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In a related demonstration experiment, the frequency-doubled diode laser is applied to excite the λ=369.5 nm 2S1/2-2P1/2 transition of ytterbium ions in a hollow-cathode discharge.
      
A system of criteria is discussed which is necessary for the realization of a direct gamma-lasing demonstration experiment (DGLDE) as a basis for a specific gamma laser (GL) scheme.
      
The demonstration experiment has been proved useful in elementary thermodynamic courses for introducing the entropy concept.
      
A demonstration experiment in one of these counties revealed that patients who normally require hospitalization at the state institution could be treated at the county facility.
      
In a demonstration experiment, a 80-ns pulse of kilowatt power with frequency modulation in a 5% band was compressed to a 1.5-ns pulse with a 25-fold power amplification.
      
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Experimental results obtained both in laboratory and in the field plots showed that the dusting of lime on leaves of infected plants was effective to a certain extent in controlling the disease. But the method is not considered to be practicable, because the disease becomes serious only in rainy seasons, and the lime applied on the plants is easily washed away by rains. Since the disease is confirmed to be chiefly carried by seeds, a field control experiment was conducted to combat the disease by using disinfested...

Experimental results obtained both in laboratory and in the field plots showed that the dusting of lime on leaves of infected plants was effective to a certain extent in controlling the disease. But the method is not considered to be practicable, because the disease becomes serious only in rainy seasons, and the lime applied on the plants is easily washed away by rains. Since the disease is confirmed to be chiefly carried by seeds, a field control experiment was conducted to combat the disease by using disinfested seeds. Seeds were collected from disease affected fields, and were treated with 0.5% solution ef granosan or ceresan for 3 hours or with 0.2% solution of granosan for 15 hours. A total of 13055 kilos of treated seeds were sown and grown in 768 mows of rice fields, while a total of 2689 kilos of non-treated seeds grown in 239 mows of rice fields were used as control. The results showed that the treated seeds gave rise to very much fewer diseased seedlings in the seed beds, and that the severity of the disease was very much lighter in the treated fields than in the control. It is thus concluded that the seed treatments stated above were not effective enough to completely disinfest the seeds. Another field control experiments by using disease-free seeds were also conducted. Seeds collected from disease-free fields were used, and the weeds especially the Leersia hexandra Swartz. around the fields were eradicated. The same experiment was carried out 4 times consecutively in a field of more than 100 mows in Canton in the years of 1956 and 1957, and again in a field of 3600 mows in Chung-Hwa district in the Spring of 1958. The results all turned out fine, and the disease was successfully controlled in all cases. But since the Leersia weed has not yet been confirmed to be a natural host of the disease, its eradication may not be necessary in the field control of the present disease. This remains to be a problem that needs further investigation.

1955年室內和大田噴撒石灰粉的防治試驗結果說明,在雨后天晴的情况下噴撒石灰粉有一定的防治效果。 1958年春曾进行了1007亩(其中对照239亩)种子消毒的防治試驗。用0.5%的西力生或賽力散燜种3小时,或用0.2%西力生浸种12小时,种子发芽率不受影响,苗期发病率显著降低,大田发病日期稍为延迟,发病严重度大为減輕。 1956—1957年早晚季連續四次(每次試驗面积100亩以上)进行换用无病田种子及剷除李氏禾杂草的大田防治試驗,防治結果都很好。1958年春季在从化县街口公社国星大队成功地完成了大面积(3600亩)的防治示范試驗,全部不发病。但是,李氏禾是否本病的野生寄主,剷除李氏禾在防治上是否必要,尚有不同看法,有待进一步研究。

This paper reports the results of studies on the nuclear polyhedrosis virus-of the cotton bollworm Heliothis armigera.The virus was isolated in 1974 from dead boll-worms collected from cotton fields in Chinchow district of Hupeh Province.It was designated as VHA-273.It is observed that the polyhedra are hexagonal,pentahedron,cubical or irregular in shape,varying from 1.25 to 5.0 p in diameter.Serious pathological changes were in the fat-body,epidermis,tracheal matrix and other tissues of the diseased insects...

