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Nanotechnology is thus expected to thoroughly affect the way science addresses medicine, food, electronics and the environment.
      
An improvedm-dimensional cer model for assessment of the synthetical pollution status of environment
      
This model can be employed to assess various types of synthetical pollution status of the environment, when the contents of some pollutants in the environment are beyond the limits of the standard of GB or WHO/FAO.
      
A delayed semi-ratio-dependent predator-prey system in a periodic environment is investigated in this paper.
      
Electromagnetic scattering by a perfectly conducting grating in a homogeneous chiral environment
      
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Sugar cane borers infest the cane and cause a considerable injury to the plant in China. Four species of sugar-cane borers are commonly found in Kwangtung Province, viz. Diatraea venosata Wk., Chilo infuscatellus Snellen, Eucosma schistaceana Snellen and Sesamia inferens Wk.Trichogramma evanescens Westw. occurs in nature as an egg parasite of the sugar-cane borers.The present experiment on breeding Trichogramma centres around the ways of increasing its viability.The quality and the quantity of the nutrient for...

Sugar cane borers infest the cane and cause a considerable injury to the plant in China. Four species of sugar-cane borers are commonly found in Kwangtung Province, viz. Diatraea venosata Wk., Chilo infuscatellus Snellen, Eucosma schistaceana Snellen and Sesamia inferens Wk.Trichogramma evanescens Westw. occurs in nature as an egg parasite of the sugar-cane borers.The present experiment on breeding Trichogramma centres around the ways of increasing its viability.The quality and the quantity of the nutrient for the larvae and adults of Trichogramma play an important role in relation to their viability. The contents of the egg of Sitotroga cerealella Oliv. which has been commonly used as a host of the Trichogramma are of poor nutrient quality and quantity for the larvae of this parasite. The eggs of Angoumois grain moth are so small that only one adult Trichogramma emerges from each egg. Such adults are usually smaller in size, less active and with lower reproductive potentiality as compared with those that emerge from the field hosts; besides, the female sex ratio gradually decreases in the successive generations.From the results of an experiment on Trichogramma breeding, it is found that the eggs of Attacus cynthia ricini Boisd. and of Dendrolimus sp. are the most suitable hosts for the propagation of Trichogramma evanescens. The adults of the parasites emerging from such eggs are generally large in size, very active and possess high reproductive potentiality; besides, the female sex ratio remains unchanged in the successive generations. Evidently, the quality and the quantity of the egg contents of these two species of insects fulfil the nutritional requirements for the development of the Trichogramma larvae and they are recommended as hosts for Trichogramma propagationThe average number of adult Trichogramma emerging from a single egg of Dendrolimus sp. and that of Attacus cynthia ricini is 27.3 and 28 respectively with the respective maximum reaching 52 and 59 in the present record. If too many adults emerge from a single egg, both their size and reproductive potentiality would decrease and, moreover, the number of the male individuals would increase and the adult life would shorten. Undoubtedly, all these features are unfavourable for the utilization of the parasites for control of the insect pest as far as the effectiveness of the parasites is concerned. From the standpoint of increasing viability of the parasite, regulation of the number of parasites in the egg during the procedure of propagation of Trichogramma is necessary. Regulation of the number of parasites in the egg means regulation of the quantity of the nutrient for the parasites. The method of checking the occurrence of superparasitism is to regulate the ratio of the number of female Trichogramma and host eggs to 1:1 through the procedure of propagation; the period of oviposition should not exceed one day.The quality of nutrient for adult Trichogramma greatly affects its longivity and reproductive potentiality. The result of a nutritional experiment shows that honey is the most suitable nutrient for it. The adults fed with honey have the longivity increased 8.6 times and the number of the offspring 14.7 times as compared with those fed with distilled water.Cold storage effectively reduces the speed of development of the immature stage of Trichogramma. The mature larvae about to pupate within the host eggs maintain their life for 57 days under 4—7℃ and all of them will come out as adults at room tempeature. The fresh eggs of Dendrolimus sp. and of Attacus cynthia ricini kept in cold storage of 0— 4℃ for 97 days and 61 days respectively are still usable for rearing Trichogramma.In order to increase the adaptability of Trichogramma to the environment of the sugarcane field, the rearing procedure is suggested to proceed in the field or in an indoor environment with fluctuating temperature and humidity. The continuous artificial rearing should not exceed five generations before the liberation of the parasites.The distance of dispersion of Trichogramma eva

