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  urbanization
The multiform investments on eco-environment and urbanization development in China will benefit vegetation restoration.
      
Because of the overexploitation, urbanization, environment pollution, plant diseases, and insect pests, the wild populations and individuals of C.
      
According to the analysis of land cover changes in different ranges of elevation, the greatest change below 100 m was the process of urbanization.
      
In the plain area, the land cover change occurred as the result of urbanization.
      
Age-, sex-, and biotope-related changes associated with urbanization have been revealed in the correlation of characteristics.
      
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Ecological theory has been considered as one of the scientific bases for solving the major social problems of the day looming large over the world. Among the major social problems, food, energy source, human population, and natural resources required in the industrial construction and its relevant environment are all concerned directly or indirectly with social organization, economic situation, and natural environment on which man relies. The problem how to coordinate the environments of urban areas and their...

Ecological theory has been considered as one of the scientific bases for solving the major social problems of the day looming large over the world. Among the major social problems, food, energy source, human population, and natural resources required in the industrial construction and its relevant environment are all concerned directly or indirectly with social organization, economic situation, and natural environment on which man relies. The problem how to coordinate the environments of urban areas and their surroundings is now more prominent with the rapid growth of urbanization in recent years. The social, economic and natural systems are different in their characters and have their own structures, functions and developmental rules, but the existence and devlo-pment of each of them are conditioned by the structures and functions of the others, so it is obvious that the above complex problems can be regarded as neither social nor economic ones separately, but as ones of the social-economic -natural complex ecosystem. This complex system has become a form commonly present in man's economic society.It should be a common task for all of sociologists, economists, ecologists, urban planners, managers and policy makers,and also a key to the major social problems of the day to study the crisscross relationships between these subsyst-ems; the process of changes in the materials, energy and information between them; the tendency of their past, present and future succession; and the dynamic relationships between their benefit, risk and opportunity.This paper deals with the characteristics of this complex ecosystem, and the crisscross relationships between these subsystems, such as the cycling of materials in the soil-plant-atmosphere subsystem; the coordination of the relationships between social infrastructure-economic development-environmetal quality, the proportion in which agriculture, industry and commerce are developed; the equilibrium system of production, processing, and consumption of substances; and the harmonization and allocation of the quantity of wastes recovered, transformed and regenerated. This paper also provides an index for measurement of the complex ecosystem. It is very important that the index must reflect a holological approach, in other words, it must be aimed at integrating the relationships between the components of the complex system rather than describing the components of that system in detail. Emphasis must be put on exploration not only of the growth of the quantity in the system but also of its function and developmental tendency. Therefore, the shackles of the traditional causalities and of the traditional methods for making monoobjective policy must be smashed to analyse multiobjective and multiattribute policies which have been made. The objective set of the complex ecosystem is composed of the indexes of the three subsystems as follows.1 ) Whether the normal circulation and regenerative function of materials can be maintained in the natural subsystem.2 ) Whether the desired economic benefits can be achieved in the economic subsystem.3 ) Whether the social subsystem has higher efficiency aud is accessible to the people.In addition, the decision procedures are discussed and some of the current cases in China are provided in this paper.

当代若干重大社会问题,都直接或间接关系到社会体制、经济发展状况以及人类赖以生存的自然环境。社会、经济和自然是三个不同性质的系统,但其各自的生存和发展都受其它系统结构、功能的制约,必须当成一个复合系统来考虑,我们称其为社会-经济-自然复合生态系统。本文分析了该复合系统的生态特征,提出了衡量该复合系统的三个指标:(1)自然系统的合理性;(2)经济系统的利润;(3)社会系统的效益。指出复合生态系统的研究是一个多目标决策过程,应在经济生态学原则的指导下拟定具体的社会目标,经济目标和生态目标,使系统的综合效益最高,风险最小,存活机会最大。文中还提出了一些复合生态系统的研究方向和具体决策步骤。最后给出了三个复合系统的事例。

At present, commodity production is developing rapidly in rural areas of the country.This has caused great changes in the composition of population: more and more surplus labour forces have engaged in different types of specialized households, and a lot of peasants are doing part-time jobs in various industrial plants.with the development of production, the living conditions of peasants will be improved gradually.In accordance with the new situation and requirements, a new market town planning of Fada Commune...