This paper reports the results of studies on the nuclear polyhedrosis virus-of the cotton bollworm Heliothis armigera.The virus was isolated in 1974 from dead boll-worms collected from cotton fields in Chinchow district of Hupeh Province.It was designated as VHA-273.It is observed that the polyhedra are hexagonal,pentahedron,cubical or irregular in shape,varying from 1.25 to 5.0 p in diameter.Serious pathological changes were in the fat-body,epidermis,tracheal matrix and other tissues of the diseased insects and the former two seemed to be the most susceptible tissues.The muscle bundles were not affected.Our bioassay showed that the susceptibility of the larvae to the NPV varied with dosage,larval instar and temperature.The first and second instars were the most susceptible stages;and their mortality rates at 1×106 PIBs/ml were 85% and 80% and the time lasting were 6 and 8 days respectively.Larvae of fifth and sixth instars were not so susceptible,especially when the temperature exceeded 33℃.Cross infections of the NPV with tobacco budworm,Heliothis assulta,was susccessful.In 1975,from July to September,field tests with the NPV to control bollworms were made in cotton fields about 102 mil's at Kung-an County of Hupeh Province.The concentrations used were 1.5×1010 PIBs/mu,3×1010 PIBs/mu and 6×1010 PIBs/mu.The results showed that the NPV was better than the chemical insecticides 1605+DDT.Combined use of the NPV with dilute sevin and Bacillus thurin-giensis suspensions were also tested;and the results were either better or as effective as the NPV or sevin used alone.The application of the NPV VHA-273 to control bollworms in the field seems promising.

自1973—1974年以来,在湖北荆州地区微生物站筛选出一批棉铃虫病毒毒株,其毒力均为80%以上,有的高达100%。其中毒力较强而又比较稳定的VHA-273,经病虫组织切片观察,确定其为核多角体病毒。1974—1975年除对棉铃虫病毒病的组织病理变化作了初步观察外,又继续在室内外对病毒的毒力、剂量与虫龄、温度的关系,及寄主饲料对病毒产量的影响等,进行了一系列的试验,并用VHA-273生产部分病毒,为大田防治试验作了准备。 1975年7—9月,用VHA-273生产的病毒,在湖北公安县雷州公社约102亩的早发棉田进行示范试验,对第2代及第4代棉铃虫的防治效果,先后调查了5次,最后对试验田、对照田及邻田又作了天敌调查,结果均表明试验田的虫口下降率,花、蕾及青铃受害率等,均低于1605+DDT及西维因的对照田,为棉田的生物防治提供了有希望的微生物农药。 VHA-273棉铃虫核多角体病毒,对烟青虫的毒力很强,对两种害虫能交叉感染。因此,它可用于烟青虫的防治。

Results of five years' experiments conducted in South China indicated that root-zone application of systemic insecticides effectively controlled nearly all the potential insect pests of rice -the yellow stem borer ( Tryporyza incertulas ) , the striped stem borer (Chile suppresalis) , the pink borer ( Sesamia inferens ), the rice leaf folder ( Cnaphalocrosis medinalis ), the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), the brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , the green leaf hopper ( Nephotetfix spp. ), the rice...

Results of five years' experiments conducted in South China indicated that root-zone application of systemic insecticides effectively controlled nearly all the potential insect pests of rice -the yellow stem borer ( Tryporyza incertulas ) , the striped stem borer (Chile suppresalis) , the pink borer ( Sesamia inferens ), the rice leaf folder ( Cnaphalocrosis medinalis ), the rice gall midge (Orseolia oryzae), the brown planthopper ( Nilaparvata lugens ) , the green leaf hopper ( Nephotetfix spp. ), the rice thrip (Baliothrips biformis) and the rice weevil (Echinocnemus squameus). Altogether 14 compounds have been evaluated for the control of various species.Dimethoate is readily absorbed by the root of rice plant and translocated to the stem and the leaf blade, more was found in the tips of young leaves. The consistently higher dimethoate residue in the young leaves may partially explain the chemical's greater efficacy in controlling the rice thrip, because the insect congregates and feeds at the tip of young leaves.Kitazine in the root-zone application can be used both as a fungicide and insecticide. At a rate of 3Kg AI/ha. , a mixture of ki-tazine and dimethoate gave a 90% control of the brown planthopper in 20 days after treatment. The residues in the rice grain through such application is expected to be well below the tolerance limit.It was found that a series of organophosphorus compounds containing the pyrimidiflyl radicle are very effective systemic insectic-icides when aplied in soil. Pyrimioxythion [O, O-diethyl-O-(2 - methoxy - 4 - metyl - pyrimdyl - 6 ) phosphoro - thionate ( N23)] was found to be the most effective systemic insecticide against the rice gall midge. It is more effective than carbofuran or diazinon with a residual action of 30 days. Generally one application is sufficient to provide effective control of the rice gall midge during the entire crop. Mixed formulations of pyrimioxythion with padan or dimehypo [S,S ( dimethylamino ) trimethylene dithiosulf uric acid ester] at a rate of 1.5 kg Al/ha. applied in the root-zone provided very effective control of rice borers, the rice gall midge and the leaf folder. This formulation appears to be of practical importance. Diazinon and pirimiphos-ethyl were also found to be effective against the rice gall midge.Acephate and tamaron are not potent as systemic insecticides but when applied in soil they provide short-term control of the yellow stem borer and the brown planthopper. They are characterized by their short residual action. Acephate when used in an admixture formulation with padan or chlordimeform, the effectiveness was found to greatly increased.According to the results of extensive trials, one application of carbofuran granules in the root-zone at a rate of 1.5 kg Al/ha. provided effective control of the rice gall midge, the yellow stem borer, the pink borer, the rice thrip, the green leafhopper and the brown planthopper. Against rice borers its residual action was found to be as long as 40 - 60 days. One application of carbofuran granules by soil incorporation in the rice seed-beds provided good control of one generation of the rice gall midge and other insect pests. The insecticide was carried with the rice seedlings to the paddy field and proved to be effective after transplanting without adverse effects on the parasite, Platygaster spp.,This method of soil application of carbofuran has been popularized among rice farmers in Kwangtung, Kiangsu and other provinces.Carbofuran, though a broad spectrum insecticide, is not very effective against the rice leaf folder. In fields wherein, in addition to the common insect pests, a heavy infestation of the rice leaf folder occurs, it is recommended to apply carbofuran in admixture, with padan or dimehypo or chlordimeform in the root-zone.Nereistoxin from a marine annelid, has served as a starting point for a group of very useful insecticides. In resent years, it has been found that padan, dimehypo and thiocyclam h)rdrogen exalate ("Evi-sect") are good systemic insecticides when applied in the root-zone f

