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humerus
相关语句
  肱骨
     The Establishment and Validation of Three-dimension Finite Element Model of Shoulder and Application to Mechanism Investigation of Humerus Fracture
     人体肩关节三维有限元模型的建立、验证及在肱骨骨折机制研究方面的应用
短句来源
     THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE HUMERUS AND FEMUR OF THE HUMAN BODY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL CONDITIONS
     不同的机能条件对人体肱骨及股骨形态的影响
短句来源
     Measurement of the Chinese Humerus
     国人肱骨的测量(肱骨研究之一)
短句来源
     Epiphyseal Separation of the Distal End of Humerus
     肱骨远端全骺分离
短句来源
     A Theoretical study on the Mechanism of Fractures of the lateral Condyle of the Humerus and Closed Reduction Biomechanics
     肱骨外髁骨折机制与闭合复位生物力学的理论研究
短句来源
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     Comparison of internal and external fixation for the treatment of the fracture of the humerus shaft
     骨干骨折小夹板外固定与钢板螺丝钉内固定治疗比较
短句来源
     Radial nerve injuries 8 cases,brachial plexus nerve injuries 2 cases,dislocate of elbow 2 cases,dislocate of shoulder 2 cases,humerus artery injuries 3 cases radial artery injuries 1 case,muscles of the forearm injuries 2 cases.
     合并桡神经损伤8例,臂丛损伤2例,肘关节脱位2例,肩关节脱位2例,动脉损伤3例,桡动脉损伤1例,前臂肌腱撕脱伤2例。
短句来源
     out of the20patients received the surgical treatment,16cases whose complete fracture concrescence time is10~24months,5cases who have joint stiffness to different extents,1case whose fractured humerus could no be connected,the movement of the other joints is in a good condition.
     20例手术治疗的患者16例随访骨折完全愈合时间为10~24月,5例出现不同程度的关节僵直,1例骨干骨折患者出现骨不连,余关节活动良好。
短句来源
     The Diagnosis and Treatment of Humerus Varus-Report of 9 Cases
     内翻的诊断和治疗(附9例报告)
短句来源
     Results:The inferior ulnar collateral artery originates from brachial artery 3.3±1.2 cm above the line between the medial and lateral epicondyles,with a diameter of 1.8±0.4 mm and a length of 1.9±0.6 cm. It gives off 1~3 periosteal branches to the medial lower part of humerus with a diameter of 0.8±0.4 mm.
     结果:尺侧下副动脉距髁间连线上3.7±1.7cm始于动脉,外径1.8±0.4mm,长1.8±0.7cm,骨膜支1~3支,外径0.8±0.4mm分布骨下段内侧半骨膜。
短句来源
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     whereas, it were spine column (36.6%), ribs (15.8%),skull (14.9%),pelvis (14.9%),humerus and femur(8.9%), scapula(4.0%)with plain X-rays.
     X线摄片结果为脊柱(36.6%)、肋骨(15.8%)、颅骨(14.9%)、骨盆(14.9%)、长管状骨(8.9%)、关节及胛骨(4.0%)。
短句来源
     ② With scintigraphy, the frequencies of bone lesions involved were spine column (37.1%), ribs(25.2%), pelvis(10.6%), scapula(6.6%), humerus and femur (6.6%), skull (3.3%).
     2对受检病例骨损害的好发部位及频率的统计表明:核素显像依次为脊柱(37.1%)、肋骨(25.2%)、骨盆(10.6%)、长管状骨6.6%、关节及胛骨(6.6%)、颅骨(3.3%);
短句来源
     Radial nerve injuries 8 cases,brachial plexus nerve injuries 2 cases,dislocate of elbow 2 cases,dislocate of shoulder 2 cases,humerus artery injuries 3 cases radial artery injuries 1 case,muscles of the forearm injuries 2 cases.
     合并桡神经损伤8例,臂丛损伤2例,肘关节脱位2例,关节脱位2例,肱动脉损伤3例,桡动脉损伤1例,前臂肌腱撕脱伤2例。
短句来源
     Methods:From August 1985 to August 2003,35 patients with malignant bone tumors of proximal humerus were treated with segmental resection and prosthetic replacement of shoulder joint.
     方法:1985年8月至2003年8月我院共对35例肱骨近端恶性骨肿瘤患者行肿瘤瘤段切除,人工关节假体置换保肢术。
短句来源
     Treatment of fracture of surgical neck of humerus associated with anterior dislocation of shoulder joint with bone setting manipulation
     手法治疗肱骨外科颈骨折合并关节前脱位
短句来源
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  “humerus”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Conclusion:Upper 1/5 of humerus is relatively dangerous, however , there aren’t big blood vessels and nerves in the middle upper 1/5,so the area is relatively safe.
     结论:肱骨的上1/5区为相对危险区,而中上1/5区无大血管和神经走行,属相对安全区。
短句来源
     The anatomical structures of humerus of one hundred specimens were also observed. This data were made use of designing and performing the radial transfer operation after statistical analyzing. Results: The length of sulcus for radial nerve: the left side was 56.52±10.13mm(43.82~75.68mm), and the right side 65.74±5.80mm(55.42~78.82mm).
     结果:①骨标本测量:桡神经沟长度左侧为56.52mm±10.13mm(43.82mm~7568mm),右侧65.74mm±5.80mm(55.42mm~78.82mm)。
短句来源
     Conclusion:Upper 1/5 of humerus is relatively dangerous,however,there aren’t big blood vessels and nerves in the middle upper 1/5(C/D),so the area is relatively safe.
     结论 :肱骨的上 1 5区为相对危险区 ,而中上 1 5区 (CD段 )无大血管和神经走行 ,属相对安全区。
短句来源
     Results The recurrent interosseous,radial recurrentand the posterior branch of radial collateal arteries,their origin outside diameter and length from the origin to the humerus extermal epicondyle were (1 47±0 2)mm,(65 1±9 5)mm,(2 1±0 3)mm,(63 7±0 8)mm,(1 48±0 22)mm and (104 5±8 9)mm,respectively.
     结果 骨间返动脉起于外上髁下 (6 5 1± 9 5 )mm ; 起点外径 1(4 7± 0 2 )mm ;
短句来源
     The implantation sites included: 27 in tibia, 22 in femur, 12 in humerus, 5 in ulnar and radius, 1 in talus, 1 in subtalar joint fusion, 1 in ankle joint fusion.
     使用 IBMp部位共计 69处,包括:腔骨 27处,股骨 22处,肢骨 12处,尺骨 5处,距骨 1处,距下关节融合 1处,踝关节三关节融合 1处。
短句来源
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  humerus
Direct sisterly relationships between theropods and birds were assumed in the basis of random and formal synapomorphies, such as the number of caudal vertebrae, relative length of the humerus, and flattening of the dorsal margin of the pubis.
      
