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   lead () 的翻译结果: 查询用时:0.349秒
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    LEAD
    铅
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    Lead and its Harm
    铅对健康的危害
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In this paper the general synthesis problem of optimal control systems with the criterion of transient responses as a positive integral functional (3) is discussed.In the first part it is assumed that the motion of controlled object is described by a system of ordinary differential equations and that the final states of the system form a bounded and closed convex region in n-dimentional euclidian phase space. A method is proposed for finding all optimal control functions which lead any starting state into...

In this paper the general synthesis problem of optimal control systems with the criterion of transient responses as a positive integral functional (3) is discussed.In the first part it is assumed that the motion of controlled object is described by a system of ordinary differential equations and that the final states of the system form a bounded and closed convex region in n-dimentional euclidian phase space. A method is proposed for finding all optimal control functions which lead any starting state into the given final region of states. Some conclusions are obtained from the maximum principle by using transversal conditions of optimal trajectories in terminal points, and the particular properties of the stated problem are pointed out. The case of linear dif-ferential equations with integral quadratic functional criterion is investigated in detail.Further, in the second part the fundamental properties of isoloss regions, the rela-tions between the isoloss region and optimal control functions are indicated. As a direct result a partial differential equation determining the optimal loss-function J (x) is found and the connection between function J (x)and optimal vector control function u (x) is also stated. The methods proposed are practically the extension of the me-thods used by us for designing time optimal control systems as seen in [5, 6 ,7].Finally, an example is illustrated with optimal trajectories shown in phase plane.The necessary numerical data is calculated by an analog computer with high accuracy.

文中研究了具有公式(3)表示的一般正积分泛函的最优控制系统的综合问题.在第一部分中研究了具有控制参数的一阶微分方程组.控制系统的终点状态为n维相空间内的某一逐段光滑边界的闭性区域Ω.文中指出了根据极大值原理和轨道终点的横截条件寻找引到Ω的所有最优轨迹的方法.这里详细地研究了具有二次泛函和被积函数中不明显含有控制参数的质量指标泛函的线性方程情况.在文中第二部分研究了等损耗区的主要特性.指出了等损耗区与最优控制函数之间的关系.导出了求算最优损耗函数J(x)的偏微分方程,以及这一函数与最优控制函数u(x)的关系.上述方法是我们曾在文献[5,6,7]中用过的最优快速系统的综合方法的推广.文章最后举有例证.

With γ-rays of various wave-lengths the number of counts produced in a Geiger-Muller counter of Pb-wall was determined in equal time intervals. The same experiment was carried out with a counter of Al-wall. Let Npb and NA1 represent the number of counts produced in the Pb-counter and Al-counter respectively by a beam of γ-rays of even wave-length in a given time interval. The ratio Nph/NA1 observed decreases at first with the wavelength of the incident beam due to the diminishing photo-electric of lead....

With γ-rays of various wave-lengths the number of counts produced in a Geiger-Muller counter of Pb-wall was determined in equal time intervals. The same experiment was carried out with a counter of Al-wall. Let Npb and NA1 represent the number of counts produced in the Pb-counter and Al-counter respectively by a beam of γ-rays of even wave-length in a given time interval. The ratio Nph/NA1 observed decreases at first with the wavelength of the incident beam due to the diminishing photo-electric of lead. It is, however, found to increase by 16% when the wavelength of the incident radiation is decreased from a value 6.6 x. u. 4.7 x. u. This rising is due to particles produced by the interaction of hard γ-rays with the Pb-nuclei.

能力极大的丙种镭辐射,可以影响原子核,这是新近发见的事实。为进一步的研究,我们把极硬的丙种镭辐射,照在铅的数电子管(Electron Counter)上结果:除了射出的光电子和反跳子(Compton RecoilElectron)外,还观察到一种电子(有阴阳二种),约占总数的百分之十七。这种电子的来源,现在有两种解释:1从原子核里射出。(2)直接由丙种镭辐射变成。

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate...

This communication reports the results of a study of the gravimetric deter- mination of lead as normal phosphate, known as Vortmann and Bader method, which has been recently examined by Hubicki and Rys. According to our findings, tartaric acid should be added only when antimony is present. With the addition of tarearic acid unusual large excess of precipitant as suggested by Vortinann and Bader is required for complete precipitation. The suitable pH range for the precipitation of tertiary lead phosphate is 6.5 to 10. Below pH 6.5, the precipitation will be incomplete, owing apparently to the formation of acid phosphate(s). Beyond pH 10, no experiment has been made, because no advantage is gained by working in such alkaline media. The concentration of the precipitant in sdlution after reaction should be within 0.00085-0.0033 molar in order to obtain good results. The precipitates may be ignited at any temperature from 650℃ up to at least 900℃. The practice of drying the pre- cipitates at 130℃ to constant weight suggested by Hubicki and Rys should be discarded, since the precipitates still contain noticeable amounts of water after drying to constant weight at that temperature. It is preferred to use the method of precipitation from homogeneous solution. With this technique in practice dense, crystalline and easily filterable precipitates are obtained; and small quantity of lead, as low as 5 mg, may be determined satisfactorily. The effect of presence of some alkali and ammonium salts has also-been studied.

本文報告用磷酸根測定鉛重量法的各種適宜條件。溶液的pH值應在6.5至10之間。過剩沉澱劑在溶液中的濃度應為0.00085——0.0033M。沉澱應在650℃-900℃間灼燒之;如在130℃乾燥,則沉澱內的水份不能完全驅盡。均勻沉澱可改善沉澱的性質,並可测定少至5毫克的鉛。如溶液中無銻,則不必加酒石酸。

 
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