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efficiency
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     efficiency.
     程序公正与实体公正并重:效率。
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     On Efficiency
     论效率
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  efficiency
Furthermore, they are compared with respect to accuracy and efficiency with other methods to approximate canonical windows associated with Gabor frames.
      
Transfersomes were prepared by reverse phase evaporation method and they were evaluated for shape, size, entrapment efficiency and deformability index.
      
Transfersomal formulation with optimal concentration of Soya phosphatidylcholine (SPC) and sodium deoxycholate (85:15 w/w) showed entrapment efficiency of 39.8±0.032 and deformability index of 16.4.
      
In this paper, the theory of major efficiency for multiobjective programming is established.
      
We further illustrate how to use these inequalities to determine the lower bound of relative efficiency of the parameter estimate in linear model.
      
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This paper presents several considerations which are usually overlooked by designers of power oscillators. Effects of the shape of the path of operation upon the plate efficiency of the oscillators are discussed and methods of improving the plate efficiency are mentioned.

普通设计强力振荡器时,每忽略真空管工作路之重要性。本文指出相角及谐波对於工作路图之影响以解释何以实际上强力振荡器之效率,每较设计时所预测者较低。本文并述及增加振荡器板极效率之各种方法。

A general theory on the realistic stress space of solids was formulated in a previous paper. In this paper, the bell stress spaces of several metals are compared, the concept of "efficiency of plastic deformation" is introduced and formulated, and the locus of deformation is discussed in connection with the theory of bell stress space. The main concepts of this paper are:

前文[1]综合四理论[2],[3],[4],[5]构成固体现实应力空间之一初步理论,大体反映固态静力学性质,对金属较对非金属固体反映得当,后者受范形变曲面有异于弥氏圆柱。总起来看,前文仅涉及原则概念,未触及具体问题。为使此理论对金属压力加工及材料试验研究有所帮助,本文进一步研究几个问题: 1)由应力空间图形比较不同金属的静力学性质; 2)受范形变效率及其计算; 3)形变过程之轨迹;并得到一定数量或质量上的结论。 同时,附带对前文[1]中一个实验记录图的错误作修正,包括在附录内。

The present paper reports on the results of some preliminary observationson the insect parasites of the pine caterpillar, carried out in the Nanking dis-trict during 1936-37. (1) The following insect parasites were reared from various stages of thepine caterpillar: Egg parasites: Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Telenomus dendrolimusiChu, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead. Larva parasites: Casinaria dendrolimi Uchida, Rhogas spectabilis (Matsumura),Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Itoplectis nigribasalis Uchida,...

The present paper reports on the results of some preliminary observationson the insect parasites of the pine caterpillar, carried out in the Nanking dis-trict during 1936-37. (1) The following insect parasites were reared from various stages of thepine caterpillar: Egg parasites: Trichogramma evanescens Westwood, Telenomus dendrolimusiChu, Anastatus gastropachae Ashmead. Larva parasites: Casinaria dendrolimi Uchida, Rhogas spectabilis (Matsumura),Stenaraeoides octocinctus (Ashmead), Itoplectis nigribasalis Uchida, Tricholygasorbillans Wied., Sturmia sp., Carcelia sp. Pupal parasites: Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger, Pimpla disparis Viereck,Brachymaria obscurata (Walker), Brachymeria fiskei Crawford. Hyperparasites: Phygadeuon latipatiolator Uchida, Monodontomerus dentipes(Boheman), Brachymeria obscurata (Walker), Brachymeria fishei Crawford, Eury-toma sp. (2) The egg parasites played an important part in the natural control ofthe pine caterpillar. The percentage of parasitism reached 61% in the materialcollected at Tang-shan, 1936. Telenomus dendrolimusi and Anastatus gastropachaewere observed to be more important than Trichogramma evanescens. (3) As high as 26% of the early-instar larvae could be killed by the para-sites. The percentage of larval parasitism and the relative value of the severalparasites varied with the time at which host material was collected. A differ-ence of a few days would give entirely different results. (4) The late-instar larvae were attacked by three species of dipterousparasites. The highest percentage of parasitism observed was 42%. (5) 38.4% of the pine caterpillar were killed during their pre-papal andpupal stage chiefly by Sturmia sp. and Xanthopimpla japonica Krieger. (6) The percentage of parasitism whether in the egg, larva or pupa stagewere observed to be always higher in the second generation than in the first,a fact suggests that hibernation may have an important bearing upon thepopulation of the parasites. (7) The time of appearance of the more important parasites and theirhabits were discussed. (8) Some of the factors, such as hyperparasitism, non-synchronization ofthe life cycles of the host and parasite, over-restriction in host selection, andthe influence of certain control measures, which have adverse effects on theparasite populations, were discussed. (9) As the percentage of parasitisn fluctuated greatly with year and season,it, is, therefore, suggested that a study of the factors which are responsible forthese fluctuations is of primary importance. Based on the results of suchstudies, measures may be adopted to increase the efficiency of the parasites.

