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The paper examines the factors that are likely to influence the pharmaceutical industry in India in the new WTO regime and the preparedness of government, research organizations and firms to compete in this scenario.
      
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A new species of tapeworm Bothriocephalus gowkongensis sp. nov. is reported for Ctenopharyngodon idellus from Gowkong, near Canton, South China. The parasite is of great economic importance owing to the high mortality of the host caused by the infection and consequently heavy losses to the freshwater fishery industry. A preliminary note is given on the life cycle, which involves unidentified cyclops as intermediate hosts. The eggs are fully embryonated when laid and it is the first Bothriocephalus konwn...

A new species of tapeworm Bothriocephalus gowkongensis sp. nov. is reported for Ctenopharyngodon idellus from Gowkong, near Canton, South China. The parasite is of great economic importance owing to the high mortality of the host caused by the infection and consequently heavy losses to the freshwater fishery industry. A preliminary note is given on the life cycle, which involves unidentified cyclops as intermediate hosts. The eggs are fully embryonated when laid and it is the first Bothriocephalus konwn with this phenomenon. From a study of the variation in a large number of specimens of B. gowkongensis sp. nov., the author considers B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934 a synonym of B. achilognathi Yamaguti, 1934.SPECIFIC DIAGNOSIS: Bothriocephalus Rudolphi, 1808 emended Lühe, 1899, with generic characters. About 35-80 mm. in length and 0.5-1.2 mm. in width. Segments with or without distinct segmentation. Slight indications of secondary segmentation might occur in all segments. Immature segments broader than long, mature segments square and gravid segments longer than broad. Scolex large, fleshy, heart-shaped with distinct terminal disc and well-developed fleshy bothria. Inner longitudinal muscle bundles extremely weak and sparsely scattered. 50-90 testes. Cirrus immediately in front of vagina. Cirro-vaginal aperture median or slightly lateral between mid-line and posterior third of segment. Ovary near posterior of proglottid. Uterus convoluted, voluminous, and confined to median field. Uterine sac-may encroach on posterior border of preceeding segment or be placed some distance away. Vitellaria in complete circle in cortex. Like the testes, they are continuous from segment to segment. Eggs thin-shelled, operculated, fully embryonated when laid, measuring 33-38 53-54μType host: Ctenopharyngodon idellus.Habitat: Intestine.Type: To be deposited with the Department of Parasitology, Hun-Nan Medical College, Canton, China.Co-types: In author's collection, and to be deposited with the Depertment of Biology, Chung-Shan University, Canton, China.

1.文中记载草鱼腸中新种絛蟲B. gowkongensisn. sp. 是由广东九江採得的。 2.本蟲促使宿主的死亡率,使淡水渔业受到很大的损失。 3.由头槽絛蟲生活史的初步观察,发现它的卵排出时,已有发育完全的胚胎。 4.从研究大量新种标本的变化中,作者认为B. opsariichthydis Yamaguti, 1934是B. achilognathi Yamaguti, 1934的同种异名。

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions,...

