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anthropologists
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    Abstract This paper explains the main reasons why anthropology shows great interest in method of participant observation and that of comparative studies, and the advantages of integration of historical sciences into anthropology, then recounts the studies on history of the regional development in anthropology and introduces the construction of theoretical models adopted by anthropologists in the studies of the Chinese societies and cultures.
    本文先说明人类学特别强调参与观察与比较研究法的原因以及人类学与史学合流的好处,进而叙述人类学的区域发展史研究,介绍人类学家在研究中国社会文化时所用的理论范式的建构。
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    Professor Zhou Da - ming introduces the development of American anthropology, especially metropolitan anthropology and applied anthropology, the globalization and nativization in American anthropology circle, the research on the racial group relationship, American anthropologists' work.
    周大鸣教授介绍了美国人类学,尤其是都市人类学和应用人类学发展的现状,美国人类学界当前最关心的全球化与地方化、族群关系两个问题研究的状况,美国人类学家与社会工作和政府工作的情况;
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    He also compares the difference between Chinese and American anthropologists,and analyses the future of Chinese anthropology in the 21th century.
    并比较了中美两国人类学家的差异,分析了21世纪中国人类学发展的走向。
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    The reason why history and anthropology are combinde is the concern of anthropologists about history and the interest of historians in anthropology.
    历史学与人类学之所以相汇 ,一是人类学家对历史的关怀 ,二是历史学家对人类学的兴趣。
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    Its birth and development result from the efforts of anthropologists and the contribution of historians.
    历史人类学作为一门交叉学科的产生和发展 ,既有人类学家的努力 ,又有历史学家的贡献
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  “anthropologists”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Genetic Structure and Molecular Anthropology——An Interview with Anthropologists (40)
    遗传结构与分子人类学——人类学学者访谈录之四十
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    Profiles of Anthropologists(V)
    哈佛归来话人类学──人类学者访谈录之五
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    Profiles of Anthropologists(VI)
    人类学世纪坦言——人类学学者访谈录之六
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    Profiles of Anthropologists(VII) ——Initiative as the Key to Nativization of Anthropology
    创新:人类学本土化的关键——人类学学者访谈录之七
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    Profiles of Anthropologists (IV)
    跨文化研究与西部大开发──人类学学者访谈录之九
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  anthropologists
The high homogeneity of the mitochondrial pool suggests a strong founder effect, which agrees with the view of archeologists and anthropologists that the first migrant settlers were very few.
      
Anthropological theory can illuminate this debate, since cultural anthropologists grapple with a similar issue?-?the difference between emics and etics.
      
As an anthropology of intersubjectivity combining the teaching of the German philosophical anthropologists and G.H.
      
Existing Spanish studies echo the tendencies followed in other countries by anthropologists and sociologists.
      
Few anthropologists understand ethnicity as something that explains conflict in itself, and most perceive it as an aspect of social interaction rather than a set of cultural characteristics associated with a particular group.
      
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A fossil human mandible was discovered at Chenchiawo village in Lantian county, Shensi Province in 1963 and it was named provisionally Sinanthropus lantianensis(Woo, 1964). Further excavations were made in 1964.A fossil hominid skull was found at another site near Gongwangling village,east of the Lantian county seat.The fossil material con- sists of the frontal bone,large parts of the parietal bones,the right temporal bone,the basal parts of the nasal bones,large parts of the right and left maxillae with the...

