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glacier
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  冰川
    Potential Direct Solar Radiation Based on GIS and Glacier Mass Balance
    基于地理信息系统的太阳直接辐射与冰川物质平衡的关系
短句来源
    Forty Year's Study of Glacier Temperature in China
    我国冰川温度研究40年
短句来源
    The Present Environmental Processes of the pH and Conductivity Records in the Glacier No 1 at the Headwaters of Urumqi River, Tianshan Mountains
    天山乌鲁木齐河源1号冰川pH和电导率记录的现代环境过程
短句来源
    The Features of δ~(18)O and Its Relation to Vapor Sources of Snowfall in Dasuopu Glacier on Peak Xixabangma
    希夏邦马峰达索普冰川区降雪中δ~(18)O特征及其与水汽来源的关系
短句来源
    DERIVING GLACIER CHANGE INFORMATION ON THE XIZANG (TIBETAN) PLATEAU BY INTEGRATING RS AND GIS TECHNIQUES
    综合RS与GIS方法提取青藏高原冰川变化信息——以布喀塔格峰为例
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  “glacier”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Discovery of Glacier Deposition of Clay and Gravels at Xiaolangdi Dam Site and Its Effects on Engineering Geology
    黄河小浪底地区冰碛泥砾之发现及其工程地质意义
短句来源
    The floods occur mainly because the glacier and snow melt, whose total quantity are very large and flood peak are relative flat. The high floods often happen simultaneously on the two tributaries and the series of flood has the period of 3.8 and 11 years.
    和田河属融水型洪水,量大峰缓,两支流易同时遭遇大洪水,洪水系列具有3. 8年和11年的周期;
短句来源
    The formation and distribution of the layer are the results form the Quaternary glacier action and weathering in the glacier period, from main characteristics of gravels in the layer: large variation in demensions, piling, disoderly, uniform mineral component, weathered seriously uneven with weathered halo on gravels in quartz conglomerate.
    该层的形成和分布与冰川作用及其间冰期的风化作用密切相关,其主要特征是颗粒大小相差悬殊,堆积杂乱,砾石成份单一,砂砾石均遭受了强烈的风化,石英砂岩砾石上形成厚度不等的风化晕圈。
短句来源
    3.recording the temperature of the mixture 30 s once and taking measurement once in 6~8 minutes. Field measurement of liquid water content in the snow covered on the temperate glacier Austre Okstindbreen shows that the content changed in different glacial areas with different elevations. Vertical variations profile was associated with the distribution of snow structure ,temperature and density in snow stratigraphy.
    5 个雪坑剖面的测定结果清楚地显示出雪内液体水含量的区带性和随高度的变化,积雪内液体水含量的垂直变化与雪层中物理结构、温度和密度的分布有关。
短句来源
    Water resources is considered as a key of the development in Northwest China, so its characteristic must be thought enough and accurately The water resource data in Northwest China is analyzed, which indicate that: (1) the runoff of endorheic drainage is mainly formed in mountain regions, dissipated at basin or plain front of mountain, and supplied by the rainfall, snowfall, glacier and groundwater;
    依据西北各省 (自治区 )的有关资料 ,对西北内陆河流域的水资源特点进行了综合分析 ,提出了西北内陆河流域水资源的四大特点 :①内陆河流域径流主要形成于山区 ,散失于山前平原盆地 ,径流的补给源主要是降水、冰雪与地下水 ;
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  glacier
Microorganisms Found in the Basal Horizons of the Antarctic Glacier above Lake Vostok
      
Problems of such kind arise in glaciology when one estimates the stability of snow on mountain slopes or determines the catastrophic movement of a glacier; the results can also be applied to solifluction phenomena [2, 3].
      
It was assumed that the temperature at the bed of the glacier could reach the melting point due to nonstationary heating and that the conditions would be produced for motion of the glacier.
      
Here we examine the nonstationary response of a glacier to small deviations of the system parameters from critical values corresponding to the stationary state.
      