本文就根区施药方法的杀虫药效、杀虫作用机制、对害虫天敌的影响、农药残留量及内吸运转规律等方面进行讨论。 1975—1979年室内、田间小区和大田示范试验结果证明,根区施药(尤其是根区深层施药)具有药效高、节省用药量、残效期长、可以保护害虫天敌,帮助维持农田的生态系统平衡和减少环境污染等。 经试验过内吸杀虫剂有14种,已证明呋喃丹除对稻纵卷叶螟效果很差外,对叶蝉、飞虱、稻瘿蚊、稻蓟马、大螟、稻象(虫甲)等有特效,杀虫脒和类巴丹杀虫剂对螟虫类、稻纵卷叶螟有特效,但对稻瘿蚊则效果很差。巴丹、呋喃丹、杀虫脒性质较稳定,施于土壤里残效期可长达30-50天左右。有机磷内吸杀虫剂施于土壤里易于分解,残效期约10—25天左右。因不同药剂、不同季节和不同土壤类型而有差异。为了一次施药兼治多种主要害虫,可以采用混合剂如嘧啶氧磷混杀虫双、乐果混杀虫脒等,每亩用纯药75—100克深施,可以解决水稻生长前期30—50天的害虫为害,后期有可能靠生物天敌以达到生态平衡,尚待以后研究。 研究根区施药后对稻田蜘蛛的影响,也研究药剂对稻瘿蚊的寄生天敌黄柄黑蜂、三化螟卵寄生蜂等的影响,研究认为此种施药方式对天敌有显著的保护作用,而常规...

本文就根区施药方法的杀虫药效、杀虫作用机制、对害虫天敌的影响、农药残留量及内吸运转规律等方面进行讨论。 1975—1979年室内、田间小区和大田示范试验结果证明,根区施药(尤其是根区深层施药)具有药效高、节省用药量、残效期长、可以保护害虫天敌,帮助维持农田的生态系统平衡和减少环境污染等。 经试验过内吸杀虫剂有14种,已证明呋喃丹除对稻纵卷叶螟效果很差外,对叶蝉、飞虱、稻瘿蚊、稻蓟马、大螟、稻象(虫甲)等有特效,杀虫脒和类巴丹杀虫剂对螟虫类、稻纵卷叶螟有特效,但对稻瘿蚊则效果很差。巴丹、呋喃丹、杀虫脒性质较稳定,施于土壤里残效期可长达30-50天左右。有机磷内吸杀虫剂施于土壤里易于分解,残效期约10—25天左右。因不同药剂、不同季节和不同土壤类型而有差异。为了一次施药兼治多种主要害虫,可以采用混合剂如嘧啶氧磷混杀虫双、乐果混杀虫脒等,每亩用纯药75—100克深施,可以解决水稻生长前期30—50天的害虫为害,后期有可能靠生物天敌以达到生态平衡,尚待以后研究。 研究根区施药后对稻田蜘蛛的影响,也研究药剂对稻瘿蚊的寄生天敌黄柄黑蜂、三化螟卵寄生蜂等的影响,研究认为此种施药方式对天敌有显著的保护作用,而常规的喷雾、喷粉对天敌有严重的破坏作用。 深层施药,藉土壤微生物水解

 
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