甘蔗是我国最重要的糖料作物,甘蔗害虫以甘蔗螟虫最普遍,分怖亦最廣。廣东珠江三角洲常见的甘蔗螟虫共有四种:条螟或称斑点螟(Diatraea venosata Wk.)、二点螟(Chilo infuscatellus Snellen)、黄螟(Eucosma schistaceana Snellen)和大螟(Sesamiainferens Wk.)。甘蔗螟虫为害的结果,形成枯心苗和蛀(?),影响甘蔗生长发育,减低蔗糖成份,易受风折,而且造成甘蔗赤腐病菌入侵条件。 甘蔗螟虫的为害虽重,但目前还没有一套完整的防治方法,也还没有一种很有效的方法。本试验目的,是利用赤眼蜂来防治甘蔗螟虫。试验内容是赤眼蜂的寄主的选择和繁殖、赤眼蜂的繁殖及保存、赤眼蜂田间放播初步试验和甘蔗螟虫田间发生情况的调查。现将各项试验结果简要地分述如下: 赤眼蜂能否利用成功,要看培育出来的赤眼蜂是否具有高度的生活力。赤眼蜂的生活力可用下列四个标准去量度:(1)蜂体大小,(2)繁殖能力,(3)成虫寿命,(4)对田间环境的適应性。此外,繁殖出来的赤眼蜂雌性此率不应此自然界的减低。 赤眼蜂的生活力,首先和寄主有很大关系。如果寄主卵的内含物的质和量都適合 於赤...

甘蔗是我国最重要的糖料作物,甘蔗害虫以甘蔗螟虫最普遍,分怖亦最廣。廣东珠江三角洲常见的甘蔗螟虫共有四种:条螟或称斑点螟(Diatraea venosata Wk.)、二点螟(Chilo infuscatellus Snellen)、黄螟(Eucosma schistaceana Snellen)和大螟(Sesamiainferens Wk.)。甘蔗螟虫为害的结果,形成枯心苗和蛀(?),影响甘蔗生长发育,减低蔗糖成份,易受风折,而且造成甘蔗赤腐病菌入侵条件。 甘蔗螟虫的为害虽重,但目前还没有一套完整的防治方法,也还没有一种很有效的方法。本试验目的,是利用赤眼蜂来防治甘蔗螟虫。试验内容是赤眼蜂的寄主的选择和繁殖、赤眼蜂的繁殖及保存、赤眼蜂田间放播初步试验和甘蔗螟虫田间发生情况的调查。现将各项试验结果简要地分述如下: 赤眼蜂能否利用成功,要看培育出来的赤眼蜂是否具有高度的生活力。赤眼蜂的生活力可用下列四个标准去量度:(1)蜂体大小,(2)繁殖能力,(3)成虫寿命,(4)对田间环境的適应性。此外,繁殖出来的赤眼蜂雌性此率不应此自然界的减低。 赤眼蜂的生活力,首先和寄主有很大关系。如果寄主卵的内含物的质和量都適合 於赤眼蜂幼虫营养之需,羽化出来的成虫体积大,繁殖力强,寿命也有延长的趣势。关於赤眼蜂的寄主,我们管用过17种鳞翅目昆虫的卵供其寄生,结果以松毛虫(Dendro

The study of blooming hahit of peanut is an impottant proeedure to make crosses between varieties either for genetic studies or lor breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Stat on of Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan, Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points: 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried...

The study of blooming hahit of peanut is an impottant proeedure to make crosses between varieties either for genetic studies or lor breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Stat on of Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan, Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points: 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried out under both field and grean house.The materials used for study were varieties widelv grown in Yungan; namely Valay(1), YuLin(a-1), Ping-siang. 3.The average time required from seeding to the blooming of the first flower is 38.36±5.11 days, It is a little longer under the green house(40.53± 4.28) than that in the field (36.2±4.06). 4.They are blooming absolutely in the day time.Peanut blooms from 6-7 o'clock.The maximum blooming period is at 6.00 A.M.(53.8%).The blooming period varies with green house and field. 5.The optimum blooming temperature is 22-24℃.(87.35%).No flower blooms below 17℃.and above 32℃. 6.In the field, peanut blooms beet at the relative humidity of 86%-100%, being 97.56% of total flowers studied.The best humidity is 95%-100%, being 78.34% of total flowers, 7.When the interaction of temperature and humidity is considered, the temperature of 22-24.9℃.with the relative humidity of 95%-100% is usually fitted.(82.89% of total flowers studied). 8.The time required from starting to bloom to not blooming varies with environments.It is usually shorter in the field than it is in the green house. 9.The number of flowers which bloom differs greatly with environment for individual plant. 10.The order of blooming starts from low to top of the plant. 11.The blooming days are rather scattering, being between 36-96 days after the blooming of the first flowers (88.91% of total flowers).In these 60 days there is no much difference in the numler of flowers that bloom.The maximum blooming date falls on the 59th day which is only 2.85% and the minimum date on the 63rd day is 0.85%.Besults show that there is no tendency for the flower blooming at any concentrated period.

