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of soil
相关语句
  土壤分类
     Design of soil classification expert system
     土壤分类专家系统设计
短句来源
     INTEGRATED NUMERICAL METHODS OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION
     土壤分类中的综合数值方法
短句来源
     Establishment and Application of Reference Database of Soil Classification
     土壤分类参比数据库的建立和应用
短句来源
     The system realizes the inquire, retrieve and statistical analysis of soil fertility and classify information.
     系统实现了土壤肥力数据、土壤分类信息等的查询、检索、属性数据统计分析、专题图制作、输出及更新功能。
短句来源
     Approximate-Correlation Study of Soil Types in Jiangxi Province Between China's Soil Taxonomic Classification System (1978) and the FAO-UNESCO Revised Legend of the World Soil Map (1990)
     江西1978土壤分类系统与FAO1990土壤分类系统的衔接研究
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  “of soil”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Study on Nitrogen Supply of Soil after Long-term Different Fertilizing Experiments
     长期不同施肥土壤供氮特性研究
短句来源
     Study of Soil Environmental Geochemical Baseline in Panzhihua Region
     攀枝花地区土壤环境地球化学基线研究
短句来源
     Neural Network Models of Soil Erosion and Runoff in Slope and System Dynamics Model of Sediment Field in a Watershed
     坡面产流产沙神经网络模型与流域产沙系统动力学模型研究
短句来源
     Study on the Law and Models of Soil Erosion in Red Soil Watershed
     红壤小流域土壤侵蚀规律与模型研究
短句来源
     Study on the Law of Soil and Water Losses and Control Measures in Red Soil Watershed
     红壤小流域水土流失规律及防治措施的研究
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  相似匹配句对
     MANGROVE AND IT'S SOIL
     红树林及其土壤
短句来源
     Soil Age
     土壤的年龄
短句来源
     Liquid Limit of Soil
     浅谈土的液限
短句来源
     Analysis of Lewisite in Soil
     土壤基质中路易氏剂的测定方法
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  of soil
Effect of soil water changes on photosynthetic characteristics of Taxodium distichum seedlings in the hydro-fluctuation belt of
      
For all 4 studied plantation types, the majority of the roots were distributed in the top 40 cm of soil, e.g., 97.88% for P.
      
The root biomass fractions distributed in the top 20 cm of soil were 77.13% for P.
      
Rapid changes of soil properties following Caragana korshinski plantations in the hilly-gully Loess Plateau
      
korshinski plantation can accelerate the increase of soil urea activity and invertase activity, respectively, especially in the upper layer.
      
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A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed...

