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north africa
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  “north africa”译为未确定词的双语例句
     ΔP_(max) of North Africa lump ore about 5.669 kPa is the highest among all burdens.
     南非块矿的最大压差最大,高达5.669 kPa;
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     On the contrary, when the SST in the Pool or in the Mozambique Current descends, the (δ 18 O) max increases. (4) When the SST in the Canary Current descends or that in the Atlantic Equatorial Current ascends, the subtropical high over the western Atlantic and the eastern Atlantic to North Africa is strengthened, and therefore, the (δ 18 O) max in the core decreases.
     欧洲脊和贝加尔湖脊的强度与 (δ18O) max存在显著的正相关关系 ,即当高压脊加强 (或减弱 )时 ,冰芯中 (δ18O) max增大(或减小 ) .
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     The wild boar (Sus scrofa), which inhabited wide areas of Asia, Europe, and North Africa, is an ancestral species of domestic pigs.
     野猪(Sus scrofa)是家猪的祖先,广泛栖息于亚洲、欧洲及非洲北部。
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     piant of Vitaceae, which have their origin in North Africa and Asia, with 10 species available in Chin.
     植物共13种,产于北美洲、亚洲,我国有10种。
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     The CLIMBER-2 simulations show that the summer temperature is up to 2 ℃ higher than at present in the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and North America, and summer precipitation is greater than today's in North Africa and South Asia, with maximum exceeding 1.6 mm/day at the center.
     CLIMBER-2的模拟结果显示在欧洲北部、亚洲和北美的夏季温度比现代温度高2℃以上;
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     Africa
     《非洲自由地带》
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     Into Africa
     徒步非洲(二)
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     IN OUZZAL GRANULTIC TERRANE IN NORTH -WEST AFRICA
     非洲西北部的In Ouzzal麻粒岩带
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     Characteristics of the music in West Asia and North Africa
     西亚和北非音乐的特点分析
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     To the north is Kyushu.
     冲绳海槽北部与日本九州相接。
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  north africa
A new species of digger wasps of the genus Belomicroides (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae, Oxybelini) from North Africa
      
The new species of digger wasps, Belomicroides rufus, is described from North Africa.
      
Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that Podarcis vaucheri is a species complex with one clade inhabiting both north and south shores of the Strait of Gibraltar and one clade restricted to North Africa.
      
It is the sister group of another clade (B) from North Africa and western Mediterranean islands.
      
Three fatāwā on "lending libraries" in North Africa and Spain
      
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In the present paper dealing with the paleogeography of Sinkiang in the late geological time more attention has been paid to the shifting of the climatic zones and notable climatic changes as well as to its general tendency of development. Such changes were considered mainly due to the intensive tectonic movements and influences of the Quarternary glaciation. It was suggested that during Cretacious and Tertiary the tectonic movement was fairly weak, and the raised mountains were levelled off by peneplanation....

In the present paper dealing with the paleogeography of Sinkiang in the late geological time more attention has been paid to the shifting of the climatic zones and notable climatic changes as well as to its general tendency of development. Such changes were considered mainly due to the intensive tectonic movements and influences of the Quarternary glaciation. It was suggested that during Cretacious and Tertiary the tectonic movement was fairly weak, and the raised mountains were levelled off by peneplanation. On the western side of the country was the site of the great Tethys Sea where warm currents drifted. Through these, the planetary system of air circulation of Sinkiang at that time was quite similar to that of the Area between to-day's west Europe and North Africa; the climatical zcnation was also alike.

本文探討新疆最近地質时期的古地理,特别注意到气候带的移位和巨大气候变化及其总的发展趋势。这些变化主要是从强烈的构从运动和冰川作用来考虑的。至于由其他因素所引起較小周期性的气候变化这里暫不予討論。新疆在白堊纪,老第三纪时期构造作用微弱,隆起的山地逐漸被夷平,西部有暖流进出古地中海,极地沒有冰盖,因此大气环流形势近似今日西欧和北非之間的环流系統。喜馬拉亚运动开始以后,古地中海消失而为新期褶皺山脉所代替,欧亚大陆联成一片,逐漸建立起东亚新的季风环流系統。新疆冬季受到蒙古—西伯利亚高压的影响,許多地方轉向干寒气候方向发展。

1.The uplift of the Himalayas and the drifting of Indian PlateThe Indian land-mass formerly was a part of African ancient land.During thePeriod of (?)urasic it departed from the latter and drifted northward,and made astroke upon the south part of Asia at the beginning of Tertiary,thus gave riseto the uplifting of Himalayan Mountain from the geosyncline.This movement isas by the hydrofauna formerly survived in the geosyncline,and the plant fossilswhich were found on the unusual higher level of the deposit beds...

