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different branches
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  不同分支
    The diversity of the isolates from different branches of the root and the surrounding soils were demonstrated as well.
    也证实了同一地方不同株苏铁根周围的土壤蓝细菌具有多态性,苏铁珊瑚状根不同分支的蓝细菌也具有多态性。
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    This paper reports the similarity of aphids fauna of 31 China provinces by using clustering analysis. The results indicate that the Palaearctical provinces and the Oriental provinces are obviously clustered at two different branches;
    文章以聚类分析方法对中国 31省的蚜虫区系组成进行了相似性量化比较 ,结果显示古北界省份和东洋界省份明显聚于不同分支中 ;
短句来源
    The diversity among of the isolates from different branches of the root and the surrounding soils were demonstrated as well.
    也证实了同一地方不同株苏铁根周围的土壤蓝细菌具有多态性,苏铁珊瑚状根的不同分支的蓝细菌也具有多态性。
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  “different branches”译为未确定词的双语例句
    There were some differences of inducing frequency and growth rate of calli from young stems between trees and cutting plantlets,between the trees and even from different branches of the same trees.
    红豆杉树与扦插苗间、树的不同个体间 ,甚至同一树不同部位的幼茎在愈伤组织诱导及生长方面都存在较大差异 .
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    The two groups fell into two different branches of a phylogenetic tree.
    在系统发生进化树上 ,这 2组分别位于不同的分支簇上。
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    Phylogenetic tree based on complete VP1 sequence assigned the two isolates to different branches,which indicated there were at least two transmitting chains of Echovirus 13 prevailed in Fujian Province.
    下载所有已发表的ECHO13病毒VP1序列并构建进化树,发现福建2株病毒分属不同的分枝,提示这2株病毒来自不同的病毒传播链。
短句来源
    With the increase of temperature or both temperature and CO_2, on the 11 chosen species, different plants, even different branches in one plant, the leaf thickness varies greatly.
    不同物种的同一组织厚度和同一物种的不同组织厚度,对温度和CO2都升高或仅仅温度升高的反应都存在很大的差异。
短句来源
    The viewpoint that there are different branches in Zhuang Ethnic Groups of Guangxi is probably based on Genetics with STR loci.
    广西壮族内部存在多种支系的说法可能具有STR基因座的遗传学基础。
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  different branches
A hazard curve is obtained by integration over the aleatory uncertainties, and numerous hazard curves are obtained for different branches of logic-tree representing epistemic uncertainty.
      
The two deformation modes give different branches of the overall yield surface which identify the state of stress that activates a particular mode, and indicate the conditions for mode transition in a given composite system.
      
It is shown that for certain relationships between the parameters of the theory there can, in addition to the acoustic branch, be two different branches of exciton type, which arise because of fluctuations of the phases of the order parameters.
      
Renormalization group and functional selfsimilarity in different branches of physics
      
Theoretical short-period amplitude-distance curves of PKP waves are calculated in the range of distances corresponding to the interference zone of the different branches of this waves.
      
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All specimens described in this paper were collected from the Late Focene HetaoyuanFormation of Pishigou,near Hetaoyuan Village of Xichuan County,S.Henan,and arehoused in the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeentology and Palaeoanthrology,AcademiaSinica(IVPP.)and Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Ministry ofGeology(YIGM.),respectively.Family Lophialetidae Matthew and Granger,1925Breviodon minutus(Matthew and Granger,1925)(Pl.I,fig.1)A fragment of left mandible with M_1 and M_3(YIGM.V001)is ascribed...