A fossil human mandible was discovered at Chenchiawo village in Lantian county, Shensi Province in 1963 and it was named provisionally Sinanthropus lantianensis(Woo, 1964). Further excavations were made in 1964.A fossil hominid skull was found at another site near Gongwangling village,east of the Lantian county seat.The fossil material con- sists of the frontal bone,large parts of the parietal bones,the right temporal bone,the basal parts of the nasal bones,large parts of the right and left maxillae with the right second molar in situ,and the right third molar in distorted position.A fossil left up- per hominid molar found in the field at the Gongwangling site in May,1964 was iden- tical in morphology,size,colour,degree of wear with the right second molar in situ,and thus can be ascertained to belong to the left maxilla. A large amount of mammalian fossils was found with the hominid skull.According to Chow et al.(1965),a total of 25 mammalian species were recognized in the fauna which was considered to be of Early Middle Pleistocene age. The hominid skull is of light earthy red colour mixed with light grayish white colour. The posterior part of the parietal bones is dotted with small black spots.The material is highly fossilized. The skull cap is slightly distorted by compression.The central part of the outer sur- face of the frontal bone is markedly rugged in appearance.All the depressions have rather sharp edges,which probably indicate the corrosion process during fossilization.Ow- ing to pressure,the right orbit extends more forward than the left one and the lower margin of the left parietal bone is slightly more expanded outward than normal.But as a whole,the general morphology of the skull-cap is only slightly affected. The petrosal portion of the right temporal bone is fairly well preserved.It seems more closer to the temporal squama than normal,probably also due to pressure.The cochlea and the semi-circular canals within the pyramid can be clearly identified in the X-ray films. The anterior surfaces of the maxillae are also flattened by pressure.The right third molar is distorted in position though still connected to the alveolar process.The broken crowns and their roots of the right first premolar and the right first molar are still kept in their sockets. The coronal suture of the Lantian skull cap was already fused though it still can be clearly seen.The right second molar is worn to the second grade according to the stan- dard for modern Northern Chinese.According to both standards of modern man,it is about forty years of age.Since the suture closure and the wearing of the teeth of the fossil hominid is earlier and quicker than that of modern man,it is estimated that the Lantian hominid is over thirty years of age. The sex is difficult to identify.It seems to be a female individual judging from the smaller size of teeth(see Table 1 for measurements of the upper second and third molars),of the maxillae,the pyramid of the temporal bone and also the middle cranial fossa. The morphological features of the bones of the skull were described.The supraor- bital tori are very large and heavy,and form a continuous bar throughout the glabellar region.They have the same general character as in Sinanthropus of Choukoutien and Pithecanthropus of Java.However,contrary to the conditions in Sinanthropus,the tori are not separated from the squama by a distinct sulcus.The torus glabellaris projects somewhat more forward.The lateral parts of the tori extend even more sidewards than those in Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus.The postorbital constriction is also more pro- nounced. The orbits are rectangular in form.The roof of the orbit is very flat.There is no supraorbital foramen.The lacrimal fossa is absent. The forehead is very low and distinctly receding.There is indication of the presence of a sagittal crest though it cannot be clearly distinguished owing to corrosion of the external surface of the frontal bone.As in all of the skulls of Sinanthropus,there is a cross-like elevation where the coronal suture meets the sagittal suture. In accordance with the sharply receding forehead the bregma is situated almost ver- tically above the porion.The temporal lines rise to real ridges. The measurements of the sagittal arcs and chords of pars glabellaris and pars cere- bralis of the frontal bone were taken and their indices were computed.It is seen from Table 2 that the linear measurements of the glabellar region of the Lantian specimen are much larger than those in Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus,which indicate the massi- veness of this region.The chord-arc index of the cerebral region of the frontal of the Lantian skull approaches the upper limit of both Sinanthropus and Pithecanthropus.It shows the lowness of the forehead of the Lantian skull. The frontal sinus is missing.The supraorbitals are solid as illustrated in the skiagram on Plate Ⅳ. On the interior surface of the frontal bone,the crista frontalis is preserved in the form of a wide and fairly high elevation.This is a distinct human characteristic,for it is missing in anthropoids. The parietal bone is almost rectangular.The frontal angle or angle at the bregma is almost a right angle.The mid-sagittal arc is shorter than that of the frontal bone. The long axis of the pyramid of the temporal bone has an intermediate direction bet- ween that of modern ape and modern man.The pyramid itself is slender as that of modern female.The anterior and posterior surfaces slope more abruptly than those of modern man. One distinct peculiarity of the Lantian skull is the extraordinary thickness of the cranial wall.Measurements of the thickness at different locations are given in Table 4. It is seen that it has the greatest thickness among the pithecanthropines.The thickness is chiefly due to the enlargement of the external and internal tables and not to the di- plo■ of the cranial bones. The two nasal bones form an angle of about 130°.The nasofrontal suture is com- pletely preserved.This suture,together with the frontomaxillar suture,takes an almost horizontal course.The nasal bones are distinctly wider and shorter than those of mo- dern man. The maxilla is small in size.Its remarkable feature is the marked alveolar progna- thism.The anterior surface of the maxilla forms almost a right angle with the floor of the nasal cavity.A small but distinct spina nasalis anterior is present.This is also a distinct human character.The lateral region of the right maxilla shows the fairly marked jugum alveolare of the canine.Lateral to the jugum is a sulcus-like depression. The crown of the upper second molar is rectangular in shape.The paracone extends more antero-buccally and thus forms a fairly marked proximal buccal angle.The upper third molar has similar features as the second,but has more smaller crown length and relatively greater width.The occlusal surface of the crown of the third molar is nearly triangular in shape. As not only the skull cap and the right temporal but also parts of the facial skele- ton were preserved,a reconstruction of the skull was possible.The reconstructed skull has a length of 189 mm,breadth,149 mm and auricular height,87 mm.Its height is not only smaller than that of the Sinanthropus skull but also than those of Pithecanthropus from both Trinil and Djetis beds. The cranial capacity of the reconstructed skull is computed according to Pearson's for- mula.It is 778 cc.As the two parietals are largely preserved,the biparietal vaults were reconstructed and measured to be 417.6 cc.According to the proportion of the total endocast volume to the biparietal endocast volume in early hominids(Tobias,1964),we get the total endocast volume of 775—783 cc for the Lantian skull.The values obtained from both methods are remarkably close.Thus the cranial capacity of the Lantian speci- men is estimated to be 780 cc. From the main features shown by the specimen described above,such as the massive supraorbital ridges and the pronounced postorbital constriction,the very lowness of the frontal squama and the cranial height,the extraordinary thickness of the cranial wall,and the rather small cranial capacity,we can ascertain that the Lantian skull is more primitive than the Sinanthropus of Choukoutien and the Pithecanthropus from the Trinil beds of Java.It seems morphologically to be more closer to the Pithecanthropus robustus from the Djetis beds of Java.Thus the Lantian specimen represents one of the earliest forms of the pithecanthropines. It has been considered by many anthropologists and taxonomists that all the pithe- canthropine forms are of the same species,Homo erectus.This concept is obviously more logical and is gaining ground.Accordingly,the name Sinanthropus lantianensis represent- ed by the Lantian mandible found in 1963 should be changed to Homo erectus lantian- ensis.As the Lantian skull and mandible are of similar pattern and of the same geolo- gical age of Middle Pleistocene,it is suggested that they should belong to the same sub- species.However,for the expedience of reference to the older literatures,it is suggested to retain the old nomenclature in square brackets after the generic name.Thus,the Lantian specimen has the nomenclature as Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus lantianensis.Like- wise,Sinanthropus pekinensis should be changed to Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus pekinensis; Pithecanthropus erectus,to Homo[Pithecanthropus]erectus erectus;and Atlanthropus mau- ritanicus,to Homo[Atlanthropus]erectus maurita