1.The uplift of the Himalayas and the drifting of Indian PlateThe Indian land-mass formerly was a part of African ancient land.During thePeriod of (?)urasic it departed from the latter and drifted northward,and made astroke upon the south part of Asia at the beginning of Tertiary,thus gave riseto the uplifting of Himalayan Mountain from the geosyncline.This movement isas by the hydrofauna formerly survived in the geosyncline,and the plant fossilswhich were found on the unusual higher level of the deposit beds of Mt Himala-ni(?) plants.2.The constituents of Indian FloraIt seems believable that there is no characteristic indigenous plants in Indian-flora its tropical genera are the common ones with Asia,and the subtropicalgenera are nearly the same as those of Cathaysia,very few endemic genera beingfound in India.Both the tropical and subtropical species are oveolapped and co-mplementary each other in space,the former occupying the lowland and the lat-ter the mountains of the higher level.The so called “India-Africa” elements isless important for the Indian flora,and those of North-Africa and Mediterrane-an region would not reach India until the seperation of of Arabian Penisulafrom Africa and drifted to the Middle-East after Tertiary. 3.The relationships between the Cathaysian and the Indian floraThe subtropical genera of India is a part of Cathaysian flora.Among 216 fam-ilies of Indian flora only 4 monotypic,i.e.Resedaceae,Frankeniaceae,Epacrida-ceae and Monimiaceae (3 genera) are not found in Cathaysia.Of the total num-ber of 2178 genera,1508 genera belong to the Cathaysian representatives.Theyare Cathaysiaa origin,and very readily transfer from Himalaya to India duringthe Tertiary when the latter contacted the south part of the Asian ancient land(Laurasia).On the other hand,the number of the tropical genera of India is nea-rly the same as that of Cathaysia,the specific proportion of 45 tropical familiesin both regions is very similar.4.The charteristics of Himalayan floraThe Himalayan flora is undoubtly the direct descendants of Cnthaysian flora,and arose in Tertiary.As shown by the palaobotanical evidence,the Himalayanflora as well as the Indian flora is lack of Jurassic representatives,all the knownfossils are monoeotyledones of the Tertiary and coniferales of pliocene asreported by Sahni.Most of the palynological evidence found in Kashmir is ofQuaternary species.The connection of Himalayan flora between the southern Europ-ean and Sibirian elements,or the connection with the Japanese and the north-ern American species as suggested by Hooker and others are actually the desce-ndants of Cathaysian flora,which became disjunct in the course at historical de-velopment.There is neither endemic families nor genera found in the Himalay-as,and the characteristic representatives are restricted to the specific level.Itseems to be that most of the families and genera were formed before the Quate-rnary.5.The characteristics of Tibet floraThe Tibet flora is a part of Yunnan flora,most of Yunnan endemics,such asPsammosilene,Souliea,Spenceria,Haplosphaera,Sinodielsia and Nannoglottis hav-ing extended westward to Tibet along the valleys of Salwin and Mekong Rivers.There are a few endemic genera,i.e.S(?)lweenia,Sinolimprichtia,Bolocephalus andChlamydites were found in Tibet.The tropical representatatives are manifestly di-minished.The flora is basically Cathaysian origin,with the 20 herbal families,i.e.Ranunculaceae,Cruciferae,Saxifragaceae,Caryophyllaceae,Polygonaceae,Primu-laceae,Gentianaceae,Campanulaceae,Scrophulariaceae,Labiatae,Compositae andUmbelliferae etc.particularly thriving.There are also some southern EuropeanSolanaceous species e.g.Scopolia,Anisodus,And Mandragora etc.occasionallyfound in Tibet.The existence of Glossopteris recently discovered in southernTibet does not mean that Tibet is a part of Gondwana,or a front part of Indianplate.Glossopteris seems to be not endemic to Goadwana,but also existed inCathaysia and Laurasia.