Screw fixation of lateral condyle fractures of the humerus in children
      
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Proximal Humerus Fractures with a Cannulated Blade Plate
      
Es wurde an 60 Personen zwischen 25-55 Jahren (40 M?nner und 20 Frauen) r?ntgenologisch die Breite der Kondylen des Femurs und des Humerus bestimmt.
      
In most cases this syndrome is a complication of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.
      
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This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower...

This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower molars are characterized by their lowness in relationto their lengths and breadths.Pronounced cingulum is present on the buccalsurface of the crown.The humeral shaft is almost identical with that of modern man.Thetibial shaft is slender and its anterior border is blunt.The walls of the tibiaare extraordinarily thick and its medullary cavity is very narrow.The results of the study of Sinanthropus pekinensis by the present authorsand others clearly show that the upper extremity bones of Sinanthropus arealmost identical with those of modern man;the lower extremity bones are definitely human in form and appearance,but possess also some primitive cha-racters.The teeth and skulls possess many primitive features.The cranialcapacity is considerably smaller than that of recent man.It is due to labour,and the operations of the hands that the upper extremity is differentated fromthe lower one.The differentiation of the extremities is followed by the deve-lopment of the brain and the brain case.These results further enrich Engels'theory of the transition from ape to man and testify to the truth that“labour(?)eated man himself”.

1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前...

1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前方而在正中位置。齿根仅在尖端分为唇舌两枝。7.下第一及第二两臼齿大小相似。齿冠硕大,但其高度若与其长度和宽度相比,则相对极为低矮。齿冠唇面有明显的扣带,两臼齿全属五结节齿型,以前内结节为最高和最大。齿根极为粗壮,分为前后两枝,前枝较短而直,后枝则较长而明显向后倾斜。前枝末端分叉,后枝末端则为单独一尖端。8.肱骨干完全具有现代人的形式,唯一真正与现代人的不同之点在共髓腔较小和骨壁较厚,此外其三角肌粗隆特别发达。9.胫骨细长,前缘较为圆钝,中段的横切面呈圆钝的三稜形。胫骨干中央大部为海棉骨质所填充,髓腔极小。中国猿人的胫骨较苏鲁人稍细,但两者颇为相似。10.过去及本文对于中国猿人化石研究的结果,明显指出中国猿人的上肢骨与现代人极为相似;下肢骨虽已具有现代人的形式,但又有若干明显的原始性质;而牙齿及过去发现的头骨,则远较现代人为原始,脑量也远在现代人之下,说明了最初是由于劳动,由于手的使用而使手足发生了分化,脑子随着发展了起来,头骨和牙齿的形态发生了改变,这种结果进一步充实了恩格斯从猿到人的理论,阐明了“劳动创造人类”的真谛。

1. Temperature adjustment during incubation (Early stage 38.5℃, Midestage 38.0℃, Late stage 37.0℃) showed favorable effect on rate of embryonic development and intensity of nutrient metabolism. The effect of thermo-rise during the early stage was more striking 24 hours after setling of eggs; the experiment group surpassed the controls in rate of development by about one full day, judging from exterior appearance. From the 25th day onward, exterior difference between groups became less manifest, although the...

