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combined risks
相关语句
  组合风险
     A λ named risk-measure-safety index is introduced, and a risk-measure model named safety modified risk measure, which is adapt to the combined risks are also introduced, on the basis of “modified certainty equivalent” risk measure, hence, a premium pricing principle is obtained for combined risks.
     在“修正确定等价”(modified certainty equivalent)风险度量模式的基础上 ,引入风险度量安全系数λ,建立了一种适用范围更广的组合风险的度量模式——安全修正风险度量 ,从而也得到一种组合风险的保费定价模式 .
短句来源
     And by this means, risk measure and premium pricing are related, Meanwhile, from this way, “the mean value principle” can be applied into the portfolio investment and pricing for the combined risks.
     由此 ,达到了风险的度量和保费定价的有机结合 ,同时 ,也将经典的“平均值原理”从个体风险推广到了组合投资和组合风险的度量定价中 .
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  相似匹配句对
     with the combined tuberculosis;
     与合并结核病有关;
短句来源
     Outdoors RISKS
     户外活动零危险
短句来源
     Combined Art
     综合的艺术——浅析影响凡·高绘画艺术的外在因素
短句来源
     On Audit Risks
     论审计风险
短句来源
     Research on the Antispermatogenesic Mechanisms and Genetic Risks of Gossypol Combined with Steroid Hormone for Male Contraception
     合并应用棉酚与甾体激素的雄性抗生育机理和遗传安全性研究
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In order to clarify the prevalence pattern of children's diarrheal diseases in Beijing, an epidemiological study was carried out in the year 1986 involving 4 districts, A sample of 2290 children under 5 year-old were monitored for 12 months and 25437 person times were being inspected, among which 96 cases of diarrhea were identified but on death. Annual morbidity rate was 45.28%, i.e monthly morbidity rate was 3.77%. In terms of episodes/person/year it was 0.45±0.03; 0.27 in the city proper vs 1.01 in the suburb;...

In order to clarify the prevalence pattern of children's diarrheal diseases in Beijing, an epidemiological study was carried out in the year 1986 involving 4 districts, A sample of 2290 children under 5 year-old were monitored for 12 months and 25437 person times were being inspected, among which 96 cases of diarrhea were identified but on death. Annual morbidity rate was 45.28%, i.e monthly morbidity rate was 3.77%. In terms of episodes/person/year it was 0.45±0.03; 0.27 in the city proper vs 1.01 in the suburb; 0.08 in the city institution children vs 0.52 in non-institution children. Its relationship with age, sex, season, weather etc is analyzed. A series of combined risk factors of children's diarrheal diseases are L. ronstrated,

为探讨小儿腹泻的发病规律,在北京市东南西北四个区县选择5岁以下小儿2290人作为监测对象。1986年度共进行流行病学调查25437人次。查明年总发病率为45.28%,平均每人每年腹泻发病次数为0.45±0.03。其中城区0.27次(集体0.8次,散居0.52次),郊区农村为1.01次。平均月发病率为3.77%。并对发病率与年龄、性别、季节及气象因素作了相关分析。查明了北京市诱发小儿腹泻病的联合危险因素。上述科研资料,对北京市小儿腹泻病的控制有重要意义。

The situation and characteristics of economic evaluation of petroleum resources of international oil companies was presented in the paper. International oil companies consider the economic evaluation as the most important work before investment, and run economic evaluation through the whole course of exploration and development. They take single project as the center of cost keeping and evaluation object, combine risk evaluation with economic evaluation, evaluate the exploration and development integratively,...

The situation and characteristics of economic evaluation of petroleum resources of international oil companies was presented in the paper. International oil companies consider the economic evaluation as the most important work before investment, and run economic evaluation through the whole course of exploration and development. They take single project as the center of cost keeping and evaluation object, combine risk evaluation with economic evaluation, evaluate the exploration and development integratively, strictly implement scientific exploration procedures and continuously developed new evaluation techniques. These measures of international oil companies are that our national companies can make use of.

介绍国际油公司油气资源经济评价的现状和特点。国际油公司将经济评价作为投资前最重要的工作 ,并贯穿于勘探开发的全过程 ,以单个项目作为成本核算中心和评价对象 ,将风险评估和经济评价相结合 ,进行勘探开发一体化评价 ,严格执行科学的勘探程序 ,不断开发评价新技术 ,值得国内借鉴。

Epiblema strenuana is an important biocontrol agent against ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). This phytophagous insect was imported to China by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences as a potential candidate to control A. artemissifolia in 1990. Safety to flora in the northern region of China was a concern and the insect was not released until in 1993 on a small scale in Linxiang, Hunan province, China. However, no risk analysis or monitoring was conducted after its release. In order to evaluate...

