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标准误
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  standard error
    Taking Standard Error as the Standard for Comparing Two Kinds of Total Volume Difference Is Inadvisable in Forest Planning, Design and Inventory
    规划设计调查不宜采用标准误作为两种总体蓄积差值比较标准
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  standard errors
    The provenance heritablities and standard errors of main growth traits in H , diameter of breast height ( DBH ) and V were respectively 0.8738±0.0482、0.7961±0.0718 and 0.7929±0.0727. If the best provenance or 2~3 superior provenances were selected in each site respectively, the expected gain for volume is 39.03%, the average genetic gain for the volume is 27.57% respectively.
    树高、胸径和材积的种源遗传力及其标准误分别为 0 8738± 0 0 482、0 796 1± 0 0 71 8、0 792 9± 0 0 72 7。 运用指数选择 ,若各地点选择本地点最好的 1个种源 ,预期增益为39 0 3% ;
短句来源
  standard error
    Taking Standard Error as the Standard for Comparing Two Kinds of Total Volume Difference Is Inadvisable in Forest Planning, Design and Inventory
    规划设计调查不宜采用标准误作为两种总体蓄积差值比较标准
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  standard error
The pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity of FDT with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after correction for standard error were 0.86 (0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (0.81-0.91), respectively.
      
The standard error of determination of the active form of IAA by our method is 1.5-2.0 times less than that using the traditional method.
      
It is shown that the standard error in the measurements does not exceed 0.1log(η).
      
The total relative standard error for applying the method to 20 synthetic samples in the concentration ranges of 20-400 ng/mL Co(II), 60-400 ng/mL Ni(II), and 4-400 ng/mL Cu(II) was 1.53%.
      
However, stochastically independently selected specimens show a larger deviation than the standard error of the calibration.
      
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  standard errors
According to the calculations, the measurement of the levels of, e.g., oil, petroleum products, and underlying water is possible with relative standard errors of the order of 0.1-1%.
      
For most of the stars, the standard errors in the Mg abundances do not exceed 0.07 dex.
      
As the error of aerosol imaginary index is within 0.01, standard errors of aerosol optical depth and vegetation reflectance solutions for 14 spectral channels from 410 nm to 900 nm are respectively less than 0.063 and 0.063 and 0.023.
      
And as the radiance error is within 2%, the standard errors are less than 0.023 and 0.0056.
      
In case of the homogeneous atmosphere, standard errors of the 120060 upward fluxes from the present model are 1.08% and 1.04% for clean and turbid aerosol models, respectively; and those of the downward fluxes are 4.12% and 3.31%.
      
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  standard error
The pooled weighted sensitivity and specificity of FDT with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after correction for standard error were 0.86 (0.80-0.90) and 0.87 (0.81-0.91), respectively.
      
The standard error of determination of the active form of IAA by our method is 1.5-2.0 times less than that using the traditional method.
      
It is shown that the standard error in the measurements does not exceed 0.1log(η).
      
The total relative standard error for applying the method to 20 synthetic samples in the concentration ranges of 20-400 ng/mL Co(II), 60-400 ng/mL Ni(II), and 4-400 ng/mL Cu(II) was 1.53%.
      
However, stochastically independently selected specimens show a larger deviation than the standard error of the calibration.
      
更多          


According to the 6 year old data of Alnus cremastogyne , the experiment analysis has been made for the 13 provenances in 5 sites. It proved that there was a highly significant difference among provenances in height ( H ) and single tree volume( V)(F =7.93 ** and F =4.83 ** ), and the interaction between provenance and environment was also highly significant( F =2.70 ** and F =2.21 ** ). Their genetic stability and growth adaptability have been evaluated using Eberhart etc's...

According to the 6 year old data of Alnus cremastogyne , the experiment analysis has been made for the 13 provenances in 5 sites. It proved that there was a highly significant difference among provenances in height ( H ) and single tree volume( V)(F =7.93 ** and F =4.83 ** ), and the interaction between provenance and environment was also highly significant( F =2.70 ** and F =2.21 ** ). Their genetic stability and growth adaptability have been evaluated using Eberhart etc's trait regression parameters ( b i and s 2 di ), Wrick's ecovalue parameter ( W i ) and Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction analysis (AMMI).The estimates of AMMI were greatly concordant with the estimates of ecovalue. Age age correlation analysis results showed that there were significant correlation in heights at 6 years and 14 years( r =0.7580), which showed the reliability of early selection. The provenance heritablities and standard errors of main growth traits in H , diameter of breast height ( DBH ) and V were respectively 0.8738±0.0482、0.7961±0.0718 and 0.7929±0.0727. If the best provenance or 2~3 superior provenances were selected in each site respectively, the expected gain for volume is 39.03%, the average genetic gain for the volume is 27.57% respectively. According to the main effective values and stability parameters, the suitable regions for the provenances were estimated.