A.The Soils Since the goological formation of this mountainous area is quite uniform,a vertical distribution of soils is obviously observed. At the top of the mountain with an elevation of 8,500 feet,the podzolic soil is found. The process of podzolization is clearly shown by the translocation of clays,organic matter, and active aluminum from an upper to lower layer.The gray brown podzolic soil is distributed in areas ranging from 7,000 to 8,500 feet in elevation.It is developed under forest and has a surface covering of leaf litter and a surface soil with high content of organic matter.In places at an elevatin from 3,900 to 7,000 feet the yellow podzolic soil is dominant.At an elevation below 3,000 foot the red podzolic soil and the sketetal soil are fonnd. The analytical data of the soils of this area may be summarized as follows: 1.pH values of the soils:In the whole area,since the parent rock (gneiss) is poor in basic constituents,soils are all acid in reaction.The pH of the different horizons of the soils ranges from 4.0 to 5.5.The A_0 and A_1 horizons are usually less acid than B horizon,the A and B horizons are much more acid than the parent rock.This shows the leaching process of the soils under such a humid atmosphere. 2.Organic Matter of the soils:The organic matter content of the soils in this area is greatlg influenced by the kind of the vegetation cover.At an elevation of 8,500 feet, the soil developed under forest has 38.92% of organic matter in the A_1,while that under grass has only 11.08% of organic matter in the corresponding horizon.However as the vegetation cover is constant,the dopth of the A_1 and its organic matter content are evidently affected by the elevation.At an elevation of 3,000 feet,the A_1 horizon of the red podzolic soil is only 1 cm.in depth,and it has 3.37% of organic matter.At an elevation of 8,500 feet,howerver,the A_1 horizon of the podzolic soil is 7 cm.in depth, and it has 11.08% of organic matter.In addition,deposition of organic matter in the B horizon is clearly found in the podzolic soil,but it has not been seen in soils found at lower elevation. 3.Active aluminum of the soils:All the soils in this area are high in active aluminum. They contain from 20 to 16 p.p.m.of active aluminum.The content of active aluminum in the different horizons of the same profile has a very close relationship with the pH values of the corresponding horizon.The less acid the reaction the smaller is the amount of acitve aluminum.The active aluminum of the soil is usually higher in amount than that of the parent rock from which the soil is derived. 4.Available calcium magnesium,and potassium of the soils:All the soils are general- ly low in available calcium,magnesium,and potassium.The comparatively high content of these elements in the A horizon is derived from the leaves of the vegetation which are grown on that soil. 5.Available phosphorus of the soils:All the soils of this area are low in available phosphorus. 6.Available nitrate:All soils in this area are very low in nitrate. B.The Vegetation 1.The plants growing on soils of this area are most calcifuge species which are acid- loving (Vaughan and Wishe,1937).As far as the chemical analysis of the soil is concer- ned,those species may be assumed as not only acid-loving,buy also active aluminum- loving (Hutchinson,1943). 2.The distribution of the calcifuge plants In this area is apparently affected by the local climate in terms of elevation.Some of them (temperate plants) are confined to high elevation,others(tropical plants) being limited to low elevation,Two groups of the plants may be given as follows.Many of them are of the same species as those found in southwestern China (Hou,1944). (a) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevations from 7,000 to 8,500 foot (temperate plants): Pteridophyta: Destaedtia Scabra (Wall.) Moore Diranopteris linearis Under. Hicrioptris glauea Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lidsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pyphylla (Kunze) Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym Pteris aspericaulis Wall. Flowering Plants: Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium refersceda HK. Vaccinium serrasum Wight (b) Plants mainly ocurring in areas at elevation from 1,000 to 3,000 feet (tropical plants): Pteridophyta: Adiantum philippense L. Blechnum orientale L. Aglaoorpha coronaus Copel Lycopodium cernum L. Nephrolepsis cordifolia Presl Tectaria spp. Polypodium ucidum Roxb. Flowering plants: Oxyspora paniculate DC. Themeda arundinacea Ridl.

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物...