1. Temperature adjustment during incubation (Early stage 38.5℃, Midestage 38.0℃, Late stage 37.0℃) showed favorable effect on rate of embryonic development and intensity of nutrient metabolism. The effect of thermo-rise during the early stage was more striking 24 hours after setling of eggs; the experiment group surpassed the controls in rate of development by about one full day, judging from exterior appearance. From the 25th day onward, exterior difference between groups became less manifest, although the experimental group pipped the shell earlier with greater strength, emerged early. The newly hatched ducklings were stronger with longer and fuller down, their average initial weight was heavier (47.76 gms as against 46.72 gms for the controls). As a consequence, hatchability was raised by 13.3% (Experimental, 75%, Control, 61.7%). 2. Growth curves of experimental group in length and weight of the embryo and its principal organs such as eye, heart, stomach, intestines, liver, lung, etc, fluctuated above those of the controls, except the heart, during the 25—27th day period only the former fell below the control group, slightly. 3. Manifestations indicating intensive metabolic rate were also in favor of the experimental group. For instance, decreases in egg weight were at faster rate than the control group. Descrepandies between the two groups were especially obvious in the utilization of egg white and egg yolk; egg white of the experimental group was completely utilized from the end of the 20th to the beginning of the 21st day, whereas it was delayed until the end of the 22nd and the beginning of the 23rd day in the controls, As the time of hatching the former had only 4.16 gms. of egg yolk left, while 6.23 gms was still left for the latter. Differences between the number of red blood cells and haemoglobin content were also apparent. 4. Roentgenographic measurements of ossified region taken from the diaphyses of the Humerus and Tibio-fibula likewise proved that the experimental group developed at a faster rate. 5. Sex differentiation was manifest at the 8th day for the experimental group as against the 9th day for the control group.

1.变溫条件(早期38.5℃,中期38.0℃,晚期37.0℃)可以改善胚胎发育的速度和胚体內某些指标变化的影响物质代謝的强度。初期升溫的效果在孵化开始的24小时以后較为明显。試驗組与对照組相比,发育速度一直領先,从外形来看,两組相差1昼夜。而到25昼夜以后,两組外形差別不大,但試驗組啄壳时間早,啄壳强而有力,出雛时間早,初生鴨雛健壮,絨羽长而丰滿,平均体重大(試驗組为47.76克,对照組为46.72克),从而提高了孵化率13.3%(試驗組75%,对照組61.7%) 2.胚胎及其主要器官,如眼、脑、心、胃、腸、肝、肺等长度和重量增长曲綫,試驗組的曲綫一直波动于对照組曲綫的上面,仅在25—27昼夜試驗組略有下降,其中心脏的情况,稍有例外。 3.一些能够說明物质代謝强度的指标,試驗組也一直領先。例如,卵重失重,壳重减重試驗組均快于对照組。特別是卵白、卵黃的利用方面,两組相差更为明显。試驗組在20昼夜末21昼夜初,卵白已被用尽,而对照組却延迟到22昼夜末23昼夜初。到出壳为止試驗組卵黄仅余4.16克,而对照組却还有6.23克。紅血球和血紅蛋白含量,两組差別也很明显。 4.X射綫直接摄影測量肱骨和小腿骨的骨干骨化区,也...

1.变溫条件(早期38.5℃,中期38.0℃,晚期37.0℃)可以改善胚胎发育的速度和胚体內某些指标变化的影响物质代謝的强度。初期升溫的效果在孵化开始的24小时以后較为明显。試驗組与对照組相比,发育速度一直領先,从外形来看,两組相差1昼夜。而到25昼夜以后,两組外形差別不大,但試驗組啄壳时間早,啄壳强而有力,出雛时間早,初生鴨雛健壮,絨羽长而丰滿,平均体重大(試驗組为47.76克,对照組为46.72克),从而提高了孵化率13.3%(試驗組75%,对照組61.7%) 2.胚胎及其主要器官,如眼、脑、心、胃、腸、肝、肺等长度和重量增长曲綫,試驗組的曲綫一直波动于对照組曲綫的上面,仅在25—27昼夜試驗組略有下降,其中心脏的情况,稍有例外。 3.一些能够說明物质代謝强度的指标,試驗組也一直領先。例如,卵重失重,壳重减重試驗組均快于对照組。特別是卵白、卵黃的利用方面,两組相差更为明显。試驗組在20昼夜末21昼夜初,卵白已被用尽,而对照組却延迟到22昼夜末23昼夜初。到出壳为止試驗組卵黄仅余4.16克,而对照組却还有6.23克。紅血球和血紅蛋白含量,两組差別也很明显。 4.X射綫直接摄影測量肱骨和小腿骨的骨干骨化区,也証明了試驗組的发育此对照組快。 5.性別分化时間,試驗組在第8昼夜,对照組在第9昼夜。

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation...

