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primary-stage
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  初级阶段
     The auther Xia Qingzhou expounds that in linee with the thesis of primary-stage socialism, health service should rake promoting the country's economic construction as its cen'ral task;
     作者夏清洲同志首先论述了根据社会主义初级阶段理论的精神,促进国家经济建设是卫生事业的中心任务;
短句来源
     The author Han Roogfang considers that to revaluate health service in the light of the primary-stage socialism thesis and the report to the 13th National Congress of the CPC is conducive to mobilizing, forces of the whole society to jointly promote the construction and development of health service.
     韩荣芳同志认为,以社会主义初级阶段的理论和十三大报告为指针对卫生事业进行再认识,有助于动员全社会的力量,共同促进我国卫生事业的发展、建设。 要从六个方面对卫生事业的地位和作用进行再认识: 首先,用生产力标准认识卫生事业的地位和作用;
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     The economic relationship in the socialist primary-stage determines that socialist utilitarian education makes up the important content of ideological and political education, in which there actually exists utilitarian nihilism, which seriously interferes with its substantial results.
     社会主义初级阶段的经济关系决定了社会主义功利教育应是思想政治教育的重要内容。 我国思想政治教育中实际存在着功利虚无主义 ,严重影响了思想政治教育的实效。
短句来源
     only by implementing overall the principles of respecting labor,knowledge,talents and creation and forming concepts and mechanism fit to the primary-stage economic system can all social energy and all energy that can create social wealth appear and cooperate. Therefore,a strong power can be input into the building of a harmonious socialist society.
     只有全面贯彻尊重劳动、尊重知识、尊重人才、尊重创造的方针,形成与社会主义初级阶段经济制度相适应的思想观念和机制,才能让一切社会活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的活力充分涌流,为建构社会主义和谐社会注入强大的动力。
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  “primary-stage”译为未确定词的双语例句
     ue to the short history of merging and its primary-stage study in our country, this paper is just a tentative discussion.
     由于国内企业并购的历史不长,对并购整合问题的研究在国内也刚刚起步,加之作者水平有限,文中难免有疏漏和值得商榷之处。
短句来源
     The experimental research on using oxidant preoxidation strengthening flocculation method to treat municipal sewage was carried out. The research result showed that primary-stage disposal method of preoxidation chemistry strengthening could effectively remove suspension,COD and total phosphorus in water body and the method had obvious removing effect on NH3-N in water body.
     通过采用氧化剂预氧化强化混凝方法处理市政污水的试验研究,证实预氧化化学强化一级处理法可以有效的除去水体中悬浮物、COD、总磷,对水体中NH3-N也有明显的去除作用。
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  相似匹配句对
     Primary hypophysitis
     原发性垂体炎
短句来源
     Will is primary.
     意志是第一性的,理性则是由意志派生出来的,理性命定为意志服务。
短句来源
     On Socialism at Its Primary Stage
     论初级阶段社会主义
短句来源
     5) primary stage.
     5初级阶段。
短句来源
     On Half-Primary Rings
     关于半准素环
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  primary-stage
The prognosis after appropriate treatment is good and involved surgical excision for primary-stage infection and chemotherapy with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine for advanced-stage disease.
      


In addition to the aa and β relaxation amorphous samples show a dielectric maximum at 120-130℃ due to the crystallization of the sample during temperature scanning. A dielectric method of characterizing the process of isothermal crystallization of PET in the temperature range of 97-113℃ has been demonstrated. During the primary stage of crystallization the change of e' with time obeys the Avrami equation, that is, ε'(t)- ε'(∞)/ε'(0)-ε'(∞) =" exp(-Ktn) with n - 2 in the temperature range studied. During secondary...

In addition to the aa and β relaxation amorphous samples show a dielectric maximum at 120-130℃ due to the crystallization of the sample during temperature scanning. A dielectric method of characterizing the process of isothermal crystallization of PET in the temperature range of 97-113℃ has been demonstrated. During the primary stage of crystallization the change of e' with time obeys the Avrami equation, that is, ε'(t)- ε'(∞)/ε'(0)-ε'(∞) =" exp(-Ktn) with n - 2 in the temperature range studied. During secondary stage of crystallization the dielectric relaxation strength △ε determined from the Cole-Cole plote decreases while the Cole-Cole β parameter increases in the course of crystallization.

