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commercial privileges
相关语句
  相似匹配句对
     commercial
     商业
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     On Commercial Law
     论商法
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     On Diplomatic Privileges and Remission Immunities
     论外交特权与豁免
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     On the international protection of trademark privileges
     论商标权的国际保护对策
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     Control User's Privileges for Accessing Records
     控制用户的记录访问权限
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Tea trade had been the main source of profit for the western merchants engaging in trade with China in the 18th and 19th centuries. There were two routes of Sino-western tea trade, one by sea and one by land. The land route mainly aimed at the Russian market and it went as long as 20000 km from north Fujian in China to Moscow. Kyakhta, a town on the border between Russia and China became the centre of tea trade from 1730s to 1850s. The Russian caravans and the Chinese merchants engaged in barter trade with China...

Tea trade had been the main source of profit for the western merchants engaging in trade with China in the 18th and 19th centuries. There were two routes of Sino-western tea trade, one by sea and one by land. The land route mainly aimed at the Russian market and it went as long as 20000 km from north Fujian in China to Moscow. Kyakhta, a town on the border between Russia and China became the centre of tea trade from 1730s to 1850s. The Russian caravans and the Chinese merchants engaged in barter trade with China tea for Russian pelts. The Chinese merchants from Shanxi, who dominated north China's trade, controlled tea trade route on the Chinese side. After obtaining same commercial privileges in China as other westerners as the result of the Opium War, the Russian merchants expanded their control to the inland China. Just as the monopoly of tea trade in Canton by Hong Kong merchants was uprooted after the Opium War, the Shanxi merchants lost their control of the tea trade with the Russians and they gave up the role as the main tea supplier to the Russian market.

18世纪至 19世纪末期的陆上茶叶之路 ,从福建北部的武夷山区延伸到莫斯科 ,全程超过 4 5万里。陆上茶叶之路以恰克图为中心 ,中俄商人“彼以皮来 ,我以茶往”。 19世纪中叶以前 ,这条贯通欧亚的陆上茶叶之路的贸易一直由山西商人主导。鸦片战争以后 ,西方以武力推动对华商务扩张 ,外商在华享尽各种特权 ,华商在与外商竞争中纷纷败北 ,执塞外贸易之牛耳的山西商人也不得不退出对俄茶叶贸易 ,茶叶之路为以沙皇政府为后盾的俄商垄断。

 
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