1.蓝田公王岭发现的猿人头骨化石材料,计有完整的额骨,顶骨的大部分,右侧颞骨的大部分,左鼻骨的大部分和右鼻骨的鼻根部,右上颌骨的体部和额突部,以及右上第二、三臼齿和左上第二臼齿。2.头盖骨的骨缝已经愈合,上第二臼齿的磨耗已达二度,估计蓝田猿人的年龄大约是三十多岁。3.由牙齿、上颌骨、颞骨锥体和颅中窝等较为细小来判断,蓝田猿人可能是女性。4.额骨前部的眶上圆枕硕大粗壮,在眼眶上方几形成一直条横行的骨嵴。圆枕的两侧端明显向外侧延展,圆枕之后明显缩窄。眼眶约呈方形,眶顶很平,没有眶上孔和泪腺窝。额骨的鳞部明显后斜,颞线隆起成为明显的骨嵴。眶上圆枕与额鳞之间没有明显的宽沟相隔。没有额窦。额骨内面的正中有宽阔而较高的额嵴。测量数值表明眉间部粗壮,额骨脑部的弧度极小,额骨极为宽阔。5.顶骨约成长方形,在正中矢状面上,顶骨短于额骨。6.颞骨锥体长轴的方向大约介于现代猿与现代人之间,与北京猿人相似。锥体较为细致,其形状和大小与现代人的女性较为接近。锥体的前后面倾斜度较大,上绿较锐,与现代人相近。7.蓝田猿人头骨的明显特点之一是其骨壁极厚,接近甚至超过北京猿人和爪哇猿人头骨相当部分厚度的上限。8.两鼻骨在根部相交约成130°角...

