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competition
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     Competition
     竞赛信息
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     on competition;
     关于竞争;
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  competition
The discrete dynamics for competition populations of Lotka-Volterra type modeled as
      
Further investigation of the Volterra-Lotka competition model with diffusion
      
In this paper, the existence of coexistence states in the Voterra-Lotka competition model under Dirichlet boundary conditions is the major concern.
      
On the strictly positive solutions of nonautonomous Kolmogorov competition systems
      
In this paper, the existence of strictly positive solutions for N-species nonautonomous Kolmogorov competition systems is studied.
      
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(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound...

(1) Sodium salt of reduced codehydrogenase I has been obtained in good yield as a dry powder from codehydrogenase I by reduction with alcohol and alcohol dehydrogenase. This preparation was stable for at least 5 months when kept dry at -15℃. (2) The properties of the particle-bound codehydrogenase I cytochrome reductase system in heart muscle preparation were found to differ considerably from those of the soluble enzyme as obtained by Mahler et al. Among other things, the affinity for cytochrome c of the particle-bound enzyme is much greater than the soluble enzyme. The Michaelis constant for cytochrome c of the former is only one twelfth of that of the latter.(Fig. 2A). (3) With either oxygen or excess cytochrome c as electron acceptor, it was found that the overall activity, in terms of rate of oxygen consumption or cytochrome c reduction, when both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I were oxidized simultanously, did not represent the sum of the rates of oxidation when these two substrates were separately oxidized but equalled only the faster of the two separate oxidation rates(Fig. 5, Tables 1, 2). If 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol was used as the electron acceptor, the overall rate of simultaneous oxidation of these two substrates was found to equal exactly the sum of the rates of separate oxidation(Table 3). (4) When either oxygen or excess cytochrome c was used as the electron acceptor, reduced codehydrogenase I and succinate each inhibited the rate of oxidation of the other(Figs 4, 6 & 7). Evidence has been presented to show that the inhibition of succinate oxidation by reduced codehydrogenase I is not due to the accumulation of oxaloacetate. (5) When malonate was also added to the reaction mixture, succinate no longer produced any inhibition of the oxidation of reduced codehydrogenase I(Fig. 8). (6) It is therefore concluded that in heart muscle preparation both succinate and reduced codehydrogenase I are oxidized by cytochrome c through a common, velocity limiting factor. This is in accordance with the view previously reached by some workers from studies on the action of certain inhibitors. However, it should be noted that in our experiments no agents which might produce any conceivable change in the colloidal structure of the enzyme system has been employed. (7) It should be emphasized that our results clearly show that great caution must be exercised in drawing conslusion on the role an enzyme might play in a complex enzyme system from studies of the properties of a solubilized enzyme. (8) It is believed that the competition of two enzyme systems for a common linking factor as demonstrated in this report has provided a new method for studies on the mutual relations of two or more enzyme systems.

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是...

(一)本報告提供了一個從輔酶Ⅰ,用酶還原法製備還原輔酶Ⅰ的方法。我們所製得的還原輔酶Ⅰ鈉鹽乾粉,可以在低温保存數月而不被氧化。 (二)與心肌製劑中顆粒相結合的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶系,和用乙醇抽出的水溶性的輔酶Ⅰ細胞色素還原酶的性質頗不相同。其中比較重要的不同點是對於細胞色素c的親力,前者遠大於後者,其米氏常數僅約為後者的十二分之一。 (三)用一心肌顆粒製劑作為材料,無論用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體,還原輔酶Ⅰ與琥珀酸同時氧化時的總速度,不等於二者分別氧化時速度之和,而僅等於其中氧化較快者單獨氧化時之速度。但如用[2,6]二氯靛酚作為氫受體時,二者共同氧化時之總速度完全等於二者分別氧化時速度的和。 (四)當用氧或過量之細胞色素c作為氫受體時,琥珀酸與還原輔酶Ⅰ能彼此互相抑制對方氧化的速度。有足夠的實驗材料說明,還原輔酶Ⅰ對於琥珀酸氧化的抑制,不是由於草醯乙酸聚集的緣故。 (五)如果在反應混合物中同時含有琥珀酸脫氫酶的專一抑制劑,丙二酸,則琥珀酸對於還原輔酶Ⅰ氧化作用的抑制即被解除。 (六)根據以上的實驗結果,可以認為,還原輔酶Ⅰ及琥珀酸先通過一個共同的因子與細胞色素c作用。這個共同的因子在一般情形之下,也是這兩個酶系統的速度限制因子。應該指出在我們的實驗中,並未使用任何可能影響酶系統結構的條件,因此我們的結果是在一個比較接近於生理狀態的情形之下獲得的。 (七)應該着重指出,從本報告的結果可以看到,一個用人為的方法從複雜酶系上溶解下來的酶的性質,有時並不能代表這個酶在有組織的酶系統中的真實情况。 (八)我們相信,本報告所說明的兩酶系競爭一個共同因子的一些現象,將为研究複雜酶系之間的相互關係,提供一個新的方法。

