Based on the basic concept and calculating theory suggested newly, the deformation calculating theory related to pure compression state and shear compression state of isolating bearing is established.

The injected water in the treated area can be divided into three different effects: the pure compression, the compression and micro flow, the macro flow.

For the followingfive in-plane loading cases: pure compression, pure shear, pure bending, shearand compression, shear and bending, the relationship between ultimate strengthand the following parameters are studied with the said method: slenderness ofplate, its geometric imperfection, its residual stresses, its boundary conditions.

Finally,conclusions are generalized that the vertical rigidity of pure compression is not enough to completely reflect the vertical compression properties of the bearings when the properties of the bearings are evaluated in an all-round way.

Based on the displacement variational principle, a general semi-discrete method is developed for buclding analysis of thin-walled members with arbitrary cross section under pure compression and pure bending.

Result:The stiffness of PLIF with a single cage had a significantly higher than PLIF with two cages in pure compression,left bending,and rotation(P<005).

Here the strategy is adopted of equating to zero only the horizontal force resultants on the free surfaces so that the pure compression approximation of Klingbeil and Shield emerges in the event of zero shear.

However, unlike the pure compression solution, horizontal and vertical force resultants on the free surfaces cannot both be set to zero, which is a well known characteristic of simple shearing.

The results obtained generalise that of Klingbeil and Shield for the case of pure compression alone, as well as incorporating the well known simple shear result.

Strain gradients varying from pure compression to pure bending are facilitated.

These are analyzed using other thermal and mechanical properties of the test material to obtain the bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio in pure compression, and the relation between the adiabatic and isothermal bulk moduli for polymers.

The paper presents a parameter optimization procedure for the DynamicRelaxation Method, thus reducing the computer time to 1/8-1/10 of whatrequired if the finite element or the finite difference method are used forsolving same problem. This method can be used to calculate the ultimatestrength of plates under out-of-plane or in-plane loading. For the followingfive in-plane loading cases: pure compression, pure shear, pure bending, shearand compression, shear and bending, the relationship...

The paper presents a parameter optimization procedure for the DynamicRelaxation Method, thus reducing the computer time to 1/8-1/10 of whatrequired if the finite element or the finite difference method are used forsolving same problem. This method can be used to calculate the ultimatestrength of plates under out-of-plane or in-plane loading. For the followingfive in-plane loading cases: pure compression, pure shear, pure bending, shearand compression, shear and bending, the relationship between ultimate strengthand the following parameters are studied with the said method: slenderness ofplate, its geometric imperfection, its residual stresses, its boundary conditions.Comparing the calculated results with British data (theoretical and experimental)and Rules of BS 5400 (Bridge code), we find the former agreeing with the lattersatisfactorily.

Dynamic performance tests have been carried out on sixteen laminated rubber mounts. The horizontal stiffness and damping characteristics under serious earthquake4 the influences of the horizontal shearing deformations, the vertical loads, and the frequencies and cycle index of horizontal loading on the dynamic performance of the rubber mount; the load-carring capacity under pure compression, the limiting horizontal displacement as well as the maximum vertical load under serious earthquake are obtained....

Dynamic performance tests have been carried out on sixteen laminated rubber mounts. The horizontal stiffness and damping characteristics under serious earthquake4 the influences of the horizontal shearing deformations, the vertical loads, and the frequencies and cycle index of horizontal loading on the dynamic performance of the rubber mount; the load-carring capacity under pure compression, the limiting horizontal displacement as well as the maximum vertical load under serious earthquake are obtained. It can be seen from test results that the stiffness and the damping of the laminated rubber mount are obviously reduced with the increase of shearing deformation, and attention should be paid to the situation if the mount is to be designed to stand against either a strong or a weak earthquake. However, for a strong earthquake, the influence of frequencies and cycle index of the loading on the performance of the mounts can be neglected.

Objective: To compare the intervertebral segmental stiffness between PLIF with one long posterolateral cage, PLIF with one posterolateral cage and facet joint fixation, and PLIF with 2 posterior cages. Methods: Twelve bovine lumbar functional spinal units were divided into 2 groups. group 1 had a long single threaded cage inserted posterolaterally on the left side by posterior approach with left unilateral facetectomy; group 2 had 2 regular length cages inserted posteriorly. Nondestructive tests were performed...

Objective: To compare the intervertebral segmental stiffness between PLIF with one long posterolateral cage, PLIF with one posterolateral cage and facet joint fixation, and PLIF with 2 posterior cages. Methods: Twelve bovine lumbar functional spinal units were divided into 2 groups. group 1 had a long single threaded cage inserted posterolaterally on the left side by posterior approach with left unilateral facetectomy; group 2 had 2 regular length cages inserted posteriorly. Nondestructive tests were performed in pure compression, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation. Test order was intact, implanted 2 sizes, and group 1 with internal fixation of facet joint screw. Results: Group 1 had a significantly higher stiffness than group 2 in pure compression, left bending, and rotation (P<0.05). group 2 had higher stiffness values than group 1 in right bending. Increase of cage size of group 1 increased the stiffness of pure compression, extension, flexion, and decreased the stiffness of right bending and contercolockwise rotation. Cage size had no significant effect on group 2. Group 1 with fixation of facet joint screw had a significant increase in stiffness for extension, bilaleral bending, and colockwise rotation. Conclusion: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with insertion of a single long threaded cage posterolaterally with unilateral facetectomy enables sufficient decompression while maintaining a majority of the posterior elements. Combined with a facet joint screw, adequate postoperative stability can be achieved.