Numerical investigation and self-similar solutions of the glacier-ocean interaction problem
      
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A red clay layer with gravels of Quaternary deposition under loess in Xiaolangdi area, located on the Yellow River, was discovered through both engineering geologic investigation and observing it on a seanning electron microscope. The formation and distribution of the layer are the results form the Quaternary glacier action and weathering in the glacier period, from main characteristics of gravels in the layer: large variation in demensions, piling, disoderly, uniform mineral component, weathered...

A red clay layer with gravels of Quaternary deposition under loess in Xiaolangdi area, located on the Yellow River, was discovered through both engineering geologic investigation and observing it on a seanning electron microscope. The formation and distribution of the layer are the results form the Quaternary glacier action and weathering in the glacier period, from main characteristics of gravels in the layer: large variation in demensions, piling, disoderly, uniform mineral component, weathered seriously uneven with weathered halo on gravels in quartz conglomerate. The discovered layer with good antiseepage strength, low premibility and good consolidation, is important for evaluating foundation stability against seepage of Xiaolangdi Dam.

经野外工程地质调查和室内扫描电镜观察,均发现在黄河小浪底坝址区的黄土层覆盖下存在有第四纪冰川堆积的红土卵石层。该层的形成和分布与冰川作用及其间冰期的风化作用密切相关,其主要特征是颗粒大小相差悬殊,堆积杂乱,砾石成份单一,砂砾石均遭受了强烈的风化,石英砂岩砾石上形成厚度不等的风化晕圈。由于红土卵石层具有透水性弱,抗渗强度和固结性好等特点,因此它的发现对坝址防渗及坝基稳定性评价都有重要影响。

The disastrous flash floods in Yarkand River were caused by the dewatering of glacier-dammed lakes. According to the detailed analysis of characters, distributions and formations of the floods, together with three-year expeditions (ly85-1987), the formative Jaw of this kind of flood is described as follows: (1) Most of the floods were caused by the dewatering of Kyagar Thso Lake distributed in the upper end of Yarkand River. (2) Most of the floods occurred from the end of August to the middle of September,...

The disastrous flash floods in Yarkand River were caused by the dewatering of glacier-dammed lakes. According to the detailed analysis of characters, distributions and formations of the floods, together with three-year expeditions (ly85-1987), the formative Jaw of this kind of flood is described as follows: (1) Most of the floods were caused by the dewatering of Kyagar Thso Lake distributed in the upper end of Yarkand River. (2) Most of the floods occurred from the end of August to the middle of September, later than the occurrence period of annual highest temperature, but coincident with the occurrence of the maximum value of the≥5℃ cummulative temperature and the summer air temperature at the 600 hPa height. (3) The results of measurement in Kyagar Thso Lake area show that there are 134 stripes of lake water erosion-sedimentary marks on the lake banks, reflecting the evolution of the Kyagar Thso Lake. The flood discharge and its volume caused by glacier-dammed lake were reduced as the retreating of Kygar Glacier.

叶尔羌河灾害性突发洪水系由冰川阻塞湖泄洪所致。通过三年野外考察(1985~1987年)和详尽分析洪水的特点、分布及成因,归结叶尔羌河灾害性洪水发生规律如下:①大部分是由叶尔羌河上源的克亚吉尔特索湖迅速排水所致。②洪水多出现在8月底至9月中旬,迟於年内最高气温出现日期;洪水多出现在≥5℃积温的峰值年份,和夏季(6~8月)600hPa高空气温的峰值时期。③实测克亚吉尔特索湖岸边有134条湖水侵蚀-堆积线,它们深刻地反映了该冰川湖的演变过程。冰川湖突发洪水则随着冰川退缩、冰湖缩小而减弱。

rmqi basin is located on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains.Tree ring samples of spruce were collected from subalpine needle leaved forest zone of the basin.Among the nine sites discussed in this study,five sites are from the upper forest zone and four from the lower. The tree ring cores were cross dated,rings were measured,and 9 residual chronologies were developed.The statistics of chronologies and the results of common interval analysis show chronologies with high mean sensitivity and high correlation...