All specimens described in this paper were collected from the Late Focene HetaoyuanFormation of Pishigou,near Hetaoyuan Village of Xichuan County,S.Henan,and arehoused in the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeentology and Palaeoanthrology,AcademiaSinica(IVPP.)and Yichang Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources,Ministry ofGeology(YIGM.),respectively.Family Lophialetidae Matthew and Granger,1925Breviodon minutus(Matthew and Granger,1925)(Pl.I,fig.1)A fragment of left mandible with M_1 and M_3(YIGM.V001)is ascribed to thisspecies.Schlosseria hetaoyuanensis sp.nov.(Pl.I,fig.2—3;Pl.II,fig.1;Text-fig.1)Type A maxilla and premaxilla fragments with C-M~1(YIGM.V002).Referred specimens Two fragments of mandibular ramus with P_(3-4)and P_4respectively(YIGM.V002.1—2),and four mandible fragments(IVPP.V5371.1—4).Diagnosis I~1different branches in theevolution of Lophialetinae.An imcomplete skull of the primitive form was found inthe latest Eocene or Early Oligocene Bailuyuan Formation and named Simpla etesxianensis(Zhang and Qi,1981).It suggests that the conservative branch survivedlonger than the other two modified of shoots.Family Deperetellidae Radinsky,1965Deperetella sichuanensis(Xu et al.,1979)(Pl.I,fig.4—6;Text-fig.2)A mandible(IVPP.V5373),assigned to the type of Teleolophus sichuanensis byXu and others(1979),is reconsidered here as a primitive species of Deperetella.Thespecimen exhibits some incipient characters of the genus Deperetella:molariform P_(3-4)with complete hypolophid,P_4 Shorter than P_3 or P_2,P_(2-3)elongated,and P_1 with only onelongitudinal crest.The following specimens are also referable to this species:a left mandible withDP_3-M_2(IVPP.V5373.2),a left maxilla with DP~3-M~2(IVPP.V5373.3),and two M~3(IVPP.V5373.4).Teleolophus danjiangensis sp.nov.(Pl.I,fig.7—8;Pl.II,fig.2;Text-fig.3)Type A left maxilla with P~1-M~3(YIGM.V003).Referred specimens:Two leftmaxilla with P~2-M~2 and P~3-M~3 respectively(IVPP.V7381 and V5374.2),a right mandi-ble with P_4-M_3(IVPP.V7381.1)and some isolated upper and lower cheek teeth(IVPP.V7381.2).Diagnosis Length of P~1-M~3:104 mm,Ratio of p~(1-4) to M~(1-3) 0.86.P~1 withoutcrest-like hypocone,P~(2-4) with protoloph and metaloph looped lingually in some specimens.P_4 entoconid reduced,length of M~3 larger than width.Pachylophus xui gen.et sp.nov.(Pl.II,fig.3—7;Text-fig.4)Type A left maxilla with M~(1-3)(IVPP.V7382).Referred specimens:A right maxilla with P~3-M~2 (IVPP.V7382.1),a right ma-xilla with P~(3-4)(IVPP.V7382.2),a right mandible with C,M_(1-3),and P_(1-4) alveoli(IVPP.V.7382.3),a left mandible with M_(2-3)(IVPP.V.7382.4),a left mandible with P_3-M_1(YIGM.V004)and a left mandible with DP_4-M_2(YIGM.V004.1).Diagnosis A medium sized deperetellid P~(3-4)protoloph and metaloph looped lin-gually;upper molars robust,and rectangular in outline,with stout protoloph and me-taloph,V-shaped valley between the transverse lophs,more developed posterior wing ofectoloph,and stronger exteroposterior cingulum.P_(3-4) submolariform,with longer tri-gonid,distinct entocomid,and continuous labial cingulum,lower molars narrow withobtuse transverse lophs.Remarks Teleolophus beliajevi Birjukov,1974,from the Eocene of Kazakstan,USSR.,bears a resemblance to the new species,Pachylophus xui,in most details.Sothe Kazakstan species is allocated to the new genus in this paper.Some Chinese spe-cimens referred to Teleolophus are also reconsidered to be assigned to Pachylophus.DiscussionThe tapiroid assemblage of the Hetaoyuan fauna is close to that of the Irdin Manhafauna.Both have lophialctids and deperetellids dominant over other primitive tapiroids. The two faunas,therefore,can be regarded as about the same in age.Generally the Khaitchin Fm.of Mongolian People's Republic is considered to beequivalent to the Irdin Manha Fm.However D.khainulenses from the Kaitchin Fm.isdistinctly larger in size and more specialized in some morphological features than D-sichuanensis.It seems likely that the fossiliferous beds of the Khaitchin Fm.is,probab-ly,of slightly higher horizon than that of the Hetaoyuan Fm.,although both forma-tions can be considered as the same in age.Reshetov(1979)suggested that the Obaila fauna was comparable to the IrdinManha fauna in age because of the occurrence of Helaletes mongoliensis in the ObailaFm.The specimen referred to this species,however,is only an isolated upper molar,and is not morphologically quite identical with the specimens from the Irdin ManhaFm.In addition,the tapiroid assemblage of the Obaila fauna differs from that of IrdinManha and Hetaoyuan faunas,but is somewhat similar with that of the Arshanto andGuanzhuang faunas,because these faunas contain more helaletids and isoctolophids.