1936—37年在南京地区观察松毛虫寄生天敌所得的初步结果可简述如下: (一)南京地区业经发现的松毛虫天敌有卵寄生蜂3种:赤眼卵蜂、松毛虫长腹卵蜂、平腹小蜂;幼虫寄生蜂4种:松毛虫瘦姬蜂、松与虫红头小茧蜂、花胸姬蜂、黑基瘤姬蜂;幼虫寄生蝇3种:家蚕寄生蝇、大寄生蝇、小寄生蝇;蛹寄生蜂4种;日本黑点姬蜂、黑瘤姬蜂、大腿蜂、费氏大腿蜂;另重寄生8种。 (二)卵寄生蜂在防治松毛虫上起了适当大的作用,有时减低寄主虫口达61.24%。3种寄生蜂中以松与虫长腹卵蜂及平腹小峰为较重要。 (三)松毛虫初龄幼虫寄生率最高时可达26%。寄生率的高低及各种天敌的比较重要性与采集寄主材料的时期有密切的关系,往往数日之差,寄生率可截然不同。 (四)松与虫的后龄幼虫遭3种寄生蝇的寄生。寄生率最高可达42%。 (五)松毛虫茧期的寄生率可达38.4%,天敌中以大寄生蝇及日本黑点姬蜂为 最主要。 (六)无论在卵期、幼虫期或蛹期,第2化松毛虫的寄生率均比第1化的为高。此点似说明越冬问题是松毛虫天敌繁殖中的一个关系问题。 (七)几种比较重要的寄生天敌的发生时期和生活习性,本文中根据观察所及,加以记载。 (八)本文中将几个影响松毛虫寄生天敌虫口的因...

1936—37年在南京地区观察松毛虫寄生天敌所得的初步结果可简述如下: (一)南京地区业经发现的松毛虫天敌有卵寄生蜂3种:赤眼卵蜂、松毛虫长腹卵蜂、平腹小蜂;幼虫寄生蜂4种:松毛虫瘦姬蜂、松与虫红头小茧蜂、花胸姬蜂、黑基瘤姬蜂;幼虫寄生蝇3种:家蚕寄生蝇、大寄生蝇、小寄生蝇;蛹寄生蜂4种;日本黑点姬蜂、黑瘤姬蜂、大腿蜂、费氏大腿蜂;另重寄生8种。 (二)卵寄生蜂在防治松毛虫上起了适当大的作用,有时减低寄主虫口达61.24%。3种寄生蜂中以松与虫长腹卵蜂及平腹小峰为较重要。 (三)松毛虫初龄幼虫寄生率最高时可达26%。寄生率的高低及各种天敌的比较重要性与采集寄主材料的时期有密切的关系,往往数日之差,寄生率可截然不同。 (四)松与虫的后龄幼虫遭3种寄生蝇的寄生。寄生率最高可达42%。 (五)松毛虫茧期的寄生率可达38.4%,天敌中以大寄生蝇及日本黑点姬蜂为 最主要。 (六)无论在卵期、幼虫期或蛹期,第2化松毛虫的寄生率均比第1化的为高。此点似说明越冬问题是松毛虫天敌繁殖中的一个关系问题。 (七)几种比较重要的寄生天敌的发生时期和生活习性,本文中根据观察所及,加以记载。 (八)本文中将几个影响松毛虫寄生天敌虫口的因子提出讨论,这些因子包括;重寄生的严重、天敌发生时期与寄主生活史的不相

 
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