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scour
相关语句
  冲刷
    Theory and Numerical Simulation of Scour in Estuary
    河口冲刷的理论与数值模拟
短句来源
    Evaluation of Sluice Scour
    论闸下冲刷的计算
短句来源
    Study of Local Scour Around Submerged Spur-dikes
    漫水丁坝局部冲刷的研究
短句来源
    A SIMULATED STUDY OF THE ROCKY RIVERBED SCOUR DOWNSTREAM OF SHIMEN ARCH DAM
    石门拱坝下游岩石河床冲刷模拟研究
短句来源
    Experimental Study of Scour Process around Spur-dikes
    丁坝冲刷过程试验研究
短句来源
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  “scour”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Analysis of Change in Scour and Silting of Sediment in the Mam Stem of West River
    西江干流泥沙冲淤变化分析
短句来源
    Calculation of the Scour and Sediment of Sanmenxia Reservoir Based on Improved BP Network
    基于改进BP网络对三门峡水库泥沙冲淤量的计算
短句来源
    Analysis of Hydrographic Characteristics and Changes in Scour and Silting in the Laizhou Bay Area
    莱州湾海域水文特征及冲淤变化分析
短句来源
    The cause of formation and measurement analysis of riverway deep scour in front 4km from Nantaitou gates
    杭嘉湖南排南台头闸前4km河道刷深成因及其措施分析
    Based on the observation and analysis of flow structure, a formula to calculate the maximum scour depth is obtained by using single factor analysis dimensional analysis, regression and optimization with the help of a computer.
    通过对堤岸、路基与水流正交情况下水流结构的观测分析,在单因素分析的基础上,运用量纲分析的方法,并借助于电子计算机进行优化、回归分析,提出了堤岸、路基与水流正交情况下最大冲深的计算模式。
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  scour
The results of studying the scour of bed composed of fine and coarse sand around models of large-diameter vertical cylinder under the effect of regular waves are presented.
      
The conditions for correct modeling of wave scour around structures with large horizontal dimensions are considered and the irrelevance of modeling such scour with the use of fine-sand models is demonstrated.
      
The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.
      
Prediction of scour depth versus time for bridge piers in the case of multi-flood and multi-layer soil system
      
A new method called E-SRICOS is proposed to predict the scour depth z versus time t curve around bridge piers.
      
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After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted...

After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted at the present. From a study of the fluvial processes of Colorado River and some other streams, it appears that a decrease in channel gradient is one of the three possibilities only, and should not be regraded as an universal rule. In fact, the change in bed slope below an impounding reservoir depends essentially on the geologic and geographic conditions of that area. It is first considered that the channel width does not change materially in the downstream direction. In many of the sandy rivers, there exists, a layer of gravel or pebble below the finer surface material. The inclination of this layer is generally steeper than the present bed slope. After the releasing of clear water from the reservoir, the surface material is carried away and thereby exposing the coarse layer, first near the dam and gradually extended to the downstream. This will result in an uneven erosion along the direction of the flow, and the steepening of the channel gradient is the consequence of such a process. The Colorado Eiver below the Hoover Dam belongs to this case. If the distribution of the bed material in the downstream, direction is more or less uniform, and if there exists no coarse layer within a finite depth below the bed surface, the bed will be degraded as a whole and the channel gradient remains essentially at its initial value. Results of flume study seem to indicate that such is the case. The Colorado Eiver below both the Parker and the Imperial Dam also belongs to this group. Only when there is a base level within a short distance from the dam which controls the depth of scour at that neighborhood, or if ther is a tributary which brings coarser material into the lower part of the reach, will the channel slope below the dam become flatter. On the other hand, if the river is impounded in a gorge and enters a plain not far away from the dam site, the width of the channel on the alluvial fan becomes progressively wider downstream. It is then possible that the depth of degradation decreases in the downstream direction and the slope becomes flatter. This case is well illustrated by one of the rivers in U. S. S. R. It must be realized that no matter how the channel gradient below an impounding reservoir changes, it is mainly through the coarsening of the bed material which makes the channel regains its equilibrium. Two different types of the coarsening of the bed material can be distinguished from the field data available. One of which is the exposing of a gravel or pebble layer below the present alluvium. As soon as this layer is exposed, there will be a sudden jump in the bed material size, and the stream channel becomes stable again. The othertype of coarsening of bed material takes place continuously and at a much slower rate. One often fails to notice the occurence of such a phenomenon, as the size of the bed material only increases in a relatively small amount. Yet, such a small increase in bed material size results in a much significantly rise of the roughness coefficient, by remolding the sand bars on the bed surface. Both the velocity of the flow and the sediment carrying capacity of the channel will be reduced, and the river gradually re-establishes its equilibrium. It is now possible to calculate such a proeess according to the theories on sediment transport and river roughness. Following the coarsening of the bed material, the down-cutting rate of the stream channel decreases with time. Both the flume studies and field measurements indicate that the relationship between the down-cutting rate and the cumulative time of erosion is an exponential one. This study demonstrates that the fluvial processes of an alluvial channel depend very much on the hydrographic conditions of the basin, of which the stream forms a part. One can't visualize the whole aspect of the problem (?)y studying the fluvial proteases through hydraulics, view-point only.

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也...

