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growth-ring
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  生长轮
     Using the wood in Larix olgensis plantations with different soil textures as testing materials, the authors determined the anatomical characteristics (including tracheid length, tracheid diameter, wall-diameter ratio, fibril angle and tracheid length-width ratio), physical characteristics (including growth-ring width, growth rate, late-wood percentage and density) and chemical characteristics (including the contents of holocellulse, lignin, pitch and 1% NaOH extractive) of wood fibers.
     本研究以不同土质 (暗棕壤和白浆土 )的人工林落叶松 (Larixolgensis)木材为试材 ,测定了木材纤维的纤维形态特征 (包括管胞长度、管胞直径、壁腔比、微纤丝倾角及管胞长宽比 )、物理特征 (包括生长轮宽度、生长速率、晚材率及密度 )和化学特征 (包括综纤维素含量、木素含量、树脂含量及 1%NaOH抽提物 )等指标。
短句来源
     The difference of growth-ring width is not significant.
     生长轮宽度差异不显著。
短句来源
     Ju dging from the average value of every index, the ratio of wall to indiameter, mi cro-fibril angle, ratio of late wood, the width of growth-ring, tracheid length, tracheid width and the ratio of length to width of Pinus densiflora plantat ions with the same forest age at southern slope were higher than those of planta tions at northern slope, except basic density of growth-ring.
     在相同轮龄范围内 ,管胞长度、管胞宽度、管胞长宽比、管胞壁腔比、微纤丝角、生长轮基本密度、晚材率、生长轮宽度等指标中 ,除生长轮基本密度平均值指标北坡的比南坡的大之外 ,其它指标的平均值均为南坡的大于北坡
短句来源
     Measure and Auto-Interpret Analyze the Wood's Mini-Density of Growth-Ring
     木材生长轮微密度参数测量与自动判读分析
短句来源
     Planting density has significant effects on fiber morphology, physical and chemical properties of Lalix olgensis wood. Except growth-ring width, remarkable differences was found in other indexes.
     初植密度对落叶松人工林的纤维形态特征、物理特征及化学特征有重要的影响 ,除生长轮宽度外 ,其它各指标差异显著 ;
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  生长环
     Growth-ring occurs in water pipeline in the course of operation.
     给水管道在运行过程中产生了“生长环”。
短句来源
  “growth-ring”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Cleaning and controlling of growth-ring in water pipeline
     给水管道生长环的冲洗与防治
短句来源
     Dynamic character of climatic evolutionary process for tree growth-ring
     树木年轮所标志的气候演变过程的动力学特征
短句来源
     Measures for Controlling Growth-ring Swelling of Chinese Fir Wood Products Coated with Water-based Paint
     速生杉木制品水性涂装时年轮膨胀的控制工艺
短句来源
     The high efficiency, simplicity and low-cost properties of growth-ring removal with the methods of high pressure water-jet and gas-water pulse were proved through on-site experiments.
     现场生产试验的结果显示,高压水射流法和气-水脉冲法是高效、简单和低耗的清除管道内生长环的方法;
短句来源
     The tree growth-ring proxy data are employed to analyze the precipitation trend by Wavelet analysis and singular spectrum analysis method in the central Shaanxi area from May to June in next 20 years.
     采用小波分析与毛毛虫-谱分析法相结合的方法,以树木年轮为代用资料,对关中地区未来20 a的5~6月份降水趋势进行预测。
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  growth-ring
The parameters of this equation were estimated from a log-log-modified Ford-Walford plot of the growth-ring data.
      
In addition, PCBER is located in young differentiating phloem fibers, in xylem ray parenchyma, and in xylem parenchyma cells at the growth-ring border.
      
One growth-ring (annulus) in the otoliths appears to be laid down each year.
      
The effect of growth-ring orientation on moisture movement in the high-temperature drying of softwood boards
      


Four simple man-planted Korean pine trees (P. koreiensis Sieb. et Zuce) were selected from CHUO HO COA in northeastern China. The variation in fibrillar angles front earlywood to latewood of growth ring (3th. 12th.and 28th) was tested. The variations in fibrillar angles of latewood, tracheid length in coresponding position and tensile strength from outward pith were studied.The results indicate that fibrillar angles decrease with the increasing of ring number from the pith. There exists a linear relation of...