1945年10月中旬,作者留印三月另一周,曾作三次野外调查,计包括印缅边区、恒河平原及喜马拉雅山东南麓等三区,茲先将大吉岭区调查结果,草成此文。调查区域大吉岭位于喜马拉雅山东南麓,在我国西藏边境,全区是山地,海拔自1000到9000尺不等,主为酸性的片麻岩地层,在拔海6500尺地点,年平均气温为56.3℉.,年雨量为122寸。土壤灰壤——灰棕壤组合:在拔海8500尺左右的山顶,灰壤见于草地上,而灰棕壤则发育在森林之下。灰棕壤——灰化黄壤组合:在拔海7000—8000尺地带,森林下仍是灰棕壤,而草地上则为灰化黄壤。灰化黄壤——粗骨土组合:在拔海1000—3000尺地带,片麻岩生成灰化红壤,酸性砂岩生成砾质土。全区土壤特征可归纳如下: (1)土壤 pH 值:全区因土壤母质为酸性片麻岩,各类土壤剖面亦为酸性反应;pH 值约自4.0至5.5。A_1层之 pH 值恒较 B 层为大,而土壤剖面内之 A 层及 B 层均较母岩之酸度为高。 (2)土壤有机质:从土壤有机质分析结果观之,显示植物种类对于土壤有机质之含量高低,有密切的关系,在拔海8500尺之地带,发育于森林下的灰棕壤,表土含有机质38.92%,而同处草类和蕨类植物发育下的灰壤的表土,仅含有机质11.08%,但在相同的植物环境下,拔海高度或局部气候,也是支配土壤有机质含量的重要因素,例如在拔海3000尺地带,长有草类的灰化红壤,仅有极薄之有机质层,该层有机质含量为3.37%,而在拔海8500尺地带,长有草类的灰壤,则有较厚层有机质,其含量为11.08%。 (3)可溶性铝质:全区土壤含有高量可溶性铝,大约自20至160 p.p.m.,其含量与 pH 值高低相关,土壤 pH 值愈酸,可溶性铝含量就愈高。 (4)可溶性钙镁及钾质:全区土壤之可溶性钙,镁及钾等之含量均较低,但就同一土壤剖面而言,富于有机质的 A。或 A_1层的钙镁和钾质,常较 B 层为高,此点显示此等成份是来自植物遗体,亦即指示土壤中有机质与肥力之关系。 (5)全区土壤有效磷含量均甚低。 (6)全区土壤硝酸态氮之含量均极低,并有下淋现象。植物本文所论植物,仅以作者所采集而经各专家鉴定为限,其中以蕨类植物为主。本区的土壤都是酸性反应,所见的植物是以嫌钙性者为主,这些嫌钙性植物与拔海高度的关系很显著,兹将常见的植物种类,叙述如下: (一)主分布于拔海7000—8500尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物 Dennstaedtia scabra(Wall.)Moore Dicranopteris linearis Under. Hicriopteris glauca Under. Hymenophyllum crispatum Wall. Hymenophyllum exsertum Wall. Lindsaya cultrata Sw. Lycopodium clavatum L. Plagiogyria pycniphylla(Kunze)Mett. Pteridium aquilinum Wightianum Trym. Pteris aspericaulis Wall.种子植物 Castanopsis tribuloides A.DC. Lindera pulcherrima Bth. Osbeckia crinata Bth. Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Rhododendron grande Wight Pieris formosana D.Don Vaccinium referesceda HK. Vaccinium Serrasm Wight(二)主分布于1000—3000尺地带的植物: 蕨类植物Adiantum philippense L.Blechnum orientale L.Aglaomorpha coron(?)us copelLycopodium cernuum L.Nephrolepsis cordifolia PresslTectaria spp.Polypodium lucidum Roxb.种子植物Oxysoira paniculata DC.Themedra arundinacea Ridl.

Since the year 1886, the Dupuit-Forchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas...

Since the year 1886, the Dupuit-Forchheimer theory and formulas for gravityflows toward wells and galleries have been broadly used in all nations of theworld. In these formulas, assumptions are made for underground flows fromfarther distances in horizontal directions at a constant rate toward wells andgalleries. According to the author's analysis, these assumptions are not consistentwith the actual conditions of flow, hence the formulas obtained therefrom are notrational, and the employment of these formulas to investigate the general effectof surface drop or well diametre upon yield is devoid of rational foundations. According to the author's analysis, the flows toward wells or galleries areactually supplied vertically by draining the stored water above the free surface inthe course of its descending and enlarging. As the drainage of gravity water fromthe pores of soil particles in order to reduce the water content to that of filmshells takes one to two days, as the capillary water columns are interconnectedand mutually supplied sidewise, this vertical supply of water may maintain quite along time, yet the flow may not be absolutely steady. As regards vertical supply of water with unsteady regimen, equations of freesurface for flow pattern near galleries are deduced, corresponding to the Boussinesqpartial differential equation. Besides, the author has derived simplified equationsfor computing flows into wells and galleries. The latter, in comparison with theDupuit-Forchheimer formulas, gives a higher yield, while the free surface curve isreasonably tangent to the horizontal water table at a point which moves fartheraway as time goes on. J. Kozeny first pointed out the phenomenon that the water depth in the groundon the wall will not be further lowered when it reaches one half of the depthbefore pumping. The author hereby proposes a theoretical proof of it on the basisof theorem of least work. Based upon these theories, formulas are proposed for maximum possible yieldof wells and galleries dug to horizontal impervious strata, to be used in prelimi-nary estimations for hydro-geological workers.