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也存在着粗化的可能。通过粗化作用,可以使河床下切的深度大大减低。

Systematic scour tests of solid and artificially dispersed two-dimensional water jets have been carried out with sand and gravel as bed materials. The angles of inclination of jets are 45°and 90°. Based on the results of experiments, two different types of scour, i.e., the shallow tailwater type and the deep tailwater type, are proposed. In the former type, the depth of water in the scoured pit required for equilibrium is independent of the tailwater depth, whereas in the latter, it is dependent...

Systematic scour tests of solid and artificially dispersed two-dimensional water jets have been carried out with sand and gravel as bed materials. The angles of inclination of jets are 45°and 90°. Based on the results of experiments, two different types of scour, i.e., the shallow tailwater type and the deep tailwater type, are proposed. In the former type, the depth of water in the scoured pit required for equilibrium is independent of the tailwater depth, whereas in the latter, it is dependent on the tailwater depth. The law of diffusion of solid jets in the water cushion is found to be similar to that of free turbulent jets. In the case of 90°, the ratio between the initial velocity of a solid jet in the immerging section and the average velocity on the bottom of the pit, when the scouring action has reached its equilibrium condition, is found as shown in Fig 4 or formulas (10) and (11). Meanwhile, the bottom velocity is found to be smaller than the scouring velocity of the bed material under uniform flow condition, and the relation between them is shown in Fig. 5 or formula(13). The effect of the degree of dispersion and aeration of water jets on the depth of scour is also preliminarily investigated. In the case of 45°jets (both solid and dispersed), formulas for the estimation of scour are given as follows: For the shallow tailwater type, h_p=1.38Φ~(0.25)/((a~(1/9)D~(0.25))q~(0.75)z_0~(0.125).(26a) For the deep tailwater type, h_p=2.3×(q)/(1/2)~((p_s-p)/p×gD)+3/(a+3)h_H. (27a) Comparison of the data on model tests of bucket type energy dissipators with the corresponding results computed by these formulas shows that they are fairiy consistant.

在实验室二元水槽中进行了入射角为90°及45°的纯水射流及人工分散搀气射流对砂卵石床料冲刷的系统试验。根据试验成果,提出区分浅水型冲刷与深水型冲刷的概念,前者在冲刷平衡时坑中水深与下游水深无关,后者则有较大关系;冲刷坑平衡时坑底水股的断面平均流速比等流量下均匀流的不冲流速为小,两者存在一定的函数关系,根据这一关系及射流在水垫中扩散的规律,可根据均匀流的不冲流速估算纯水射流对河床的冲刷深度;对于射流在分散搀气情形下对减弱冲刷的作用进行了初步的研究,在-15°的人工分散射流,浅水型冲坑平衡水深的减低约为分散度1/9次方的关系,在深水型则减弱冲刷的作用较大,得出在一定范围内初步估算冲坑平衡水深的关系式。文中曾将若干实际工程鼻坎挑流的模型冲刷试验成果与用所得公式计算的结果进行比较,说明尚能符合。

This paper deals with the problem of energy dissipation of high overflow dam with flip bucket and the estimation of downstream local erosion. Besides the kinetic energy carried away by the tailwater flow, the three ways of energy dissipation, i.e. (1) along the surface of overflow dam, (2) within the trajectory of jet and (3) in the effected water cushion, are discussed firstly. Thereby, the amount of energy, △E_(3-4), dissipated in the water cushion composed of the tailwater and the scour pit eroded by...

This paper deals with the problem of energy dissipation of high overflow dam with flip bucket and the estimation of downstream local erosion. Besides the kinetic energy carried away by the tailwater flow, the three ways of energy dissipation, i.e. (1) along the surface of overflow dam, (2) within the trajectory of jet and (3) in the effected water cushion, are discussed firstly. Thereby, the amount of energy, △E_(3-4), dissipated in the water cushion composed of the tailwater and the scour pit eroded by the fallen jet is estimated. By knowing the rate of energy dissipation per unit volume of the water cushion, η, the volume of water cushion to fulfill the requirement of energy dissipation is obtained as V=△E_(3-4)/η. Furthermore, the maximum depth of water cushion, T, is determined from the relationship between V and T. Since η is proportional to H~(1/2), so the expression of T obtained by the above procedure is T=K_3q~(0.5)H~(0.25). In the stage of planning and preliminary design, K_3 may be considered as 1.25 for the quick estimation of local erosion. Prototype observation and model test data of erosion pit of eight overflow dams are compared with the corresponding estimated erosion depth, and their basic agreement is acquired. In the another part of this paper, the horizontal distance of trajectory is discussed. It indicates that the elevation of flip bucket plays important role as well as the lip angle of the bucket. So that, the lip angle of the bucket corresponding to the maximum trajectory distance is usually less than 45°. The rear slope of the erosion pit is used as the criterion of the effect of local erosion against the stability of dam, and the critical value of this slope is suggested.

本文首先探討了湛流高坝采用鼻坎挑流泊能的各段能量損失,估計射流在水垫中所消失的能量。其次,推导得水垫的单位体积消能率約式,求得滿足消能要求的水垫体积。再次,根据水垫的几何形状,得出估計水垫內最大水深的算式。文中并給出冲刷深度估算公式的諾模图。此外,还探討了鼻坎高程对射程的影响,提出相应于最大射程的仰角小于45°;并从冲刷坑的后坡来探討冲刷坑对建筑物安全的影响。最后,根据十二点原型观测和模型試驗資料,对提出的冲刷深度估算約式进行了核驗比較。

 
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