Four simple man-planted Korean pine trees (P. koreiensis Sieb. et Zuce) were selected from CHUO HO COA in northeastern China. The variation in fibrillar angles front earlywood to latewood of growth ring (3th. 12th.and 28th) was tested. The variations in fibrillar angles of latewood, tracheid length in coresponding position and tensile strength from outward pith were studied.The results indicate that fibrillar angles decrease with the increasing of ring number from the pith. There exists a linear relation of fibrillar angles to tracheid length and tensile strength(a negative correlation) before 24th.The average of fibrillar angles of compression-wood is 37% larger than normal wood, the length of tracheid is 22% shorter and tensile strength is 19% lower than the normal in matured age. A slight positive correlation was found between the width of growth ring and the fibrillar angle of compressed wood.

本文阐述了辽宁省草河口人工林红松木材纤丝倾角和管胞长度的变异规律及其与小试件拉伸强度的关系,并对应压材和正常材进行了比较。结果得出:晚材倾角与管胞长度与小试件拉伸强度成负相关,管胞长度与拉伸强度成正相关。同令期的纤丝倾角在应压材内平均较正常材者约大36.8%,长度约短21.7%,小试件拉伸强度约低18.7%。 在针叶树木材结构上,管胞是组成整个木材体积的绝对主要成分——约占90—95%。管胞长度、直径、壁厚等的变异,直接影响着木材的物理、力学性质。管胞次生壁是胞壁的主要部分,而次生壁中层(S_2)又占整个胞壁的70—90%,故此层对木材性质有着很大影响。40年代迄今,世界各国学者研究木材细胞壁多集中在次生壁中层的探讨上,原因即在于此。 次生壁中层纤丝倾角是决定木材性质指标之一,它影响着许多木材力学性质——如顺纹压力、拉伸、弯曲及顺纹剪力等,又是木材干缩的主要原因。国外对此早在1941年有Phillips、Kollmann等(1943)就美国西加云杉Sitka spruce和松树进行过研究,继之Killer(1954)、Echolls(1955)就沼泽松Slash pine;Jurbergs。(1963)、Ha...

本文阐述了辽宁省草河口人工林红松木材纤丝倾角和管胞长度的变异规律及其与小试件拉伸强度的关系,并对应压材和正常材进行了比较。结果得出:晚材倾角与管胞长度与小试件拉伸强度成负相关,管胞长度与拉伸强度成正相关。同令期的纤丝倾角在应压材内平均较正常材者约大36.8%,长度约短21.7%,小试件拉伸强度约低18.7%。 在针叶树木材结构上,管胞是组成整个木材体积的绝对主要成分——约占90—95%。管胞长度、直径、壁厚等的变异,直接影响着木材的物理、力学性质。管胞次生壁是胞壁的主要部分,而次生壁中层(S_2)又占整个胞壁的70—90%,故此层对木材性质有着很大影响。40年代迄今,世界各国学者研究木材细胞壁多集中在次生壁中层的探讨上,原因即在于此。 次生壁中层纤丝倾角是决定木材性质指标之一,它影响着许多木材力学性质——如顺纹压力、拉伸、弯曲及顺纹剪力等,又是木材干缩的主要原因。国外对此早在1941年有Phillips、Kollmann等(1943)就美国西加云杉Sitka spruce和松树进行过研究,继之Killer(1954)、Echolls(1955)就沼泽松Slash pine;Jurbergs。(1963)、Hatris(1965)、Cave(1966)及Meylen(1967)均进行过详尽的研究。Meylen等(1969)用x—线衍射法测量,并与直接测定比较,得出两种方法间有一良好的线?

Eight forest tree species,namely,Pinus bungeana Zucc.,Pinus tabul-aeformis Carr.,Salix babylonica L.,Populus tomentosa Carr.,Eucommiaulmoides Oliv.,Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu,Sophora japonica L.,and Ulmuspumila L.,representable conifers,diffuse-porous and ring-porous hardwoodsrespectively,were studied based on the samples collected periodically fromtrunk and crown branch of every tree during 1979 and 1980.Rhythm ofperiodical differentiation in cambial zone and sychronization with the charac-teristics of tissues...