印度的植物区系有许多特点:①属种丰富,不下20,000种,单位面积的总数超过同面积的任何植物区系;②特有的属和种比任何地区要少,和它的丰富的植物区系很不相称;③有很多中国植物成分,马来西亚成分,北非成分,欧洲及西伯利亚成分,以致印度植物志的主编Hooker 认为,“纯印度植物区系是不存在的”;④由于印度所处的地位的特殊性,使它的东西部及平原和山地的植物区系具有明显的差异.本文着重讨论印度植物与喜马拉雅植物的关系,进而探讨在亚洲植物区系中究竟是印度和喜马拉雅植物左右着中国植物区系,还是中国植物区系影响了印度及喜马拉雅区系.最后阐述西藏植物区系是怎样形成的.

Nepal is situated at longitude 80°15'-88°10' E, and latitude 26°30'-30°10' N. The breadth from west to east distanted 880 km, and from north to south about 177 km. The northernmost is the so called 'world roof, and the south part is lower than 100m above the sea level. The zonation characterized by the climate and geophysiognomy is very distinct, the south part below alt. 1000m is tropic in nature, the middle lowland from alt.1000 to 2200 m is subtropic, from alt. 2200 to 4500m is mountain temperate zone,...

Nepal is situated at longitude 80°15'-88°10' E, and latitude 26°30'-30°10' N. The breadth from west to east distanted 880 km, and from north to south about 177 km. The northernmost is the so called 'world roof, and the south part is lower than 100m above the sea level. The zonation characterized by the climate and geophysiognomy is very distinct, the south part below alt. 1000m is tropic in nature, the middle lowland from alt.1000 to 2200 m is subtropic, from alt. 2200 to 4500m is mountain temperate zone, from alt. 4500 to 5200 m is mountain frigid, and above 5200 m is the high mountain tundra, similar to the arctic climate.The seeded plants of Nepalese flora consisted of 1451 genera and about 5000 species, and additionally about 500 species of ferns. Among them, 72 families belong to tropical elements, but most of them are represented by minor genera and species (see table 1). Another 54 families belong to subtropical representatives, and most of the herbal families are consisted of greater number of genera and species, ie. Scrophulariaceae (38 g: 165 s), Ranumculaceae (19:142), Saxifragaceae (12:129). and Gentianaceae (12:98); contrarily, the woody families are consisted of lesser representatives, as seen in Magnoliaceae (4:11), Theaceae (5:10), Fagaceae (3:16), Styracaceae (2:3), Betulaceae (2:4), Corylaceae (2:4) and Hamatnelidaceae (1:1). The cosmopolitan families are usually consisted of numeral genera and species, they are Leguminosae (80:289), Compositae (114:288), Orchidaceae (89:208), Labiatae (48:148), Gramineae (111:355), Cyperaceae (19:176) and Rosaceae (29:175).The gymnospermous flora of Nepal is as poor as those of Xichang (Tibet) and Indian floras, totally 8 families 15 genera and 27 species were recorded, among them, the Pinaceae possesed 6 genera and 10 species, and only one species was represented in Podocarpaceae and Taxaceae respectively, and no Taxodiaceous representatives were found. As compard with the Yunnan flora where there are 80 species of gymnosperm belong to 25 genera and 10 families, it is much poorer than the letter , Vertically, from the lowland to the gracial line, there existed distinct plant zonations. The dipterocarp (Shorea robusta) and figs (Ficus regiosa and F. lacor, etc.) usually lift up to 1200m. The evergreen subtropieal trees, such as Quercus, Michelia, Machilus, Schima, Symplocos and Ilex dominated from alt. 1100 to 3600m; simultanously, the asiatic common fern Dicranopteris linearis, usually accompanied with the evergreen trees and never exceeed the upper limit, but the deciduous broad-leaved trees such as Acer and others would be found at alt. 3000m under the spruce forest. The lowland pine, Pinus roxburghii, togather with