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Unimproving Extension and the Structure of Extremals in Control of the Credit
      
The study of optimal credit policy of a developing enterprise was continued with the aim of establishing and analyzing the finite formulas for the final boundary problem of the maximum-principle procedure.
      
A radically new synthetic method, called the diamond chemical crystallization from gas phase, is described; the credit of its development is due to Russian researchers.
      
The problems of maximization of profit of the owner of the upgraded network who leases channels are solved for limited capital investments and for the case of drawing up a credit, and the optimal amount of credit is determined.
      
Educational credit in Russia: Problems and prospects
      
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Industrial production in the US started to decline in August 1981- by 4.8% in four consecutive months. Drops were also registered in other major indexes. The sudden decline and complex circumstances surrounding it raise new problems. This article contains a preliminary exploration in the following problems: The historical background to the decline in production and its complex circumstances; the nature of the decline (apparently an interim crisis); the relation between interim crises and crises in the currency...

Industrial production in the US started to decline in August 1981- by 4.8% in four consecutive months. Drops were also registered in other major indexes. The sudden decline and complex circumstances surrounding it raise new problems. This article contains a preliminary exploration in the following problems: The historical background to the decline in production and its complex circumstances; the nature of the decline (apparently an interim crisis); the relation between interim crises and crises in the currency and credit systems (especially high prices and high interest rates); and prospects for the future.

英国工业生产于1981年8月开始下降,连续五个月共下降了6.9%,其他一些重要指标也下降了。下降似乎突然,而且情况复杂,有一些新问题。在这里我们试就以下几个问题进行初步探索:生产下降和复杂情况是在什么历史条件下出现的;生产下降是什么性质(看来是中间性危机);中间性危机与货币信用制度危机(特别是高物价、高利率)是什么关系。并由此展望前景。

The problems currently facing the economy of the United States are both serious and complicated. The historical circumstances which give rise to these problems (namely sharpening crises within the capitalist system and the slow growth of Western economies) are not simple repetitions of the past, but rather mark the start of a new stage, hence some special characteristics. Languid economic growth is caused by deterioration in basic factors. The laws governing economic crises and business cycles are still at work,...

The problems currently facing the economy of the United States are both serious and complicated. The historical circumstances which give rise to these problems (namely sharpening crises within the capitalist system and the slow growth of Western economies) are not simple repetitions of the past, but rather mark the start of a new stage, hence some special characteristics. Languid economic growth is caused by deterioration in basic factors. The laws governing economic crises and business cycles are still at work, but are sometimes upset by certain non-cyclical factors. It is therefore necessary to observe carefully the inner links and make a clear distinction between cyclical and non-cyclical upward or downward trends. The sharpening crisis confronting the monetary credit system together with soaring prices and high interest rates pose a grave problem. Growing US military spending is adversely affecting its economy in more ways than one. High unemployment rates will be the number one economic and social problem plaguing the US and other Western countries in the years to come. However, the more likely possibility is that the US ruling group will be forced to gradually turn to other economic policies and measures, which can more or less stabilize the economy and bring about a slow or somewhat quicker pickup in the 1980s.

当前美国经济问题严重和复杂,其产生的历史条件(主要是资本主义制度危机激化和西方经济处于增长缓慢时期)不是过去的简单重复,而是有其更高的基础,因而有某些特征。经济增长缓慢是由于几个基本因素恶化。经济危机和周期的规律仍然起作用,但受到若干非周期因素的干扰,须得考察内部联系,分清周期性的与非周期性的上升或下降。货币信用制度危机激化及高物价、高利率是一个严重问题。美国扩大军事开支,在经济上有不少害处。高失业将成为今后美国和西方国家的经济和社会头号问题。但较大的可能是:美国统治集团被迫在经济政策措施上逐步改弦易辙,从而经济较稳定,在八十年代还会有缓慢和稍快的增长。

This paper describes a method of small parameter of which the credit was due to K. Popoff. He had devised it to obtain approximate tra-jectorier, of a projectile. Applying this method to rocket flight and var-ying the parameter,we ean also obtain is family of approximate lauuching trajectories from one approximate trajectory already constructed, thus making it possible to make a choice among them.

文中叙述一个小参数方法,本来是波波夫为了弹丸弹道而设计的,可以从一条近似弹道导出无穷条.把这个方法应用到火箭飞行上,也得到同样的结果,即无须变化参数就可以从一条近似发射弹道得到一族弹道,以供选择.

 
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