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明了花生在永安环境下的开花习性。 2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植Valaya(-1),玉林(a-1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。 3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。 4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。 5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.9℃之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。 6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。 7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。 8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的複相关很显著...

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明了花生在永安环境下的开花习性。 2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植Valaya(-1),玉林(a-1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。 3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。 4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。 5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.9℃之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。 6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。 7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。 8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的複相关很显著。 9.花生每株由开始开花至不再开花,其间经过的时间,因环境的不同而有差异。 10.花生每株开花的数目,因环境的不同而有差异。 11.花生花以在开放之第三十六日至九十六日开放最多,占总开花数88.914%;此六十日内逐日开花数差异尚少;最多为第五十九日,占2.658%;最少为第六十三日,占0.658%;由此可知花生花的开放,没有集中的趋势。 12.花生植株花的开放顺序,系由下而上,下部最先开放,顺序而上顶端最后开放。

The study of blooming habit of peanut is an important proeedure to make orosses between varieties either for genetic studies or for breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Station o Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan,Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points. 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried...

The study of blooming habit of peanut is an important proeedure to make orosses between varieties either for genetic studies or for breeding purposes. More than seventeen thousand peanut flowers were studied in the autumn at the college experiment Station o Fukien Provincial College of Agriculture, Yungan,Fukien,China.The results obtained from the study may be summarized in the following points. 1.The object of this experiment is to find out the blooming habit of Arachis hypogea. 2.The experiment was carried out under both field and green house.The materials used fór study were varieties widely grown in Yungan;namely Valay(1),YuLin(a-1),Ping-siang. 3.The average time required from seeding to the blooming of the first flower is 38.36±5.11 days,It is a little longer under the green house(40.53± 4.28)than that in the field(36.2±4.06). 4.They are blooming absolutely in the day time.Peanut blooms from 6-7 o'clock.The maximum blooming period is at 6.00 A.M.(53.8%).The blooming period varies with green house and field. 5.The optimum blooming temperature is 22-24℃.(87.35%).No flower blooms below 17℃.and above 32℃. 6.In the field,peanut blooms best at the relative humidity of 86%-100%, being 97.56% of total flowers studied.The best humidity is 95%-100%,being 78.34% of total flowers. 7.When the interaction of temperature and humidity is considered,the temperature of 22-24.9℃,with the relative humidity of 95%-100% is usually fitted.(82,89% of total flowers studied). 8.The time required from starting to bloom to not blooming varies with environments.It is usually shorter in the field than it is in the green house. 9.The number of flowers which bloom differs greatly with environment for individual plant. 10.The order of blooming starts from low to top of the plant. 11.The blooming days are rather scattering,being between 36-96 days after the blooming of the first flowers(88.91% of total flowers).In these 60 days there is no much difference in the number of flowers that bloom.The maximum blooming date falls on the 59th day which is only 2.85% and the minimum date on the 63rd day is 0.85%.Pesults show that there is no tendency for the flower blooming at any concentrated period.

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明瞭花生在永安环境下的开花习性。2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植 Valaya(—1),玉林(α—1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.95°之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的复相关很显著。9.花生...

1.本试验乃在前福建省立农学院农艺试验场举行,其目的为欲明瞭花生在永安环境下的开花习性。2.试验分温室(无保温设备)与田间二环境,各植 Valaya(—1),玉林(α—1) 及凭祥三品种都来自前闽省农事试验场。3.在永安环境下,花生由播种至开花约需38.38±5.11日,由播种至开始开花所需日数的品种间、环境间都有显著的差异,在温室者(40.53±4.28)较在田间者(36.2±4.06)为长。4.花生花的开放都在白天,大多数集中在六点七点,占总观察花数98.00%,尤以六时开放最多达总观察花数53.80%。5.花生花在田间环境者以温度22°—24.95°之间开放最多,占总观察花数87.35%,在17℃以下32℃以上时没有一花开。6.花生花在田间环境者,花的开放大部集中在相对湿度86%至100%约占该环境观察花数的97.56%。7.就温湿度二者相互作用言时,花生花以在温度22°—24.9℃湿度95%至100%时开花最多,占总观察花数的82.89%。8.花生花的开花数目与温湿度没有显著的相关;温度与湿度相关显著为负相关。当相对湿度为常数时,温度与花生的开花数目有显著的正相关。温湿度与开花的复相关很显著。9.花生每株由开始开花至不再开花,其间经过的时间,因环境的不同而有差异。10.花生每株开花的数目,因环境的不同而有差异。11.花生花以在开放之第三十六日至九十六日开放最多,占总开花数88.914%;此六十日内逐日开花数差异尚少;最多为第五十九日,占2.658%;最少为第六十三日,占0.658%;由此可知花生花的开放,没有集中的趋势。12.花生植株花的开放顺序,系由下而上,下部最先开放,顺序而上顶端最后开放。

 
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