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geomorphic effect
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The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there was...

The Hanjiang storage area of the Danjiangkou Reservoir is situated in the lower reach of the upper Hanjiang River. Naturally, the river flows in mountain gorges in this reach, and the reservoir is consequently of river-type.The Danjiangkou reservoir had been impounded to its normal high level in 1973. During the six-year period of 1973-1980, the inflow discharge was low, the storage level varied in a wide range, and the reservoir had been operated in a low level for a long period of time. Besides, there was the valley geomorphic effect. All of the factors mentioned above exerted a deep influence on the channel changes in the variable backwater zone.According to the analysis of the data collected from the field survey and measurement, the following characteristics of the channel change in the variable backwater zone have been obtained,1.The main factor controlling the change of channel in the variable backwater zone is the reservoir operation, which determines the forms of the deposition and the distribution of the sedimentation, and affects the process of its erosion and deposition.2. The change of channel depends on the process of deposition. The sediment deposited on the river bed at the beginning, and now the cross section is reforming very slowly.3. The fining of bed material composition and the segregation of the sediment size along the stream course are very noticeable.4. The geomorphic conditions, bending, narrow valley and longitudinal sawtoothed profile along the thalweg give a considerable effect on the channel changing.5. The changes of channel intensely affect the flow pattern. Along the stream course, the water level is raised in different degree and the surface slope is reduced. The bars and reefs are submerged and then many local deflecting current, rapids and whirl flow are moderated or even disappeared. As a whole, the flow trends gentle. Some new local flow patterns appear due to the formation of new sand wave movements.6. Every year, the variable backwater zone is subjected to one deposition stage during the flood season and two erosion stages during the level falling period in low flow season and filling the reservoir at the beginning of the flood period respectively. Since Hanjiang storage area is situated in narrow valley with sufficient runoff, steep flood peak and low sediment concentration, the function of the two erosion stages will help to achieve "the long-term operation of the reservoir" , and to erode the pre-stage deposits and thus to reduce the harm from the backwater deposits extending upstream.Finally, this paper discusses some problems of sedimentation in the backwater zone of the Sanxia Reservoir in future.

本文在概述了(1)汉江回水变动区河谷地貌特点及对河道形态的影响,(2)典型的山区河流来水来沙特性,(3)在蓄水后水库调度及淤积分布等三个问题的基础上,分析了建库后汉江干流回水变动区纵横剖面变化,再造床过程中河道形态的演变、年内的冲淤变化及河床地貌等四个方面的问题。由此初步归结出河床演变的几个特点:1.坝前水位的调度是回水变动区河床演变的控制性因素;2.堆积过程是河床演变的主导;3.河床显著细化,泥沙沿程分选强烈;4.库区弯曲狭窄、纵泓剧烈起伏的地质地貌条件对河床变形的影响显著;5.河床变形对水流的影响强烈,同时出现一些新的流态,6.回水变动区每年都经历“汛期淤积、枯季消落冲刷和汛初充水冲刷”的“一淤二冲”的变形过程。最后,简要地讨论了三峡水库库尾泥沙淤积的几个问题。

On the base of the observation of terrace cross-sections at 21 sites and 17radiometric data this paper deals with the terrace corrolation , sequences and dating forthe fluvial terraces of the Shanxi-Shaanxi Canyon reach of the Yellow River ,demonstrates the Quaternary regional epeirogenic uplifts and local tectonic deformationfor the Ordos Plateau and further discusses the relations between the regionalepeirogenic uplift and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau uplift the climatic change bine linesin the epeirogenic...

On the base of the observation of terrace cross-sections at 21 sites and 17radiometric data this paper deals with the terrace corrolation , sequences and dating forthe fluvial terraces of the Shanxi-Shaanxi Canyon reach of the Yellow River ,demonstrates the Quaternary regional epeirogenic uplifts and local tectonic deformationfor the Ordos Plateau and further discusses the relations between the regionalepeirogenic uplift and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau uplift the climatic change bine linesin the epeirogenic uplift landscape, and the effect of the base-level change.River terraces are landforms that were at one bine constrUcted and maintained asthe active floor of a river but are now abandoned, and their formation are envolvedin the changes of fluvial systems. The graded process of rivers provides a theoretic base for the genesis of river terrace and the reconstruction of evolutionary history ofancient channels.Increase in fluvial landscape relief emanates from rising geologic structures throughthe process of tectonically induced down cutting by streams. Strath terraces are thefundamental tectonic river terrace landform and indicate the regional epeirogenic upliftand its local tectonic deformation. The morphogenic implication in climatic change isto trigger aggradation that forms fill terrace landforms and records brief reversals oflong-term tectonically induced downcutting. The fill terraces represent a bine sequencein the regional epeirogenic uplift landscape.Six strath terraces develop along the Shanxi-Shaanxi Canyon reach of the Yellowhiver. Their ages are: 1.409 8MaB. P., 0.196 7 Ma B. P., 76 400aB. P., 44 000aB. P.,17 600aB. P. and 5 400aB. P. for T6k, T5y, T4t, T3m. T2w. and T1q respectively . Thelongitudinal profiles of the strath terraces reveal the Quaternary tectonic movementsinvolved in the Ordos Plateau, including two components: the regional epeirogenicuplift and the local tectonic deformation. The regional epeirogenic uplift divides intofive episode, with an average elevation of 25- 46m each episode. The local tectonicdeformation can be expressed by tWo patterns: the local differential uplift induced byfaulting and the nonuniform uplift including the relative strong uplift and the relative weak uplift even subsidence. The local tectonic deformation superimposes on theregional epeirogenic uplift.The downcutting induced by the regional epeirogenic uplift for the Shanxi-ShaanxiCanyon reach started after 1.409 8MaB. P., which lags behind the C phase of theQinghai-Xizang Movement for 0.25Ma ago. Increase of the regional epeirogenic upliftrate in Ordos initiated at 0.196 7Ma ago, which also lags behind for 0.113Ma sincethe Qinghai-Xizang Plateau uplift achieved the fastest rate at 0.31Ma ago.There are three episodes of the aggradation induced by climatic changes in theShanxi-Shaanxi Canyon reach. They occurred before 95 900aB.P., 44 300-36 800aB.P.and 17 300~ 9 300aB.P. respectively . The regional epeirogenic uplift episodes and theaggradational episodes occurred alternately, and the aggradational events become thebine sequence in the regional epeirogenic uplift landscape. Moreover, the aggradationoccurred in the regions where present relative weak uplipt even subsidence.The Weihe fault basin is the relative base-level of the Shanxi-Shaanxi Canyonreach of the Yellow River . The fault-scarps in the Hancheng Fault escarpment zone atthe northern margin of the basin record the falls of the tectonic base-level. The riverlength is limited and influenced by the base-level falling. The geomorphic effects ofboth the tectonic base-level fall and the regional epeirogenic uplift are commonly tosculpture a new graded longitudinal profile.

本文通过黄河晋陕峡谷河段21个地点的阶地横剖面观察和阶地对比研究,确定出6级宽谷阶地序列,同时,依据17个放射性测年数据对阶地定年。6级宽谷阶地序列揭示了鄂尔多斯高原第四纪区域造陆隆起和局部构造变形,区域造陆隆起的发生时间比之青藏高原隆起要滞后0.113~0.25Ma,而且,平均区域造陆隆起量比之青藏高原的内部和边缘的隆起量小得多。晋陕峡谷河段发生过3期加积作用幕,指示着造陆隆起景观中的气候变化时间线。渭河盆地北缘的韩城断裂悬崖带记录着构造基准面下降,影响的河流长度仅为21~127km。

 
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