对 5个地点 1 3个桤木种源 ,6年生试验林的生长性状作了方差分析及G×E互作分析 ,证实树高、材积在种源间差异极显著 (F =7 93 和F =4 83 ) ,种源内家系间差异不显著 ,种源×环境的互作显著(F =2 70 和F =2 2 1 )。用bi 和s2 di,Wrick生态价和AMMI模型 3种方法对遗传稳定性和生长适应性作了评价 ,AMMI分析与生态价方法的评价结果较一致。 6年生和 1 4年生的树高生长相关显著 (r =0 75 80 ) ,表明桤木早期选择的可靠性。树高、胸径和材积的种源遗传力及其标准误分别为 0 8738± 0 0 482、0 796 1± 0 0 71 8、0 792 9± 0 0 72 7。运用指数选择 ,若各地点选择本地点最好的 1个种源 ,预期增益为39 0 3% ;若各地点选择本地点最好的 2~ 3个种源 ,5个地点材积的平均育种增益为 2 7 5 7%。根据主效应值和稳定性参数分析结果 ,预估了各种源的适生地区

The dimension of sampling precision and differential value in overall sampling control was analyzed. The suggested precision of overall sampling was 90%. Using allowance error as the dimesion was proper, whereas adopting standarderror as the dimension might cause the high frenquence rework of compartment inventory.

对抽样控制总体法中的差值 (累偏 )衡量的尺度进行了分析 ,指出用允许误差作尺度是恰当的 ,若用标准误作尺度势必造成小班调查的大量返工。

The anthropogenic emission of nitrogen (N) compounds is increasing globally. In China, the emission of reactive N increased from 1.4×10~7 t·a~(-1) in 1961 to 6.8×10~7 t·a~(-1) in 2000. Currently this leads to deposition of 30~73 kg·hm~(-2)·a~(-1) in some forests of southern China. The possible impacts of elevated N input on vegetation, N cycling, acidification, and N leaching in tropical and subtropical forests have only been addressed in few studies. In China, the first such studies were carried out in the...

The anthropogenic emission of nitrogen (N) compounds is increasing globally. In China, the emission of reactive N increased from 1.4×10~7 t·a~(-1) in 1961 to 6.8×10~7 t·a~(-1) in 2000. Currently this leads to deposition of 30~73 kg·hm~(-2)·a~(-1) in some forests of southern China. The possible impacts of elevated N input on vegetation, N cycling, acidification, and N leaching in tropical and subtropical forests have only been addressed in few studies. In China, the first such studies were carried out in the Dinghushan reserve (an IGBP-GCTE site) based on the design and methods used in the European NITREX project. The principal goal of this study was to measure the effects of nitrogen deposition on soil CO_2 emission and CH_4 uptake in soils of a nursery, pine forest (PF), pine and broadleaf mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest (MEBF) in the UNESCO/MAB Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve (DHSBR) in southern China. The nursery was dominated by the seedlings of three plant species (Schima superba, Cryptocarya concinna and Castanopsis chinensis). The N addition treatments(in three replicates) were: Control, T50(50 kg N·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)), T100(100 kg N·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)), T150(150 kg N·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)), and T300(300 kg N·hm~(-2)·a~(-1)). The first three treatments were applied to the mixed and pine forests, the first four treatments to the evergreen broadleaf forest, and all five treatments to the nursery. The treatments were applied to 20m × 10m plots surrounded by a 10 m wide buffer strip. All plots and treatments were laid out randomly. NH_4NO_3 solution was sprayed monthly by hand onto the floor of these plots as 12 equal application over the whole year and beginning in July 2003. For this nursery experiment 15 plots (3.5m × 8m) were set up surrounded by a 3.5 m wide buffer strip. All plots and treatments were also laid out randomly. NH_4NO_3 solution was sprayed twice every month by hand onto the floor of these plots as 12 equal application over the whole year and beginning in January of 2003. To examine the short-term responses of soil respiration and CH_4 uptake to N additions, one static chamber was established in each of the plots. Air was sampled from each plot at the time of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 hr on the day after nitrogen additions (14~18 October, 2003), and analyzed for CO_2 and CH_4 using gas chromatography (Agilent 4890D) equipped with flame ionization detection (FID) within 24 h. The flux was calculated from a linear regression of concentration versus time using the three data points from each chamber. The daily mean soil CO_2 emission rates in control plots exhibited the following order: seedlings (258±62 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)) > MEBF (177±42 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1))>PF (162±39 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)) > MF (126±30 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)), while the daily mean soil CH_4 uptake rates were PF (-0.15±0.02 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)) > MEBF > (-0.08±0.01 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)) > MF (-0.07±0.01 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)) > seedlings (-0.05±0.01 mg·m~(-2)·h~(-1)). Nitrogen addition at all levels significantly stimulated soil CO_2 emission in MEBF in comparison with those in control plots, and its effect increased with the levels of nitrogen addition. However, there was no significant effect of nitrogen addition at any level of treatment on soil CO_2 emission in PF and MF. Neither was there a significant effect of nitrogen addition at any levels except for T300 on soil CO_2 emission in seedlings. Nitrogen addition at T300 significantly increased soil CO_2 emission rates in comparison with those in control plots. Nitrogen addition at all levels significantly stimulated soil CH_4 uptake rates in both MEBF and PF in comparison with those in control plots. However, there was no significant effect of nitrogen addition at any levels of treatment except for T300 on soil CH_4 uptake in seedlings. Nitrogen addition at T300 significantly changed the soil function from “CH_4 sink” to “CH_4 source” in the nursery.