1886年以来,杜布义-福熙罕默(Dupuit-Forchheimer)的井流及沟流的理论与计算用公式被世界各国广泛地应用着。公式假设地下水从远处沿着水平方向以定率流向井内或沟内,按作者分析这种假设并不符合实际情况,因之所得公式也不合理,用这些公式来推论水位降落或井径对於出水率的影响也没有合理的凭据。作者推论,井流或沟流的水实际上是从水面线以上,在其降落并扩大的过程中,排除了存积的水,沿着直垂方向所供应着的。因为从土壤颗粒的空隙间排除重力水,使减为薄膜水,每需时一两天,而水面上的毛细管水又是横向贯通并互相接济着,所以垂直供水可以维持很久,而潜流也决不会绝对稳定。根据这垂直供水的不定汉条件引出了沟流的水面线公式,结果符合蒲薪奈斯克的偏微分方程式。另外,作者又拟具了简化的井流及沟流计算用公式。这些公式和杜氏-福氏公式比较,所得出水率较大,而水面线则合理地切於静水线,切点随着时程向远处移动。柯臣尼(J.Kozeny)最早指出井边地内水深不会低於静水深一半的现象,本文中作者根据最小工作定律试拟了理论的证明以支持之。根据这些理论,引出了从静水中抽水时井流、沟流最大可能出水率的公式,以供水文地质工作者初步估算之用。

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement...

The investigation of the properties of loess constitutes a highly specialized branch of soil engineering. The design and construction of foundations and earthwork in this soil involve many uncertainties that have not been solved. Among all uncertainties the following are considered the most important items:(1) the changes of bearing capacities caused by variations in the strength of the cohesive bond due to changes in its moisture content, and(2) the methods of ascertaining the amount of its settlement under the combined action of foundation loads and of percolating water.In order to prevent foundations against settlement the "Provisional Code for the Design of Natural Foundations" gives a set of rules of precautions for designers to observe, which include the prevention of water from getting into the foundations, artificial strengthening of the soil and the designing of superstructures in such a way that they will adjust themselves to settlement. Before the adoption of any of such precautions could be decided, the accuracy in evaluating the amount of possible settlement of the soil is a problem of prime importance, which unfortunately cannot be satisfactorily obtained.This paper attempts to give some predominent characteristics of loess, the points of contradiction between the assumptions made in the old designing code and the results derived from actual work, a comparison of the salient features of the old code with the new code of ordinance of the U. S. S. R., 1955, and some suggestions regarding further developments of this branch of soil engineering. Several cases of actual construction work in loess in recent years are also cited which, owing to our incomplete knowledge of the soils, nature, have inevitably either caused unnecessary expenses to the works, or brought about results detrimental to the stability of structures.In this branch of soil engineering have, therefore, many difficulties yet to be contended with. It is hoped that this paper could be of some reference value to research engineers in this line and the knowledge of loess be further developed in view of the increasing pressure of necessity in our present construction work.

黄土工程特性的研究,是目前土壤力学一个重要部門。有关黄土区的地基与土工工作、我們經常根据“天然地基設計暫行規范”上条文来設計,但对於基土沉陷量的估計,往往不易准确,而造成工程上的困难与事故。这是現时没有得到解决的問題。本文闡述黄土的若干特性,旧規范条文上的缺点,苏联1955年批准的“建筑法規”内改善黄土部分条文的意义,以及目前国内研究与發展的方向。其中主要說明黄土由於荷載及含水量兩項的綜合影响对其沉陷性能上所發生的变化,以及估計这項变化较合理的方法,以期在研究工作上作进一步的認識。

 
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