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Our study indicates that the model can be applied to study the interaction between land surface processes and atmospheric boundary layers over various underlying surfaces and their regional climate effects.
      
Regularities of wind-erosion of different land-use types in Yongding River sandy land, Beijing
      
The threshold wind velocity of a number of variables was studied in four different land-use types: farm land, forestland, wild grassland and a flood plain in the Yongding River sandy land in Beijing.
      
The following conclusions were drawn: 1) The order of decreasing threshold of wind speed for sand displacement and surface roughness were forestland, wild grassland, farm land, sparse wild grassland and flood plain.
      
At a height of 0-20 cm, the height increased while the sediment discharge percent of sand flux decreased; there were significant differences in the sand flow formation under different land-use types.
      
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Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat...

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

1. In South Sinkiang, eggs deposited by the migratory locust, Locusta migra-toria migratoria L., in Aug. 1952 hatched ih the latter part of April, and adultsemerged on June 6 the following year. This species has only one generation ayean and the eggs remain underground for a period of 8 months. 2. Calliptamus italicus L. can be easily identified by the presence of a longprosternal spine between the fore coxae. The distal portion of the cercus inthe male individual is divided into three lobes, the middle one...

1. In South Sinkiang, eggs deposited by the migratory locust, Locusta migra-toria migratoria L., in Aug. 1952 hatched ih the latter part of April, and adultsemerged on June 6 the following year. This species has only one generation ayean and the eggs remain underground for a period of 8 months. 2. Calliptamus italicus L. can be easily identified by the presence of a longprosternal spine between the fore coxae. The distal portion of the cercus inthe male individual is divided into three lobes, the middle one being shorterthan the upper one. 3. Heavy damage was done to pasture land by Gomphocerus sibericus L.. Thisspecies is characterized by the swellen terminal segments of the antennae. Inthe male individuals, the tibiae of the fore legs are also enlarged. 4. Dociostaurus kraussi Ing. may be identified by the presence of an X-shaped marking on the pronotum and the much eniarged markings on themetazone. 5. Ramburiella turcomana F-W. has a slant face Which meets the vertexat an acute angle. Besides the X-shaped marking on the pronotum, there isanother broad line running along the median ridge. 6. The distinguishing Character of the grasshopper Oedaleus decorus Germ.is the blackish band that runs across the hing wings. The pronotal medianridge is high, with a very promineat X-shaped marking on its sides. 7. In Sphingonatus salinus (Pall) the small prozone with a high median ridge,and the two bands across the hind wings are quite characteristic. 8. In this paper distributions of the above-mentioned species are listed. Des-criptions of the egg capsules and the sculpturing on the egg shells have beenmade for the purpose of facilitating specific identification in the field.

(一)新疆蝗虫种类繁多,发生为害面积亦大。1953年全新疆发生面积为762,000公顷,共防治95,703公顷。经两年来的初步观察,蝗虫中为害性较大,分布较普遍的有下述九种。 1.迁移飞蝗一年发生一代。1952年8月所产之卵,最早于1953年4月下旬孵化,至6月6日变为成虫。蝗卵在地下发育阶段,长达8月之久。 2.意大利蝗主要特征在其突出之前胸腹板刺;前胸背板有中脊和侧脊;雄虫尾须末端分裂为三叶,中叶之末端不及上叶末端。 3.西伯利亚蝗为牧区中牧草的大敌害。成虫主要特征为触角末端变粗;雄虫前足胫节膨大如梨状。 4.克鲁斯蝗沟后区上之花纹变宽,成三角形;前翅不超过后足膝部;后足胫节红色。而鞑靼蝗沟后区上的花纹前端并不变粗。 5.侧视土克曼蝗头部倾斜;前胸背板上除有较长大的X形图案外,中脊上尚有纵行花纹;后足腿节和胫节黄色,间隔以黑色斑纹。 6.轮翅蝗前胸背板之中脊拱起,其两侧有X形图案;后翅基部淡黄绿色,中部有一条宽而弯曲的黑色条纹,不及后翅的后缘。 7.盐地圆背蝗沟前区小而狭隘;后翅基部淡红色,中部及翅端各有—条宽的黑色条纹。与盐地圆背蝗相似者,尚有八纹圆背蝗。 (二)对上述九种蝗虫之分布,卵囊及卵壳上之花纹...