1.蓝田公王岭发现的猿人头骨化石材料,计有完整的额骨,顶骨的大部分,右侧颞骨的大部分,左鼻骨的大部分和右鼻骨的鼻根部,右上颌骨的体部和额突部,以及右上第二、三臼齿和左上第二臼齿。2.头盖骨的骨缝已经愈合,上第二臼齿的磨耗已达二度,估计蓝田猿人的年龄大约是三十多岁。3.由牙齿、上颌骨、颞骨锥体和颅中窝等较为细小来判断,蓝田猿人可能是女性。4.额骨前部的眶上圆枕硕大粗壮,在眼眶上方几形成一直条横行的骨嵴。圆枕的两侧端明显向外侧延展,圆枕之后明显缩窄。眼眶约呈方形,眶顶很平,没有眶上孔和泪腺窝。额骨的鳞部明显后斜,颞线隆起成为明显的骨嵴。眶上圆枕与额鳞之间没有明显的宽沟相隔。没有额窦。额骨内面的正中有宽阔而较高的额嵴。测量数值表明眉间部粗壮,额骨脑部的弧度极小,额骨极为宽阔。5.顶骨约成长方形,在正中矢状面上,顶骨短于额骨。6.颞骨锥体长轴的方向大约介于现代猿与现代人之间,与北京猿人相似。锥体较为细致,其形状和大小与现代人的女性较为接近。锥体的前后面倾斜度较大,上绿较锐,与现代人相近。7.蓝田猿人头骨的明显特点之一是其骨壁极厚,接近甚至超过北京猿人和爪哇猿人头骨相当部分厚度的上限。8.两鼻骨在根部相交约成130°角。鼻额缝与额上颌缝互相连续,约在水平位。鼻骨宽度远大于现代人,鼻骨长度明显比现代人为短。9.上颌骨及其附连的臼齿较为细致。上颌骨呈明显的齿槽凸颌。上颌骨前面与鼻腔底约成直角,两者之间有明确的分界。有小而明显的鼻前棘。右上颌骨外侧面的内侧缘有相当明显隆起的犬齿齿槽轭,在该轭与上颌骨颧突之间有从上向下延伸的沟状低凹。上第二臼齿齿冠呈长方形,前尖较为向前外方突出,有较明显的近侧颊角。上第三臼齿的形态大体与第二臼齿相似,但其齿冠长度较小,其相对宽度更大,齿冠咬合面近乎三角形。10.参考北京猿人和爪哇粗健猿人的复原头骨,进行了蓝田猿人头骨的复原。11.根据复原头骨颅内的长、宽和高计算了蓝田猿人的脑量。又根据复原的顶骨,依照比例,计算了脑量。两种方法所得的结果极为接近,估计其脑量大约为780c.c.。12.从眶上圆枕的形态和圆枕后的明显缩窄,额鳞的非常低平,头骨壁极厚,头骨高度很小,脑量很小等一系列特征,明显表示蓝田猿人的形态比北京猿人和爪哇猿人为原始,而大致与最早的爪哇粗健猿人相近,两者的地层层位也大致相当。13.为了符合人类学上的新的分类系统,建议蓝田猿人的学名为 Homo[Sinanthropus]erectus lantianensis,即把蓝田猿人和所有其他的猿人都归入直立人种;又为了便于与过去的文献资料相对照,建议把原先的属名放在新的属名之后的方括弧内,在过一定时期之后,再取消方括弧内的旧属名。

Contextual analysis suggested by Brainerd and Robinson and developed by Dempsey and Baumhoft was used to establish chronological sequence of six faunas in North China. The deduced chronological order is: Dingcun (1), Xujiayao (2), Saraosol (3), Siyu (4), Xiao-nanhai (5) and Shangdingtong (6). This order might be acceptable for most anthropologists and archaeologists, and it goes along with the C14 and uranium series dating results. The Brainerd-Robinson method might be a sensitive technique for establishing...

Contextual analysis suggested by Brainerd and Robinson and developed by Dempsey and Baumhoft was used to establish chronological sequence of six faunas in North China. The deduced chronological order is: Dingcun (1), Xujiayao (2), Saraosol (3), Siyu (4), Xiao-nanhai (5) and Shangdingtong (6). This order might be acceptable for most anthropologists and archaeologists, and it goes along with the C14 and uranium series dating results. The Brainerd-Robinson method might be a sensitive technique for establishing fauna sequence.

本文尝试用Brainerd-Robinson方法分析华北地区六个主要动物群相对年代的先后,讨论了方法的原理及所采用的判断标准。所得顺序为丁村、许家窑、萨拉乌苏、峙峪、小南海和山顶洞,与绝对年龄数据和旧石器考古工作者的一般认识相符。这表明在一定的条件下,用B-R方法来分析动物群相对年代的先后是可行的。

Japanese racial elements are supposed to have been immigrated through almost all possible "roads" from surrounding seas. Japanese anthropologists have consistently paid attention to the surrounding regions, especially the continent of Asia, in seeking the "root" of Japanese people.

本研究以北亚、东亚、东南亚和大洋洲一大片区域为背景探索日本人的起源和亲缘关系。结果显示日本旧石器时代港川人、绳文时代和现代人与大约同时期的华南居民有最接近的亲缘关系;从绳文时代到现代日本人的时代变化具有与后者(以及华北居民)相同的趋势。

 
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