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meadow management
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     IT Management
     信息技术管理──订单处理的标准化促动因素
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     In its management, the C.
     人事管理中,实行严格录用、待遇丰厚、赏罚分明等,并采取年功序列制。
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     Effect of Different management on the Plant Diversity of Mountain Meadow
     不同保护措施对山地草甸植物多样性的影响
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The changing variation of plant diversity all around mountain meadow were studied in different management categories in Hongsongwa Natural Reserve of China,Hebei,through using cluster analysis and α and β diversity index statistically based on various data of 15 plots.The results showed that:15 plots were clustered into five sections.The transitional sites from the core to the buffer area inclusive of the low region in the core area were divided into two sections individually.In α diversity,the results based...

The changing variation of plant diversity all around mountain meadow were studied in different management categories in Hongsongwa Natural Reserve of China,Hebei,through using cluster analysis and α and β diversity index statistically based on various data of 15 plots.The results showed that:15 plots were clustered into five sections.The transitional sites from the core to the buffer area inclusive of the low region in the core area were divided into two sections individually.In α diversity,the results based on individuals and importance value are all the same.Value of the lowest richness,evenness and diversity as well as the highest dominance are located in the centre of the core area and the buffer area.In the transitional site among different areas,value of richness,evenness and diversity are ranged as the highest,and of dominance as the lowest.β diversity indices are fluctuated in wavy variations among plots,indicating that the habitat of the observed region was fragmented more or less by human activities.The rate of substitution among local plant species was emerged towards the fastest in the transitional sites between the core area and the buffer area,and lowest record was appeared in the center sites of the buffer area,variations of plant diversity indices were also prevailed like wavy motion with the changes of environmental factors,such as soil water content,topographical altitude,slope aspect and so on,showing that the plant diversity was somewhat influenced intensely by various ways and means of meadow management.

应用 α和 β多样性指数及聚类分析 ,探讨河北省围场县红松洼自然保护区在不同管理条件下的变化规律。结果表明 ,聚类分析将 1 5个样地划分为 5个组。在α多样性方面 ,以个体数为基础和以重要值为基础的多样性测度结果一致 ,最小多样性、最小均匀度、最小丰富度和最大生态优势度出现于核心区和缓冲区的中央。α多样性、均匀度和丰富度的最大值 ,以及生态优势度最小值出现在 3个区的过渡地带。该地区 α多样性最重要的影响因素是草地管理方式。在β多样性方面 ,该地区不存在位置上的环境梯度 ,生境破碎化程度较大。物种替代速率最快的是缓冲区与核心区的过渡地带 ,最慢的是在缓冲区的中央

Diversity of insect community in four different management meadows(forage meadows,cultivated meadows,grazing meadows and shrub meadows) was studied based on the field ecological methods,the data were collected four times from 2004 to 2005.The total number of insects collected were 14?524 belonging to 10 orders and 60 families.The results indicated that ① Cicadelloidea(Homoptera) was the dominant groups and Diptera was the normal groups of herb insect community in different sample times of different management...

Diversity of insect community in four different management meadows(forage meadows,cultivated meadows,grazing meadows and shrub meadows) was studied based on the field ecological methods,the data were collected four times from 2004 to 2005.The total number of insects collected were 14?524 belonging to 10 orders and 60 families.The results indicated that ① Cicadelloidea(Homoptera) was the dominant groups and Diptera was the normal groups of herb insect community in different sample times of different management meadows.② The number of orders,families and species were highest in September,lower in June and lowest in March.There were significant difference on groups in different sample times.③ The lowest Shannon-Wiener index was found in the grazing meadows,and the highest in shrub meadows.④ based on the criterion of Jaccard's C_j,it was found the similarity index in September was larger than it in June.Considering stability and utility of meadows system,It was concluded that the traditional meadow management,forage meadows,benefited the maintain of diversity of insect community.

采用野外样地调查方法于2004~2005年4次研究了滇西北4种不同管理草地的草丛昆虫多样性,共捕获昆虫14 524头,分属10目60科.结果表明:①同翅目叶蝉总科在不同取样时间不同管理方式的草地中均为优势类群,而双翅目昆虫则是不同取样时间不同管理方式的草地中常见类群的重要组成部分.②4种不同管理草地昆虫的目、科、种的数量变化均表现为9月最高,6月次之,3月最低.不同取样时间的昆虫群落存在显著差异.③从全年累积的昆虫多样性指数来看,灌丛草地最高,种植草地和刈草草地次之,放牧草地最低.④用Jaccard相似性系数(Cj)判别发现,在不同管理方式之间,昆虫群落的相似性系数9月较高.得出结论:从生态系统的稳定性和实用性来看,传统的刈草草地有利于维持草地昆虫的多样性.

 
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