Saline solutions of calf thymus DNA have been heated at 100℃ for different periods and the change in viscosity followed in comparison with the changes in its affinity for two basic dyes, methyl green and pyronin. Under our experimental conditions, it is less likely that a molecular degradation of DNA has taken place in heat denaturation, but such treatment brought about a decrease in the quantity of methyl green bound to DNA up to about 50%. It can be inferred, therefore, that the affinity of DNA for methyl...

Saline solutions of calf thymus DNA have been heated at 100℃ for different periods and the change in viscosity followed in comparison with the changes in its affinity for two basic dyes, methyl green and pyronin. Under our experimental conditions, it is less likely that a molecular degradation of DNA has taken place in heat denaturation, but such treatment brought about a decrease in the quantity of methyl green bound to DNA up to about 50%. It can be inferred, therefore, that the affinity of DNA for methyl green depends, to a great extent, on the molecular spatial configuration of the former, or more concretely, on the double helix structure.The type of binding curves of methyl green by native and by some heat-denatured DNA's has been explored on the basis of a general theory of the interaction of a large polymeric molecule with small molecules.On summarizing all the results obtained a mechanism of binding of methyl green by DNA has been proposed.A competition has been observed between methyl green and pyronin in the double binding process by DNA, with the former predominating over the latter. From these results and from the difference in the chemical structures of these two dyes we may suggest that pyronin would not set up such strict claim to the molecular spatial configuration of DNA as in the case of methyl green.

(1)小牛胸腺DNA溶液在100℃保温不同时间以后,测定了粘度的变化,同时观察并比较甲基绿与焦宁对于受热变性前后的DNA的结合能力的差异。(2)根据高分子物质与低分子物质结合作用的一般规律,测定了甲基绿对于天然态DNA及数种热变性DNA的结合数据。(3)论证了甲基绿对DNA的结合能力主要是与DNA分子的双螺旋空间构型的完整性有关。(4)对甲基绿与DNA结合的机制作了初步的讨论。(5)从甲基绿与焦宁对DNA的双重结合作用所得结果表明:两种染料能以不同程度同时与DNA结合,但在此两者之间存在着一定程度的竞争作用,以甲基绿占明显的优势。从所得结果以及两种染料的分子结构的差异可猜测,此两种染料对于DNA分子的空间构型的要求程度不同。

On the small promontory of Beidu Shan,in the Tai Lake,Wushih,thers is going to build a small hostel for the architects and their collegues.Jt is under- stood that the hostel must not only be functional but in harmony with the local architectural style,and a competition was held.This article tries to explain how the designers of the prize winning design achieved their goal. The article is of three parts:The first part describes and analyzes the scenery and particularities of the site. The second part deals...

On the small promontory of Beidu Shan,in the Tai Lake,Wushih,thers is going to build a small hostel for the architects and their collegues.Jt is under- stood that the hostel must not only be functional but in harmony with the local architectural style,and a competition was held.This article tries to explain how the designers of the prize winning design achieved their goal. The article is of three parts:The first part describes and analyzes the scenery and particularities of the site. The second part deals with the way in which the buildings are related to the site.This requires that the buildings should comply with convenience for use and be pleasing to look at. The third part explains how the designers studied the architectural character of the dwellings of the south of the Yang e River,and tried to apply new mate- rials and construction methods as means to create a new architectural style,which will be contemporary in spirit and still a development of the old tradition.

无锡太湖北独山拟建一小型休养所,此休养所之设计要求既需符合功能要求又必与地方风格相协调,因而举行竞赛,本文特介绍得奖方案之设计意图。本文计分三部份,第一部份介绍与分析该处之地形特点与风景,第二部份论述建筑与地形结合之手法,使之既便于使用而又美观。第三部分叙述设计人如何研究江南民居之风格,以传统手法并借助新材料与构造方法试图创造一新的建筑风格。

 
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