At present, commodity production is developing rapidly in rural areas of the country.This has caused great changes in the composition of population: more and more surplus labour forces have engaged in different types of specialized households, and a lot of peasants are doing part-time jobs in various industrial plants.with the development of production, the living conditions of peasants will be improved gradually.In accordance with the new situation and requirements, a new market town planning of Fada Commune has been made, Its layout, quality and scale of future development and standards of various kinds of buildings have been determined.This work has thrown a new light on the process of urbanization of rural towns of this country.

目前全国各地农村商品生产有了较大的发展,从而引起了人口结构的变化,农村剩余劳动力转变为各种类型的专业户和亦工亦农人口.随着生产的发展,农民的生活条件也将得到改善.本文就是根据农村新形势的需要,编制了发达公社集镇规划.在确定集镇的性质、规模、各类建筑及其用地标准和规划布局时,着重探讨了集镇城市化问题,也就是我国农村集锁向小城市发展的道路问题.

Shanghai is China's largest economic centre and port city with the spatial advantage for economic development.Ocean frontage, estuary location on the Changjiang River, extensive hinterland and bordering Huangpu Jiang as link best describe the spatial factors of Shanghai's geographical location. The aggregate effect of these spatial factors account for the locational superiority of Shanghai over other cities of China.Shanghai is located in the plain of the Changjiang Delta, contiguous to the Tai Hu (Lake) Basin,...

Shanghai is China's largest economic centre and port city with the spatial advantage for economic development.Ocean frontage, estuary location on the Changjiang River, extensive hinterland and bordering Huangpu Jiang as link best describe the spatial factors of Shanghai's geographical location. The aggregate effect of these spatial factors account for the locational superiority of Shanghai over other cities of China.Shanghai is located in the plain of the Changjiang Delta, contiguous to the Tai Hu (Lake) Basin, the heart of the Delta. It has long maintained close economic ties with other parts of the deltaic region. Before its designation as a treaty port in 1842, Shanghai was merely one of the towns of urban agglomeration in the Delta and acted as the outer harbour of Suzhou,At the turn of this century, Shanghai emerged as the largest city and economic centre of China, Statistics about the birth places of the inhabitants of Shanghai or their ancestors may demonstrate the economic ties between Shanghai and the above-mentioned areas,On the eve of liberation, inhabitants born in Jiangsu Province accounted for 39% of Shanghai's population,and those born in Zhejiang Province, 19%. Before liberation, capitalists of Jiangsu and Zhe-jiang Provinces either invested much of their capital in enterprises in Shanghai or divert a part of their capital earned in Shanghai to develop the economy of their home towns. It is evident that the capital and labour force exported from Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces have substantially contributed to the growth of Shanghai's economy.As the basic factor, the predominance of spatial location stimulates the economic development and urbanization of Shanghai, The urbanization progress has been developed rapidly since liberation,Before 1958,Shanghai was a solitary city without a regional urban system. The limited urban area was very much restricted for economic growth. In that year, ten neibouring counties of Jiangsu Province were incorporated into the municipality of Shanghai. Sinca then, an urban system with a hierarch of five levels has taken shape. Namely, the city proper, suburban industrial districts, outer-suburban satellite towns, county seats and towns directly under the counties, and state-farms.Before liberation, both Chinese and foreign capitalists endeavoured to make use of the spatial advantage of Shanghai to gain high profits. As a result of uncontrolled development, the spatial arrangement of central city was chaotic and crammed. Due to the aftermath of the long-standing urban policies, such as "construction first, livelihood second" and "consturction wherever there's a room" , the overall congestion and spatial confusion have not been fundamentally relieved. Intensive space utilization of the central city is manifasted in the following aspects. 1 , overpopulation. 2 , overgrowth of industrial enterprises. 3, shortage of per capita living space. In view of the fact that the coefficient of space utilization of the central city is too high and the use of urban space has already reached saturation, construction and renewal of the central city should be based on the policies of spatial decentralization of factories and population, readgusting the spatial distribution of enterprises, gradual increase of space to meet the needs of livelihood and production, amelioration of environment quality, and striving to reestablish a harmonic relationship between man and environment in the city

本文着重于空间分析阐述上海市经济发展、城镇化和今后发展方向。“背靠陆地、面向海洋、依临长江、内怀黄浦”是对上海市空间优势的总结。上海城镇化过程发展很快,已经形成了由中心城市、近郊工业区、远郊卫星城镇、县城或县属镇、乡所在地或农场集镇五个等级的城镇空间结构。开发外围空间,增加人口和经济的离心倾向是上海今后主要的发展方向。

 
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