非晶态PET的介电性质温度谱除α_a松弛和β松弛外,在120—130℃之间由于在升温过程中试样的结晶出现一个损耗峰。比较非晶态试样与结晶后试样介电常数ε′和介电损耗ε″的差别,可在97—113℃温度下用ε′和ε″来表征非晶态PET的等温结晶过程。在结晶的初期,ε′随时间的变化符合Avrami方程,即(ε′(t)-ε′(∞))/(ε′(0)-ε′(∞))=exp(-Kt~n)。在结晶的后期,由介电性质的频率谱Cole-Cole图观察介电松弛强度△ε和β参数在结晶过程的变化。

Systematic obsorvations were made on 25 chicks each In lots fed tne deficient basic diet (1) and Se (2), +Vitamin E (3) and semi=synthetic diet(5). Symptoms startea from the 2nd week of age and peaked at 3-5 weeks. Mrbiity averaged 88%, mortality up to 70%. Clinical symptoms were manifested in three stages: Primary stage (2nd week) No specific clinical sign, only lislesslack of appetite and minor changes in nutritive state. Transitive stage (2-5 week) Obviour outward signs such as change in posture, digestive...

Systematic obsorvations were made on 25 chicks each In lots fed tne deficient basic diet (1) and Se (2), +Vitamin E (3) and semi=synthetic diet(5). Symptoms startea from the 2nd week of age and peaked at 3-5 weeks. Mrbiity averaged 88%, mortality up to 70%. Clinical symptoms were manifested in three stages: Primary stage (2nd week) No specific clinical sign, only lislesslack of appetite and minor changes in nutritive state. Transitive stage (2-5 week) Obviour outward signs such as change in posture, digestive disorder, Iocomotive and balaace derangements, neuro-symp-toms and shock. Terminal stage Those lightly affected would recover naturally with retarded growth and emaciation, which might be compansated. Thnoe heavily afflicted woul lie prostrate, unconscious and tetanic until death. No one case was however typical in syndrome, so that clinical signs were not conducive to diagnosis. For decisive diagnose, one should resort to multi-criterial measures an the flock.

对第一、二、三和五组的共100只雏鸡进行了系统临床观察。结果表明,试验雏鸡自第二周龄开始发病,3—5周龄达发病的高峰。发病率平均为88%,死亡率达70%。症状的初期阶段(二周龄内):多无特征性的临床表现,仅有精神、食欲与营养的轻度变化。中期阶段(2—5周龄间):症状逐渐明显化。主要表现为整体状态的改变及消化功能紊乱,运动障碍及平衡失调,神经症状及休克发作等。后期阶段:轻者因自然耐过而典型症状消失,只留有明显的发育落后,瘦弱或逐渐恢复。重者至濒死期多卧地呈昏迷状态或痉挛而死。但每个具体病例的临床表现多不全面,症状又多缺乏特征性意义,因此,必需着眼于群体的综合诊断,才能达到确诊。

The effect of volume fraction and size of fine γ' on creep strength of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy——DSK3 at 760℃ has been examined. DSK3 was solution heat treated at 1100—1270℃ to homogenize the alloy and dissolve coarse γ' and eutectic γ—γ' constituents which subsequently reprecipitated in the form of a uniform fine γ' dispersion with various volume fractions (0.25—0.63) and different sizes (0.1—0.3μm) upon cooling and aging. The size and amount of fine γ' increased with the increase of...

