift mass transport as well as two constant current elements are called the six elements of current mass transport. With three sets of observations of wind and current vectors and depth and den- sity made at different times and by solving six linear algebraic equations, the six ele- ments of mass transport can be obtained. From the obtained formulae for the wind factors and current deviation angles of the mass transport it is shown that the orbit of the current vectors is an ellipse when the wind direction varies. All the previous methods for the separation of the wind drift current are confined to current vectors. In this paper, we introduce the concept of current mass transport for the separation of the drift current. The previous methods for separations of the wind drift current are special cases of the present method. Without the influence of density, it turns to volume separation method, yet with the volume transport of the unit thickness only, it turns to the method of the separation of wind drift current el- lipse. In the deep sea area far from coast, when the wind factor and current devia- tion angles are independent of wind direction a cycle will be found. So the present method can be regarded as a generalization of all previous methods of residual current separation. As an example, the wind factors and the current deviation angles are calculated and tabled for every layer and for all the 16 azimuths of the station A near the coast in the northern East China Sea. According to the wind forecast, the wind drift cur- rent can be predicted by the tables and simple calculation. This method is useful for predicting the current in the lake also. Comparing the predicted residual current with measured one, they are in good agreement. The errors are 22% for the magnitudes and 31° for directions of the re- sidual current in average, respectively.

The characteristics of the variation of axial position of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea and its relationship to the meanders south of Japan ate analysed, based on the JMA's temperature and GEK data (1954-1984) and the precipitation data (1900-1985) published by the Central Bureau of Meteorology of China. Some main results are as follows:1. The axial position of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea is quite stable, its average deviation is about 9 n mile.2. The mean distance of the seasonal variation of the...

The characteristics of the variation of axial position of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea and its relationship to the meanders south of Japan ate analysed, based on the JMA's temperature and GEK data (1954-1984) and the precipitation data (1900-1985) published by the Central Bureau of Meteorology of China. Some main results are as follows:1. The axial position of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea is quite stable, its average deviation is about 9 n mile.2. The mean distance of the seasonal variation of the axis is 8, 9 and 1-0 n miles in spring, summer and winter, and autumn, respectively.3. When anticyclonic wind occurred in northwest of the Iriomote-jima and Tokara-kaikyo after 1-2 years, the meanders south of Japan will appear.4. When the axial position of the Kuroshio in the East China Sea shifted to the southeast (northwest) the velocity and volume transport increases (decreases), but the precipitation in Qingdao decreases (increases), the meanders south of Japan will appear (disappear). Add, when the minimum (maximum) precipitation occurred in Qingdao, the meanders south of Japan will appear (disappear).