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 The road network and the set of transit lines are used to generate the general network that is constructed for the analysis of transit. It contains only nodes and arcs, the nodes correspond to centroids and transit stops including transfer nodes; the arcs correspond to the segments of the transit lines, walk arcs, wait arcs, and transfer/alight arcs. The in vehicle travel cost is considered to be the sum of two terms: one is the link travel cost which is independent of the flow, and... The road network and the set of transit lines are used to generate the general network that is constructed for the analysis of transit. It contains only nodes and arcs, the nodes correspond to centroids and transit stops including transfer nodes; the arcs correspond to the segments of the transit lines, walk arcs, wait arcs, and transfer/alight arcs. The in vehicle travel cost is considered to be the sum of two terms: one is the link travel cost which is independent of the flow, and the other is a discomfort cost which depends on the in vehicle passenger flow. The waiting cost at transit stations consists of two terms: one is the waiting time dependent on the line headways, and the other is the overflow delay which is determined from the congested condition. A model and heuristic solution algorithm based on user equilibrium is proposed, and a simple numerical example is presented.  利用道路网络和公交线路以产生便于公交分析的广义网络，它仅由节点和路段组成，节点代表车站和地区中心，路段代表公交线路、等车路段、步行路段及换乘或下车路段。车内出行费用由两部分组成：一部分是与乘客数量无关的公交车在路段上的运行时间；另一部分是与乘客数量有关的乘客感觉到的不舒适程度。乘客在车站的等车时间也分为两个部分：一部分是由公交车间隔决定的等车时间；另一部分是由于能力所限和拥挤导致一部分乘客上不了车而不得不等下一辆或换乘另一条公交线路从而造成的在车站的延误时间。以此网络为基础，为公交配流问题设计了一个基于用户平衡的模型和求解算法，并给出了一个简单的算例  On maintaining ecological balance and promoting economical development, it is necessary to strengthen the spatial relation among the landscape patterns whose functions are similar. The growing awareness of the adverse effects of habitat fragmentation on natural systems has resulted in a rapidly increasing number of actions to reduce current fragmentation of natural systems as well as a growing demand for tools to predict and evaluate the effect of changes in the landscape on connectivity in the natural world.For... On maintaining ecological balance and promoting economical development, it is necessary to strengthen the spatial relation among the landscape patterns whose functions are similar. The growing awareness of the adverse effects of habitat fragmentation on natural systems has resulted in a rapidly increasing number of actions to reduce current fragmentation of natural systems as well as a growing demand for tools to predict and evaluate the effect of changes in the landscape on connectivity in the natural world.For promoting and positioning functions of each landscape unit in the whole Taiwan island, systematically studying characteristics of landscape patterns in the research areas, and identifying energy routes of landscape function flows, this study chooses the basic regionalism units as the research areas such as Wuxi watershed to analyze connectivity traits among network nodes with single function as well as spatial interactions of different functional networks based on landscape function network establishment. Then from the aspect of consolidating network configuration to strengthen landscape functions, this study puts forward some strategies to optimize landscape patterns. Through linkage analysis of network nodes, it is found that urban function network structure is better than ecological function network in Wuxi watershed, and most urban function subnodes are located around the urban function centers, which can allow landscape functions export and transmit. The connectivity of ecological function nodes is similar, but the first and second level nodes such as Hongxiang and Gaomei wetlands are isolated and less connected, so this study proposes to consolidate function transmitting routes and highlight significance of main transferring nodes like Erzhaishan and Beikengzi aiming at optimizing ecological landscape in Wuxi watershed.  选择生态及城市功能并重的台湾乌溪流域,在乡镇行政单元的基础上,利用耗费距离模型将景观功能网络落实于实际的空间单元。透过网络节点间的通达性分析可知,乌溪流域的景观功能网络中以城市功能网络结构较佳,城市子节点多环绕于城市功能中心,功能的输出与传递有较高的效益;而生态功能网络节点间通达性差异并不显著,唯作为一级及二级功能节点的红香、高美湿地等位置孤立、通达性较差,需就其功能向外传输路径进行优化,并提升二载山及北坑子等重要联系节点的生态功能强度。  Base on analyzing the procedure and arithmetic of twodimension steady state heat transfer by finite difference method,the data structure is designed to descript difference nodes and their relationship.In addition,the method is researched to automatic generate equations set of heat balance system.Using this method,the twodimension heattransfer analysis program is developed,it supports mutual design of heat transfer nodes and grids,and it can automatic generate the heattransfer... Base on analyzing the procedure and arithmetic of twodimension steady state heat transfer by finite difference method,the data structure is designed to descript difference nodes and their relationship.In addition,the method is researched to automatic generate equations set of heat balance system.Using this method,the twodimension heattransfer analysis program is developed,it supports mutual design of heat transfer nodes and grids,and it can automatic generate the heattransfer equations set and then solve and solve it.  在对用有限差分法计算二维稳态传热的过程及算法进行分析的基础上,研究了用于描述差分节点及其关系的数据结构,并研究了自动生成热量衡算方程组的方法。基于此方法开发了二维传热计算程序,程序支持交互设计传热网络,能够自动生成传热方程组并求解方程组。   << 更多相关文摘 
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