The effect of volume fraction and size of fine γ' on creep strength of a directionally solidified nickel-base superalloy——DSK3 at 760℃ has been examined. DSK3 was solution heat treated at 1100—1270℃ to homogenize the alloy and dissolve coarse γ' and eutectic γ—γ' constituents which subsequently reprecipitated in the form of a uniform fine γ' dispersion with various volume fractions (0.25—0.63) and different sizes (0.1—0.3μm) upon cooling and aging. The size and amount of fine γ' increased with the increase of solid solution temperature. The creep rupture life increased and the secondary creep rate decreased as the solution temperature increased and the relationship t_f and e at 760℃ can be expressed as:(?)~αt_f=c where a=1 and c≈5.5. The improvement of creep rupture life was found to be due to a decrease of secondary creep rate and an extension of secondary stage of creep. The secondary creep rate (?) is strongly dependent on size a, interparticle spacing λ and volume fraction v_f of fine γ', and it takes the form:(?)∝α/v_f~(2/3)(1-v_f~(1/3)) or (?)∝λ~2/αThe dislocations structure and morphology of γ' of the alloy produced by creep to primary, secondary and tertiary stage at 760℃ under 73.8 kgf/mm~2 and 78 kgf/mm~2, and at 950℃ under 25 kgf/mm~2 was examined in TEM. During the primary stage of creep at 760℃ under 73.8 kgf/mm~2 or 78 kgf/mm~2 dislocations are moving between the γ' cuboids shearing the γ matrix. Two sets of dislocations intersecting or reacting each other in the γ matrix are visible, but no dislocation is ever observed inside the γ' cuboids. A dense 3-dimensional dislocation network has formed in the γ matrix of the alloy during secondary creep. A few superlattice dislocation pairs were found in the γ' at 760℃ under 78 kgf/mm~2, but still no dislocation in the γ' under 73.8 kgf/mm~2 is observed in secondary stage of creep.The morphology and size of γ' are changing during creep at 950℃ under 25 kgf/mm~2, especially at the end of secondary stage of creep and during tertiary stage of creep. In the early primary stage of creep dislocation structure is similar to that at 760℃ but two sets of α/2<110> dislocations can react more easily and form a 2-dimensional dislocation networks covering the γ—γ' interface in the later primary stage of creep. γ' particles start to coarsen and become a plate shape by lateral merging of cubes without noticeable thickening of the plates from secondary stage of creep.Direct observation of dislocation structure and γ' morphology in relation with secondary creep rate suggests a high temperature creep model for the nickel-base superalloy in the range of temperature and applied stress where shearing of the γ' phase does not control the straining process. During secondary creep, strain is mainly the result of climb rate of dense 2- or 3-dimensional dislocation networks and the free path of dislocation glide in γ. Secondary creep rate (?) can be described as:(?)=NAbR where N is the density of dislocation sources; A the sweeping area of a dislocation, b the magnitude of the Burgers vector of the dislocation and R the climb rate of the dislocation over γ' particle or the number of critical link length of dislocation network can be developed to operate in a unit time, i. e., the number of operating sources of the dislocation in a unit time.The volmne fraction v_f and size of γ' will play an important role in secondary creep rate (?) by changing the configuration and density of the dislocation and influencing the process of the dislocation climb (recovery) in γ matrix. Applying the following equation relating the applied stress and dislocation density ρ to creep process:σ= σ_0+αGbρ~(1/2) where G is the shear modulus, α the strengthening proportional constant by the interaction of dislocations and σ_0 flow stress due to all causes other than dislocation-dislocation interaction, and combining climb model given by Anscll and Weertman the equation for secondary creep rate (?) can be derived as:(?)=K/G~3T λ~2/α(σ-σ_0)~n exp(-Q_s/RT) or (?)=K/G~3T α/v_f~(2/3)(1-v_f~(1/3))~2(σ-σ_0)~n exp (-Q_3/RT) where K is a constant, Q_s the activation energy for self-diffusion, and n=4—5. The expression relating λ, α, v_f and (?) predicted by the theory agrees satisfactorily with experimental results.

本文研究了定向凝固K3镍基高温合金的蠕变强度与细小γ′粒子的数置和尺寸的关系。实验结果证明,随着固溶温度升高,铸态粗大γ′逐步溶解并在随后冷却过程重新析出均匀细小正方形的γ′粒子。细小γ′体积分数(v_f)和尺寸(α)都随固溶温度的升高而增大,当固溶温度从1100℃升至1230℃,v_f从0.25增至0.63,α从0.10μm增至0.32μm。随着固溶温度的升高,第二阶段蠕变速率降低,持久寿命延长,大幅度提高合金的蠕变性能。适当的高温固溶加时效处理(如1210—1230℃,4h+900℃,32h)可提高定向凝固合金的中温(760℃,73.8kgf/mm~2)持久寿命10倍左右。合金的中温蠕变性能取决于细小γ′的体积分数(v_f),尺寸(α)及其间距(λ),在固定温度和应力下,第二阶段蠕变速率((?))与它们之间符合以下关系。 (?)∝λ~2/α或(?)∝α/v_f~(2/3)(1-v_f~(1/3))~2 用透射电镜观察了合金三个蠕变阶段位错亚结构的变化,据此提出蠕变的位错模型和合金的强化机制,并导出第二阶段蠕变速率与γ′体积分数、尺寸和间距之间的关系式,与实验结果完全符合。

 
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