这里记述了河南淅川核桃园组中五种獏化石:Breviodon minutus,Schlosseria hetaoyuanensissp.nov.,Deperetella sichuanensis,Teleolophus danjiangensis sp.nov.,Pachylophus xui gen.etsp.nov.,并认为其时代大体相当于伊尔丁曼哈阶。文中也对脊齿獏亚科的分化和Teleolophus与Deperetella两属系统关系作了一些探讨。

The present article deals with the size and density of the leaf stoma on different apple varieties, surrounding environments, tree vigors, tree-crowns and different branches, and the relations between stomatic daily motion and sunlight., air temperature, leaf temperature. The size and density of leaf stoma have obvious differences among different apple varieties; the stomatic size has positive correlation with the size of fruit; and the degree of soil drought mainly affects the stomatic size. The...

The present article deals with the size and density of the leaf stoma on different apple varieties, surrounding environments, tree vigors, tree-crowns and different branches, and the relations between stomatic daily motion and sunlight., air temperature, leaf temperature. The size and density of leaf stoma have obvious differences among different apple varieties; the stomatic size has positive correlation with the size of fruit; and the degree of soil drought mainly affects the stomatic size. The range of optimum temperature for stoma opening is 24——26℃. The relativc area of stoma reflects the comprehensive changes and represents the character of leaf stoma, and can also be used as the index about leaf's photosynthesis, transpiration and tree's ecologocal adapability. The soil humidity at the time when the opening degree of leaf stoma reaches 80——90% of the maximum opening degree at the optimum photosythesis in a day can be used as an index todirect the orchard irrigating.

本试验对苹果不同品种、立地条件、树势、树冠部位和不同枝类上叶片气孔的大小、密度,以及气孔日运动与日光、气温、叶温的关系等进行了观察研究。认为苹果不同品种叶片气孔大小、密度有明显差别,气孔大小与果实的大小呈正相关;光照主要影响气孔密度,土壤干旱程度主要影响气孔大小;气孔开放最适温度范围为24°—26℃;气乳的相对面积反映了气孔的综合变化,更能代表叶片气孔特征,可作为其光合、蒸腾及果树生态适应性的指标;可用日内最适光合期气孔达最大开度80—90%时的土壤湿度,作为土壤经济含水量的指标,指导果园灌水。

In this paper the sensory line system of Galeaspida is systematically described and a comparison of it is made between Galeaspida and other groups of Agnatha. The sensory line system of Galeaspida is so far known only on the dorsal shield of the head. It consists of two pairs longitudinal stems and a varied number of transverse canals issuing from the stems. The stems of the median pair, running dorsally to the orbital openings, include each three parts, the anterior division (soc_1) and posterior division (soc_2)...