研究了鼎湖山生物圈保护区苗圃(幼苗)、马尾松、混交林和季风常绿阔叶林(季风林)土壤CO2 排放和CH4 吸收的一些特征及其对模拟N沉降增加的响应。结果表明,土壤CO2 日(白天)平均排放量的大小顺序为(平均值±标准误) :苗圃(2 5 8±6 2mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >季风林(177±4 2 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >马尾松林(16 2±39mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >混交林(12 6±30 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 )。土壤CH4 日(白天)平均吸收量的大小顺序为:马尾松林(- 0 .15±0 .0 2 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >季风林(- 0 .0 8±0 .0 1mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >混交林(- 0 .0 7±0 .0 1mg·m- 2·h- 1 ) >苗圃(- 0 .0 5±0 .0 1m g·m- 2·h- 1 )。低N(5 0 kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )和中N(10 0kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )处理对苗圃、马尾松林和混交林样地土壤CO2 日平均排放量的影响均不明显,高N(15 0 kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )处理对苗圃...

研究了鼎湖山生物圈保护区苗圃(幼苗)、马尾松、混交林和季风常绿阔叶林(季风林)土壤CO2 排放和CH4 吸收的一些特征及其对模拟N沉降增加的响应。结果表明,土壤CO2 日(白天)平均排放量的大小顺序为(平均值±标准误) :苗圃(2 5 8±6 2mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >季风林(177±4 2 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >马尾松林(16 2±39mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >混交林(12 6±30 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 )。土壤CH4 日(白天)平均吸收量的大小顺序为:马尾松林(- 0 .15±0 .0 2 mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >季风林(- 0 .0 8±0 .0 1mg·m- 2 ·h- 1 ) >混交林(- 0 .0 7±0 .0 1mg·m- 2·h- 1 ) >苗圃(- 0 .0 5±0 .0 1m g·m- 2·h- 1 )。低N(5 0 kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )和中N(10 0kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )处理对苗圃、马尾松林和混交林样地土壤CO2 日平均排放量的影响均不明显,高N(15 0 kg N·hm- 2·a- 1 )处理对苗圃土壤CO2 的日平均排放量也无显著影响,但倍高N(30 0 kg N·hm- 2 ·a- 1 )处理显著促进苗圃样地土壤CO2 的排放。然而,所有N(低N、中N和高N)处理均显著促进季风林土壤CO2 日平均排放量,且这种促进作用随N处理水平的升高而增加。N处理显著促进季风林和马尾松林土壤对CH4 吸收速率,但对混交林土壤CH4 吸收则无明显的影响。在苗圃样地,除倍高N外,N?

 
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