(一)新疆蝗虫种类繁多,发生为害面积亦大。1953年全新疆发生面积为762,000公顷,共防治95,703公顷。经两年来的初步观察,蝗虫中为害性较大,分布较普遍的有下述九种。 1.迁移飞蝗一年发生一代。1952年8月所产之卵,最早于1953年4月下旬孵化,至6月6日变为成虫。蝗卵在地下发育阶段,长达8月之久。 2.意大利蝗主要特征在其突出之前胸腹板刺;前胸背板有中脊和侧脊;雄虫尾须末端分裂为三叶,中叶之末端不及上叶末端。 3.西伯利亚蝗为牧区中牧草的大敌害。成虫主要特征为触角末端变粗;雄虫前足胫节膨大如梨状。 4.克鲁斯蝗沟后区上之花纹变宽,成三角形;前翅不超过后足膝部;后足胫节红色。而鞑靼蝗沟后区上的花纹前端并不变粗。 5.侧视土克曼蝗头部倾斜;前胸背板上除有较长大的X形图案外,中脊上尚有纵行花纹;后足腿节和胫节黄色,间隔以黑色斑纹。 6.轮翅蝗前胸背板之中脊拱起,其两侧有X形图案;后翅基部淡黄绿色,中部有一条宽而弯曲的黑色条纹,不及后翅的后缘。 7.盐地圆背蝗沟前区小而狭隘;后翅基部淡红色,中部及翅端各有—条宽的黑色条纹。与盐地圆背蝗相似者,尚有八纹圆背蝗。 (二)对上述九种蝗虫之分布,卵囊及卵壳上之花纹,均分别叙及;并附有作者原绘图六幅。在调查蝗虫分布密度及蝗种鉴别上,识别卵囊较有根据。

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris,...

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis, Miscanthus sinensis, Phragmites karka, Carex sp. etc.. 2.Western Shantung plain: This region is located at the western part of the province. Most of the land is under cultivation and the soil is rich in calcium. There is no forest. The common trees are Populus tomentosa, P. alba P. davidiana, Ulmus spp. etc., and the herbaceous plants are Cynodon dactilon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Imperata cylindrica, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus chinensis,Xanthium japonicum, Crypi saculeata, Scirpus maritimus etc.. Plants which grow in the lake district largely belong to Phragmites communis, Scirpus maritimus, Zizania latifolia, Euryale ferox, Trapa bispinosa etc.. 3.Central South hilly region: This region has mostly been transformed into farms for a long time. On the hilly region there are still some remnant forests. The important trees are Pinus tabulaeformis, Biota orientalis. Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Betula chinensis, Tilia mongolica etc.. On account of calcareous soil in this region, Biota orientalis is found most extensively. Gramineae leads all other herbaceous plants in abundance. The following species such as Arundinella amomala, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Setaria viridis, Pennisitum flaccidum etc. have a wide distribution. 4. Shantung Peninsula: The common native plants in this region are Pinus densiflora, Quercus dentata, Q. acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer mono etc.. Pious densiflora is a native plant which grows all over the hilly region. Herbaceous plants are mostly Thymus serpyllum, Setaria viridis, S. lutescens etc.. Due to the oceanic climate with higher precipitation and humidity, plants enjoy a more vigorous growth than those in other regions. There develops a richer flora, some even with warm temperate elements.

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗...

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗、舖地胡枝子等;草本植物多蘆葦、狗尾草等。此區氣候由於受篞笳{節,雨量與溼度亦較高,故植物生長較其他三區繁盛,種類亦較多,亞熱带植物之分布亦多於他處,尤以海邊低地為甚。在自然地理上,秦嶺、淮河一線是中國南北氣候和土壤的重要分界線,也是植物的重要分界線。但是從山東的植物分布上,可以知道這條線並不能絕然的将植物分為南北二部分,因為山東仍是一个過渡的地帶,許多南方植物在魯南及膠東沿海都有分佈,如黄檀、山胡椒、烏桖、厚朴、王蘭、木犀、黄楊、谜葉樹等多种。在另一方面,北方植物分佈至山東為其最南界限者如糠椴、遼珍珠梅、遼磯松、榛等;而赤松、蒙古機、蒙椴等則南达苏北之雲台山。由此可加,山東之植物分佈上,仍在秦嶺、淮河一線之範圍内,如以淮河來作為植物之南北分界線,则并不能完全符合實際情况,尤以膠東沿海低地,南方植物種類繁多,可與淮河流域相此。因此,此一分界线之東端似有北移之必要。山東植物之分佈乃由環境条件综合影響之結果,但在不同地区,各種因素之作用並不一致,由於地形、土壤、温度和水分等之区别而使植物分布不同。本文所举植物種类和分布地點都是從各項资料所得到,作者将其分為四區,並初步提出了這種分区的理由和形成不同分布的原因。但限於材料的不够完全和水平的淺薄,因此本文的內容很不充實, 只能作为令後进一步研究山东植物地理的基础,希望大家提出补充和指出不正确的地方,而使这一项工作能够顺利的完成。

 
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