In this paper the sensory line system of Galeaspida is systematically described and a comparison of it is made between Galeaspida and other groups of Agnatha. The sensory line system of Galeaspida is so far known only on the dorsal shield of the head. It consists of two pairs longitudinal stems and a varied number of transverse canals issuing from the stems. The stems of the median pair, running dorsally to the orbital openings, include each three parts, the anterior division (soc_1) and posterior division (soc_2) of the supraorbital canal, and the median dorsal canal (mdc) (ifgs. 1-2). The anterior division, starting usually at the anterior margin of the shield, extends posteriorly and somewhat laterally. In most situation it stops at a distance in front of the anterior end of the posterior division, sometimes meets the latter at a pronounced angle, exceptionally continues smoothly with the latter. The posterior division normally converges with its fellow of the opposite side to a point just behind the pineal organ in most polybranchiaspids. It has lost its posterior part in eugaleaspids except Sinogaleaspis. Nevertheless, the supraorbital canals tend to be reduced in some polybranchiaspids. In Dayongaspis, for instance, the anterior divisions of the canals are shortened, while the posterior divisions are completely lost (fig. 1E). A reduction similar to that in Dayongaspis probably also occurs in Duyunolepis, Neoduyunaspis and Xiushuiaspis. Although the sensory line system is poorly known in these forme, the closeness of the orbital openings to each other and to the median dorsal opening, which has caused the reduction of the supraorbital canals in Dayongaspis, is revealed in them. Moreover, in Latirostraspis there are two pairs of short canals on the preorbital section of the shield. One pair, antero-dorsal to the orbital openings, doubtlessly corresponds to the anterior divisions of the supraorbital canals; while the other pair, at the edges of the shield in front of the orbital openings, seemingly represents the anterior parts of the infraorbital canals, for they most likely continue with the infraorbital canals on the ventral rim of the shield. If so, the anterior divisions of the supraorbital canals would have already disapeared here. Perhaps this is also true for some polybranchiaspids, such as Hanyangaspis, Cyclodiscaspis and Sanqiaspis, which like Latirostraspts have orbital openings at the edges of the shield and a widened median dorsal opening. As to the median dorsal canals, they are developed in eugaleaspids, extremely reduced only as the tubers across the dorsal commisure or completely lost in polvbranchiaspids. In Sino- galeaspis, an eugaleaspid, the median dorsal canals join the posterior divisions of the supraorbital canals at a level through the pineal organ, so the posterior parts of the posterior divisions of the supraorbital canals wedge in between the two median dorsal canals behind the joints. As the supraorbital canals disapear behind the pineal organ, the median dorsal canals smoothly continue with them in other eugaleaspids. Anyway, the median dorsal canals never reach, but end at a distance in front of, the posterior margin of the shield. The stems of the lateral pair, bypassing the orbital openings ventrally, are composed of the infraorbital canals anteriorly and lateral dorsal canals posteriorly. They begin anterolaterally to the orbital openings, usually do not reach the anterior margin of the shield. In the forms with orbital openings at the edges of the shield the stems go down onto the ventral rim of the shield when they bypass the openings. After bypassing the orbital openings, these stems sharply bend inward first, then runobackward parallelly to each other and finally reach the posterior margin of the shield. With regard to the transverse canals, those in front of the orbital openings will be dealt first. One pair of commisures, the preorbital commisures (poc), is found in Polybranchiaspis, Laxaspis, Damaspis and Sanchaspis. These commisures link the infraorbital and supraorbital canals of their respective side. Again, in Sinogaleaspis the anterior part of each infraorbital canal bends in lateral direction to the margin of the shield. This part would represents a lateral branch of, or a transverse canal issuing from, the infraorbital canal, and maybe corresponds to the preorbital commisure. As to the canals behind the orbital openings, they are very variable in number. There are four pairs of lateral transverse canals issuing from the lateral stems in Polybranchiaspis, Laxaspts, Damaspis and, probably, also in Diandongaspis, Siyingia as well as Cyclodiscaspis, five pairs in Sanchaspis, at least eight pairs in Dongjangaspis (this paper, fig. I A-D, ltc_(1-8); Liu, 1975, fig. 5A, 6, 9, 11; Wang et Wang, 1982, fig. 1); but in all these forms there is only one pair of median transverse canals, which unite with each other as a commisure, the dorsal commisure (dcm). Without exception, it is the second lateral transverse canals that the commisure is nearly in alignment with. This fact can be used as an indicator in a correspondence of the transverse canals in different galeaspids. Because of shortening of the postorbital section of the shield the lateral transverse canals are reduced in number in eugaleaspids. In most eugaleaspids exist only three pairs of the lateral transverse canals and one pair of median transverse canals, namely the dorsal commisure. According to the position of the dorsal commisure, it can be said that the fourth lateral transverse canals have disapeared here, Yet, the median transverse canals are up to three pairs and the lateral transverse canals are four pairs in Sinogaleaspis. Although among the median transverse canals only the both of the third pair unite with each other, in sequence the both of the second pair would be equal to the dorsal commisure. However, in the three genera, Sanqiaspis, Latirostraspis and Dayongaspis occur two pairs of median transverse canals. When making a comparison, we come across a bit of difficulty:which pair of the median transverse canals is homologous to the dorsal commisure In Sanqiaspis~(1) it seems