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation was made on the ex-ternal changes and specimens were fixedat various stages for histological study. The external observation has shownthat most of the nerveless limb rege-nerated normally after the removal ofthe humerus, except a few number inwhich the upperarm remained very shortor even absent. The rate of morpho-genesis of these two types of regeneratewas the same as those of the normallarvae at the same age (see Fig. 1). For histological examination specialattention was paid to the changes duringthe early phase of regeneration. It re-vealed that, on the first day after ampu-tation the wound area became coveredby an epithelial thickening formed bythe migration of the sorrounding epi-thelial cells. There was no basementmembrane under the thickening whichwas in intimate contact with the innertissues (Plate I, 1.2). Dedifferentiation hadnot yet begun. On the second day astriking demarcation was formed betweenthe epithelial thickening and inner tis-sues. The former could easily be dis- tinguished from its surrounding, beinglightly stained with cells containingmore cytoplasm and nearly sphericalnuclei with dispersed chromatin granules(Plate I, 3.4). The dedifferentiation ofthe muscle into muscle elements hadbegun. They became dissociated fromthe region near the cut end, transformedinto mononucleated mesenchymal cells,the blastema cells, and aggregated underthe epithelium. On the third day theepithelial thickening was no longer visible,instead, an epithelium with the charac-teristics of the embryonic limb budcovered the cut surface. The dediffe-rentiation of the muscle of the upperarmwas almost completed and muscles of theshoulder girdle also became dissociatedto participate in the blastema formation(Plate I, 5. 6). During the time between4-6 days the dedifferentiation of the innertissues proceeded further and the numberof blastema cells increased rapidly.Simultaneously, mitosis, another way toincrease the number of blastema cells,occured. Cells resulted from both pro-cesses accumulated at the tip of thestump and formed the regenerationblastema (Plate Ⅰ, 7. 8). The further de-velopment of the blastema was histo-logically the same as those in the caseof normal larvae (Plate Ⅱ, 1, 2, 3).Finallya forelimb was formed in the most caseswith the cartilaginous parts in normalproportion (Plate Ⅱ, 5). Only in thoseexperiments in which the upperarmremained very short the humerus repre-sented by a small piece of cartilage(Plate Ⅱ, 4) or even absent. The dedifferentiation of muscle cellswas clearly shown in the present study.Although mesenchyme cells were alsopresent in the stump besides the musclecells and their possible participation inthe blastema formation could not beruled out, yet quantitatively, it is clearthat the main source of blastema cellswere derived from the muscle cells.Since the cartilage was absent in thestump, blastema cells from the abovementioned origin should be responsiblefor the redifferentiation of this structure.This provided a clear evidence that theblastema cells are multipotent and thatthe cellular transformation betweenvarious tissues is possible. Finally, the changes of the epithelialcells are worthy to be mentioned.Although they are essentially the sameas those described by Rose (1948) andThornton (1954, 1960) yet in theirexperiments the epithelium was inner-vated and the formation of the epithelialthickening has been ascribed to thestimulatory influence of the nerve bythe latter author. According to thepresent study, it can be said, at leastin the larval stage, the dedifferentiationof the epithelial cells at the early phaseof regeneration is independent of nervesupply.

1.年青的无神经幼虫前肢,切断并摘除肱骨后可以再生,除去在少数例子肱骨的再生不完全外,大多数的再生都是典型的。再生体形态建成速度也和同年龄的正常幼虫相近。2.再生芽基细胞起源于残肢中仅有的肌肉和结缔组织,其中肌肉在数量上比结缔组织多,去分化过程也非常明显,因此,作为早期再生芽基细胞的来源,肌肉组织可能比结缔组织更为重要。3.由肌肉和结缔组织去分化而来的芽基细胞,不仅能够分化为肌肉和结缔组织,而且能分化出典型的软骨。这表明芽基细胞的多潜能性,由某种组织去分化而来的细胞可以分化为另一种组织。4.表皮细胞在再生初期表现出形态去分化特征,它和内部组织之间有密切的连系,但是没有看到表皮细胞直接参入内部。

 
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