Even though in the application of adsorption to industry or research one almost never deals with solutions containing only a single solute, yet the number of investigations on the adsorption from mixed solutions is very limited. Following the lead of Freundlich the generally held opinion is that the effect of one adsorbate on the adsorption of another is simple displacement. While this may be true for some special cases, it is undoubtedly too simple to be of general validity, because the various interactions, such as solid-solvent, solute-solute, solute-solvent, have been neglected in this theory. In the theoretical study of chromatography it is necessary to know the equation for the adsorption isotherm when more than one solute are present in the solution. The most widely adopted equation for this purpose is (x/m)_a=k'_aC_a/(1+k_iC_i) (1) This equation can be easily derived from that for a single adsorbate: x/m = k'C/ (1+kC) (2) by assuming that the presence of an additional solute merely reduces the available surface area of the solid. Formally, this equation is analogous to that of Langmuir for the adsorp- tion of gaseous mixtures, replacing pressures by concentrations, but it is actually an empirical equation, because the numerical values of the k's can be obtained only from experimental data and their physical significance is not at all clear. This equation predicts the de-pression of the adsorption of one solute by another. While it is in line with the current idea, there is no experimental proof of its validity. It is the dual purpose of the present investigation to substantiate or disprove the dis- placement theory and to test the applicability of equation (1). We have studied the adsorption from binary solutions of hydrochloric, acetic, and oxalic acids by sugar char. The adsorbates are chosen because of their widely different strength. Sugar char is chosen because it has been shown from previous studies that with this adsorbent the experimental data for single adsorbate follow equation (2). The experimental results are given below: HCl-CH_3COOH and CH_3COOH-H_2C_2O_4 systems: (1) The adsorption of any acid is less than when it is present alone; (2) When the corresponding (x/m)'s are plotted, straight lines with negative slopes are obtained; (3) The slopes of these straight lines vary with the concentration of the acid being displaced; (4) The order of the displacing power, measured by the slope, is HCl> CH_3COOH > H_2C_2O_4, while the order of adsorption is just the reverse; (5) Equation (1) is not valid. HCl-H_2C_2O_4 system: (6) The adsorption of HCl is decreased; (7) When its concentration is higher than about 0.005 N, the adsorption of oxalic acid is increased; at lower concentrations the adsorption is decreased; (8) The higher the concentration of HCl is, the more pronounced will be the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid; (9) Corresponding (x/m)'s give straight lines whose slopes change sign as C_ox increases beyond 0.005 N. From (3) and (4) it is concluded that the observed decrease of adsorption is not due to simple displacement. Based on the hypothesis that it is primarily the solvent which is displaced with the subsequent shift of equilibrium, a mechanism is proposed to account for the effect of one solute on the adsorption of another, which seems to agree with all the observed results. The increase of the adsorption of oxalic acid disproves conclusively the displacement theory. The fact that there is a critical concentration below which the adsorption of oxalic acid is decreased indicates that there are two opposite influences at work. It is suggested that three factors contribute to the increase of adsorption of oxalic acid: (a) the decrease of dissociation; (b) the lowering of solubility; and (c) electrostatic effect. To determine the relative importance of these factors requires further investigation. Finally, an empirical equation involving three constants has been derived to represent the adsorption of oxalic acid in the presence of hydrochloric acid.

在此工作中我們研究了三種混合酸的吸附。在鹽酸-酸的體系中,鹽酸增加糖炭對於草酸的吸附量,倘若草酸的濃度超過0.005N。這個事實否定了在混合酸中各溶質間的作用是彼此頂替的說法。在醋酸-草酸及醋酸-鹽酸的混合溶液中,各酸的吸附量皆較其單獨存在時低。根據實驗的數據我們指出了各家說法的可疑之點。我們認為在混合溶液中吸附量之減少主要是因為溶質甲頂替了表面上的溶劑,因而使溶質乙的吸附量降低。若是溶質甲能使溶質乙的電離度或溶度降低,或增加溶質乙的Gegen-ion,則能使乙的吸附量增加。因為Langmuir式的混合吸附公式不能代表吸附之增加,我們提出了一個可以此較滿意的代表實驗結果的三常數經驗公式。各溶質的吸附量皆成直線關係。對此結果我們不能作定量的解釋,雖然此種現象與我們的假設並不矛盾。

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8industry and power indus-try in operation and design work of power plants. The monographs for the coalcombustion calculations will be shown in another paper for the practical use forpower plant operation, because of too many graphs in one paper. Owing to the fact that the only data available for the ultimate analysis ofChinese coal is from the Northeast region and North China region, the degreeof accuracy of these graphs for Chinese coal is limited by the available data,although the comparison with the graphs for Soviet coals show a perfect simi-larity so that it can be concluded these graphs can be used for the Chinesecoals in other regions. Critical opinions are welcomed by the author to improve this paper.

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

 
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