Eight forest tree species,namely,Pinus bungeana Zucc.,Pinus tabul-aeformis Carr.,Salix babylonica L.,Populus tomentosa Carr.,Eucommiaulmoides Oliv.,Paulownia elongata S.Y.Hu,Sophora japonica L.,and Ulmuspumila L.,representable conifers,diffuse-porous and ring-porous hardwoodsrespectively,were studied based on the samples collected periodically fromtrunk and crown branch of every tree during 1979 and 1980.Rhythm ofperiodical differentiation in cambial zone and sychronization with the charac-teristics of tissues and cells developed within a growth ring both in phloemand xylem were founded on facts of developmental anatomy.The trend ofquantity and rate of tissue elements produced at different periods,the relationsto phenology and environmental effects were analysed.All the studied typicalring-porous trees showed quite a different pattern of development as comparedwith others.Among the differences attracted attention,they resumed cambialactivity in spring at the lower portion of trunk apparently much preceded thecrown branch.Some problems on cambial study and its role in the control ofshoot growth,and growth coordination in trees were discussed briefly.Besides,this general comparative study offers some indications that investigation oncambium,the formation of phloem and xylem,and relationship to tree growthshould be integrated.The trend of this integration is worthy to be developed,because it will not only get a better understanding of cambium,but also helpto forest practice for better production of wood and a part of bark.

北京郊区栽植的8种华北树木的形成层季节活动及其韧皮部和木质部的形成进程都具有明显节律。从发育解剖证据总结了各树种在春季恢复活动、主要分生期和进入休眠越冬三个阶段和在主要分生期前后的过渡期的区分,及各期内各类组织细胞的分生情况和结构变化。同时对数量和速度的变化趋势,及物候的关系和环境的影响等作出分析。比较了形成层在冠枝和主干的动态及不同类型树种的差别,对环孔材树种的各种表现取得一些新的证据。通过对8种树的初步比较研究,进一步了解其共性与特性,并认为把形成层动态及韧皮部和木质部的形成相结合并联系树木整体生长等进行综合探索,不仅有利于提高形成层的理论,并将有助于为营林措施和调控木材和部分树皮生长等实际问题提供依据。

The variation of wood structure in normal growth rings and falserings as well as the structure outwards from the pith to bark areinvestigated with four trees of Cunninghamia lanceolata at different agestages. The width of growth rings become gradually narrow with the increaseof the tree-age after about ten years. False rings mainly appear in the wide growth rings near the pith,the number of which may be 1—3.It might be due to changes of temp-erature and moisture in the growing season.False ring always locate's...

The variation of wood structure in normal growth rings and falserings as well as the structure outwards from the pith to bark areinvestigated with four trees of Cunninghamia lanceolata at different agestages. The width of growth rings become gradually narrow with the increaseof the tree-age after about ten years. False rings mainly appear in the wide growth rings near the pith,the number of which may be 1—3.It might be due to changes of temp-erature and moisture in the growing season.False ring always locate's inthe transition region from early to late wood within the growth ring.The sizes of wood elements in false ring are in the range of non-falserings. In normal growth rings,the average length of tracheids in late woodis 21% longer than that in early wood,the thickness of tangential cellwall of tracheids is 55% thicker,and the radial diameter of tracheid is50% smaller than those in early wood. The size of wood elements in growth rings of the first 10th-15thoutwards from the pith increases with the tree-age and undulates inrings there after. There are much warties on the inner surface of tracheid walls andbordered pit.

本文对湖南会同县的杉木木材进行了宏观、微观以及扫描电镜下观察试验。根据4株不同年龄杉木观察,杉木木材构造的变异受生长轮年龄的影响显著;伪轮的出现与生长季中的湿度、温度变化有关. 本试验试图为林业生产单位了解杉木生长规律,确定营林措施提供依据,为杉木木材利用及材质研究提供参考。

 
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