rmqi basin is located on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains.Tree ring samples of spruce were collected from subalpine needle leaved forest zone of the basin.Among the nine sites discussed in this study,five sites are from the upper forest zone and four from the lower. The tree ring cores were cross dated,rings were measured,and 9 residual chronologies were developed.The statistics of chronologies and the results of common interval analysis show chronologies with high mean sensitivity and high correlation between tress,which are typical of tress in semiarid region. The relationship between tree ring chronologies and streamflow of rmqi River was studied by correlation analysis.Using data from 1958~1990,a total of 10 400 correlation coefficients was calculated between ring width series and streamflow at the Yingxiongqiao hydrological station for various combinations of time periods.The ring width chronology from Boerqin shows the best relationship with the mean streamflow of rmqi River from July to March.Therefore,the calibration equation was obtained by regression method using the data of 1960~1993.The correlation coefficient of the equation is 0.670,and the F~value is 26.09,which is significant at 0.001 level.Cross verification method was used to verify the stability of the equation.As a result,there was a good similarity between the reconstructed series and the observed series.The reduction error was 0.366 and the correlation coefficient of the first difference series was 0.542.These statistics indicate the stability of the equation.It was concluded that the equation could be used for reconstruction. It is well known that there is no direct relationship between three growth and streamflow of a river.However,it was found by correlation analysis that both ring width chronologies and streamflow were correlated with precipitation from April to February.It is precipitation that built up a correlation relationship between tree growth and streamflow.This is the reason why streamflow of a river can be reconstructed from ring width chronology. Using the calibration equation established above,the mean streamflow of rmqi River from July to March was reconstructed for the past 360 years.The reconstructed low frequency variations show that streamflow had 4 rich water periods(1640~1704,1726~1758,1825~1906,1955~1989) and 3 short water periods(1705~1725,1759~1824,1907~1954). Sine snowmelt and precipitation took up to 731% of annual streamflow,the rich water period should correspond to the wet period or the priod of advance of glacier.Comparison study showed that the last two advances of rmqi No1 glacier in Little Ice Age were both corresponding to rich water periods.They are 1736~1758 and 1825~1906.The frequency study of the reconstructed mean streamflow of rmqi River from July to March for the past 360 years indicated 7 periods at the 0.05 significant level.They were 48yr,15yr,10.0~10.43yr,5yr,3.75~3.80yr,3.24~3.29yr and 2.05yr. Using departure percentage method,the streamflow of rmqi River was classified into 5 groups,e.g.,severe rich water year,rich water year,normal year,short water year and severe short water year.The frequency of each group was counted for the past 362 years.It was found that the normal years occurred most.The short water years were 5.8% more than the rich water years.No severe short water year occurred and the severe rich water years occurred six times,i.e. 1.7% of the total.This suggests that the mean streamflow of rmqi River from July to March was stable for the past 362 years.This is due to the presence of the glaciers in the alpine zone of the basin;during the dry and hot period the river could be recharged by snowmelt.For the 363 years' reconstruction,the six severe rich water years occurred in 1639,1741,1681,1636,1691 and 1730.

本文利用在乌鲁木齐河山区流域所建立的树轮年表,重建了乌鲁木齐河山区流域360年上年7月~当年3月的平均径流量。校准方程的相关系数为0.670,交叉检验的误差缩减值达0.366。在重建的360年径流量的变化中,有4个偏丰期和3个偏枯期,第2,3两个偏丰期与乌鲁木齐河河源1号冰川的两次冰进期相对应。对重建径流量的丰枯频率分析发现,平水年份出现最多,偏枯水年份多于偏丰水年份约5.8%,特枯水年没有出现,特丰水年出现6次,约占1.7%。这表明360年来径流量变化基本上稳定。

 
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