Epiblema strenuana is an important biocontrol agent against ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). This phytophagous insect was imported to China by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences as a potential candidate to control A. artemissifolia in 1990. Safety to flora in the northern region of China was a concern and the insect was not released until in 1993 on a small scale in Linxiang, Hunan province, China. However, no risk analysis or monitoring was conducted after its release. In order to evaluate its safety to native ecosystems, to expand its utilization and to advance methods of risk analysis for introduced biocontrol agents, we studied host specificity of E. strenuana. Thirty-six species of economic, ornamental and weedy species belonging to nine families were selected based on the centrifugal phylogenetic testing method. A no-choice test was conducted to evaluate E. strenuana larval feeding risk under laboratory conditions, by inoculating different instar larvae on the tested plants. A more realistic multiple-choice test was conducted for three successive generations under field conditions in three scenarios: (1) adult oviposition, (2) larval development, and (3) larval movement. Based on the probability theory, risks were analyzed in two ways. (1) Single Exposure Factor Risk Index (SEFRI) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate selection risk of E. strenuana to the tested plants. SEFRI for larval development and adult oviposition was divided into three categories: active selection risk (SEFRI≥ 0.01), random selection risk (SEFRI< 0.01) and no selection risk (SEFRI = 0). (2) A Combined Risk Index (CRI) was calculated to express the combined exposure factor risk on a tested plant, i.e. CRI = SEFRI (1)×SEFRI (2)...×SEFRI (n). Laboratory no-choice feeding test showed that E. strenuana could complete development only on A. artemisiifolia and Xanthium sibiricum. When introduced onto tested plants, all young larvae (1st~3rd instar) died; and only a few old larvae (4th~6th instar) could pupate on Artemisia annua, Dendranthema morifolium (cv. Yellow lotus) and Helianthus annuus but without any feeding. These three plants cannot be considered host plants for E. strenuana. Open field multiple-choice test showed that in all the 16 tested plants, (including A. artemisiifolia, X. sibiricum, 6 cultivars of H. annuus and 7 species/ cultivars of potted chrysanthemum), Single Exposure Factor Risk Index (SEFRI (1)) for adult oviposition from three generations was 0.76~1 on A. artemisiifolia, 0~1 on X. sibiricum, 0~0.06 on A. annua and 0~0.02 on Tagetes. erecta, only 0~0.004 on H. annuus (I-M1 and I-M2), and 0 on other tested plants. SEFRI (2) for larval survival of E. strenuana was 1 on A. artemisiifolia and 0.42 on X. sibiricum, and 0 on other tested plants. SEFRI (3) for capability of larval selection for tested plants in non-choice condition was 1 on A. artemisiifolia, 0.59 on X. sibiricum, 0.21 on A. annua, 0 on Helichrysum bracteatum and 0.03~0.15 on other tested plants. Thus, the combined host specificity risk index (CRI) was 0.76 for A. artemisiifolia and 0.25 for X. sibiricum (active selection risk), and 0 for the other tested plants (no selection risk), respectively. The population increase trend index of E. strenuana also showed the same results. We can conclude that E. strenuana has a very restricted host range, as it can only complete development on A. artemissifolia and X. sibiricum, and poses no risk to the other plant species tested. It can be considered as an ecologically safe bio-control agent against ragweed in China.

在以往豚草生物防治研究的基础上 ,为评价防治恶性豚草的外来天敌昆虫的安全性 ,以及探索外来生防作用物的风险评价方法 ,以豚草卷蛾为案例 ,进一步对其寄主安全性进行了风险评估。基于与豚草的近缘关系及以往的研究结果 ,选用 9科 36种常见经济作物、观赏植物和杂草 ,采用室内非选择性取食测定、田间开放条件下多选择性取食测定和室外非选择性取食分龄接虫的生命表等研究方法 ,对豚草卷蛾的寄主专一性作了深入研究。 ( 1 )室内非选择性取食测定结果表明 ,豚草卷蛾仅能在豚草和苍耳上完成整个幼虫的发育 ;但在强迫将高龄幼虫 ( 4~ 6龄 )接入黄花蒿、菊花 (黄莲 )和向日葵 (白 97-1和天委 F2 )时 ,有少量幼虫能发育化蛹 ,但不发生取食 ,在这些植物上完成发育只是一种假象。 ( 2 )田间开放条件下多选择性取食测定结果表明 ,豚草卷蛾的寄主选择性随种群数量不同而异 ,当种群数量增大 ,受取食条件胁迫时 ,出现风险“扩散”现象。田间供试的 1 6种 (含品种 )植物中 ,第 2、3和 4代出现虫瘿 (被幼虫选择 )的供试植物依次为 :豚草(第 2代 ) ;豚草和苍耳 (第 3代 ) ;豚草、苍耳和黄花蒿 (第 ...

在以往豚草生物防治研究的基础上 ,为评价防治恶性豚草的外来天敌昆虫的安全性 ,以及探索外来生防作用物的风险评价方法 ,以豚草卷蛾为案例 ,进一步对其寄主安全性进行了风险评估。基于与豚草的近缘关系及以往的研究结果 ,选用 9科 36种常见经济作物、观赏植物和杂草 ,采用室内非选择性取食测定、田间开放条件下多选择性取食测定和室外非选择性取食分龄接虫的生命表等研究方法 ,对豚草卷蛾的寄主专一性作了深入研究。 ( 1 )室内非选择性取食测定结果表明 ,豚草卷蛾仅能在豚草和苍耳上完成整个幼虫的发育 ;但在强迫将高龄幼虫 ( 4~ 6龄 )接入黄花蒿、菊花 (黄莲 )和向日葵 (白 97-1和天委 F2 )时 ,有少量幼虫能发育化蛹 ,但不发生取食 ,在这些植物上完成发育只是一种假象。 ( 2 )田间开放条件下多选择性取食测定结果表明 ,豚草卷蛾的寄主选择性随种群数量不同而异 ,当种群数量增大 ,受取食条件胁迫时 ,出现风险“扩散”现象。田间供试的 1 6种 (含品种 )植物中 ,第 2、3和 4代出现虫瘿 (被幼虫选择 )的供试植物依次为 :豚草(第 2代 ) ;豚草和苍耳 (第 3代 ) ;豚草、苍耳和黄花蒿 (第 4代 )。按产卵单因子选择性风险指数 ( SEFRI(1) )值分析表明 ,豚草卷蛾成虫产卵对豚草、苍耳和黄花蒿表现出选择性风险

 
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