hemlock, Tsuga dumosa, distributed side by side with the evergreen broad-leaved trees. Spruce forest (Picea smithiana), the dominated needle forest, exceeded the evergreen broad-leaved forests distributed from alt. 2500 to 3500 m. Above the needle forest is the high mountain steppe, dominated by Saxifraga, Androsace, Primula, Pedicularis, Iris and Carex, etc.The species of Rhododendron are widely distributed from lowland to Alpine, R. arboreum, an evergreen rose-bay, ranged from alt. 1600 to 2500 m, above it from 2400 to 3000 m, it was replaced by shrubby evergreen R. lepidotum, and uppermost were replacd by deciduous Rhododendron.The Nepalese flora is closely related to the Cathaysian flora, within 1451 genera of Nepalese flora there are only 107 genera were not found in Yunnan and Xichang, among them 46 genera are scattered in northwest and north-east China or in south China, actually only 61 genera were disappeared in Chinese flora. So far as we know, there are 14 indigenous genera are recorded from Napal, they are Cedrus of Pinaeceae, Thomsonia of Araceae, Paroxygraphis of Ranunculaceae, Arcyospermum, Chrysobraya, Ermaniopsis and Glaribraya of Cruciferae, Indopiptadenia of Papilionaceae, Gamblea of Araliaceae, Caesulia and Gatamixix of Compositae, Treutlera of Asclepiadaceae, Eckemukerzea of Polygonaceae, and Sympagia of Acanihaceae.Among the 5000 species of Nepalese flora, there are 2379 species were found from Yunnan, and 1774 species from Xichang, totally more. than 60% belongs to the Chinese Flora. Moreover, those of the tropical elements found from Nepalese flora are rather closely related with Yunnan than those of Xichang, and contra rily, the subtropical ones are rather closely affined to Xichang than those of Yunnan. It seems to be, that the Nepalese flora is as young as those of Xichang, and is more younger than those of Yunnan.Geologically, Himalaya was lifted up during Tertiary, the age of Nepalese flora would not be older than 40 million years, and the numericals cited above tell us that except 61 genera, nearly all of the genera of Nepalese flora are coexisted at China, and togather with the poverty of the gymnospermous flora of Nepal, made us to conclude that the Nepalese flora is the descendants of the Cathaysian flora.The Nepalese flora is inevitably interfused with other neighbour floras, except 14 endemic genera, the remain 47 genera are coexisted at India, Southeast Asia and Arabis, especially on the western arid region, the xerophylous representatives, such as Urginea and Dipcadi of Liliaceae, Tiliacorea of Menispermaceae, Chrosophora of Euphobiaceae, Christolea and Ermania of Cruciferae, Helinus of Rhamnaceae, Argrolobium and Paracalyx of Leguminosae, Notonia of Compositae, Caralluma of Asclepiadaceae, Maharanga of Boraginaceae, and Ecbolium of Acanthaceae are coexisted at North-Africa and the region of Mediterranean Sea; another genera, such as stelis of Orchidaceae, Gonolobus of Asclepiadaceae and Anredera of Ficoidaceae are connected with tropical American flora; and Diphylleia of Berberidaceae. Desidera of Cruciferae, Legonsia of Campanulaceae, Dectylorhiza of Orchidaceae are distributed disjunctively to Arctic and Alaska.

尼泊尔南部多热带成分,北部多高山植物,表现出明显的垂直分带.种子植物1451属,5000种,属于热带的科数不少,但属种不多.反之,亚热带成分则有较多的属和种.裸子植物只有雪松Cedrus是特有.有花植物仅61属不见于中国,特有属只有14属.60%的种与滇、藏共有.热带成分与云南较密切,亚热带成分则与西藏的最接近. 喜马拉雅植物区系只有4000万年的历史.区系成分基本上是华夏的.少数与北极、北美、日本“间断分布”的成分也是华夏的,尼泊尔及喜马拉雅植物区系是华夏植物区系的后裔,而不是传统上所说的,是中国植物区系的摇篮.

 
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