only two pairs of the transverse canals to be developed (Liu, 1975; Pan et Wang, 1978) and they cross the lateral stems of their respective side. The both canals of the anterior pair keep a distance from each other but the both of the posterior pair unite with each other. For the two pairs of the canals like the dorsal commisure in other forms are situated at the sharp bends of the lateral stems behind the orbital openings, either one or the other of the two pairs must be equal to the dosal commisure. In Latirostraspis, as shown in fig. IF, the two pairs of the median transverse canals are so far behind the orbital openings that neither seems homologous to the dorsal commisure. But, as the orbital operings are in position more anteriorly placed in Latirotraspis than in the typical polybranchiaspids, it is not impossible that the both median transverse canals of the anterior pair are equivalent to the dorsal commisure and the first three or four pairs of the lateral transverse canals in Latirostraspis have no correspondents in the typical polybranchiaspids. In Dayongaspis the two pairs of the median transverse canals are somewhat backward in position, too. For the same reason the anterior pair is appointed as the dorsal commisure in preference to the posterior one. Moreover, in the Dayongaspis the most interesting is the regular arrangement of the lateral transverse canals from the preorbital section to the posterior section of the shield. It hints that the transverse canals were segmentally disposed throughout the cephalic portion in orginal galeaspids. In fact it is to certain extent reflected in some other polybranchiaspids, such as Polybrenchiaspis, Laxaspis and, especially, Damaspis, in which some tubers issue from the lateral stems in front of the first or behind the fourth lateral transverse canals. These tubers are certainly the vestiges of reduced transverse canals. According to the above description, Galeaspida can be closely compared with other groups of Agnatha in the disposition of the sensory line system. In general, in the median stem the anterior division plus the posterior division of the supraorbital canal of Galeaspida is homologous to the supraorbital canal of Heterostraci and to the postpineal line of Ostoostraci. But in Galeaspida the anterior division and posterior division of the supraorbital canal are probably innervated by different branches of the ophthalmicus superficialis. While the median dorsal canal is equal to the median dorsal line of Heterostraci and to the dorsal line of Osteostraci and Petromyzontia. Of the lateral stem the infraorbital canal in the four groups of Agnatha, as that in Pisces, is surely innervated by the buccalis nerve. The lateral dorsal canal is no doubt equivalent to the lateral dorsal line of Heterostraci, to the lateral line of Osteostraci and Petromyzontla and to the main lateral line of Pisces as well. As for the transverse canals, it is not here intended to treat them one by one. First the stress is put on the dorsal commisure. It is most likely equivalent to the second transverse canals of Heterostraci, the posterior transverse line of Osteostraci, the posterior series of the neuromasts of Petromyzontia and, probably, to the supratemporal canal of fishes. The anterior bent patr of the infraorbital canal of Sinogaleaspis is maybe equal to the preorbital commisure of polybranchiaspids and probably corresponds to the anterior marginal canal of Osteostraci. The comparison indicates that the different types of the disposition of the sensory line systern in the different groups of Agnatha are derived from a general pattern that, as many paleontologists and biologists have suggested, is composed of longitudinal stems and transverse branches linking them. As is well known, on the dorsal side of the head in Osteostraci and Heterostraci there are three pairs of stems, the median one, the lateral one and the external one. But the last one has not yet been found in Galeaspia, Probably it has disapeared in the known galeaspids, as it exists only in a few forms of Ostestraci or Heterostraci. The fact that numerous transverse canals occur in Galeaspida suggests that transverse canals were segmentally arranged throughout the cephalic division in orginal vertebrates. The similarity of some forms, such as Dayongaspis, to Osteostraci in the tendency to the reduction of the supraorbital canals is a good example of the convergence. The reduction occuring in the both groups is caused by a similar condition-the closeness of the orbital openings to each other. Within Galeaspida, in the disposition of the sensory canals there are two types, the eugaleaspid type, with developed median dorsal canals; and the polybranchiaspid type, in which the median dorsal lines are reduced. The differentiation into the both types had been accomplished by Early Silurian. Therefore, Galeaspida would have been divided into polybranchiaspid branch and eugaleaspid branch before Silurian. Since the establishment of the two orders, Eugaleaspidiformes (=Galeaspidiformes) and Polybranchiaspidiformes (Liu, 1965), which were later on combined into a superorder, Galeaspida, equal to Osteostraci and Anaspida in rank (Halstead (Tarlo), 1967), other four orders have been proposed under Galeaspida. They are Nanpanaspidiformes based on Nanpanaspis (Liu, 1975), Huananaspidiformes based on Huananaepis (Janvier, 1975), Duyunolepidida (=Duyunaspidida) based on Duyunolepis (=Duyunaspii) (Pan et Wang, 1978, 1982) and Hanyangaspidida based on Hanyangaspi (orginally rcferred to Heterostraci (Pan et al, 1975), later proposed as a polybranchiaspid (Liu, 1979)). Now it seems that the evidence is not sufficient for any one of them to be ranked as a unit equal to Polybranchiaspidiformes or Eugaleaspidiformes. Even Huananaspidiformes is probably a polyphyletic group. In any case, they are more closely related to Polybranchiaspidiformes than Eugaleaspidiformes. So the terms, Polybranchia'spid branch or polybranc

本文对盔甲鱼类的侧线系统作了系统的描述;盔甲鱼类与异甲鱼类、骨甲鱼类和七鳃鳗在侧线系统方面可作相近的对比;盔甲鱼类众多的横行感觉管暗示在原始脊椎动物里,横行感觉管按节排列、由前而后分布整个头区;在盔甲鱼类中侧线系统存在多鳃鱼型和真盔甲鱼型,两者的分化至迟在早志留世已经完成.

 
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