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humerus
相关语句
  肱骨
    THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE HUMERUS AND FEMUR OF THE HUMAN BODY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FUNCTIONAL CONDITIONS
    不同的机能条件对人体肱骨及股骨形态的影响
短句来源
    Measurement of the Chinese Humerus
    国人肱骨的测量(肱骨研究之一)
短句来源
    BIOMECHNICAL COMPARISON OF INTERNAL FIXATION OF TNE DISTAL HUMERUS FRACTURE
    肱骨远端骨折内固定的生物力学比较
短句来源
    Study on the supratrochlear foramen in the humerus
    关于肱骨滑车上孔的研究
短句来源
    THE BIOMECHANICAL PRINCIPLE OF COMPRESSION STEEL PLATE OF GEAR CONTACT HALF CYCLE AND CHANNEL TYPE FOR HUMERUS FRACTURE
    齿接触半环抱槽式加压钢板固定肱骨骨折的生物力学原理
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  “humerus”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The site of division of radial nerve below the lateral epicondyle of the humerus in 80%.
    桡神经浅支起始点的位置,80%在外上髁平面下方(5—30毫米)。
短句来源
    A bone flap of 6.0 cm×0.5 cm was dissected from the medial or lateral low part of the humerus which is 1.0 cm above the medial epicondyle or external epicondyle.
    最后分别切取6 .0 cm ×1 .0 cm 骨瓣后再测试刚度。
短句来源
    Conclusion:Upper 1/5 of humerus is relatively dangerous, however , there aren’t big blood vessels and nerves in the middle upper 1/5,so the area is relatively safe.
    结论:肱骨的上1/5区为相对危险区,而中上1/5区无大血管和神经走行,属相对安全区。
短句来源
    FOSSIL HUMAN HUMERUS FROM CHIENPING,LIAONING PROVINCE
    辽宁建平人类上臂骨化石
短句来源
    Study of Surface Remodeling Rate Coefficients in Humerus of Cavia Porcellus in Vivo
    长骨表面再造率系数的测定方法
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  humerus
Direct sisterly relationships between theropods and birds were assumed in the basis of random and formal synapomorphies, such as the number of caudal vertebrae, relative length of the humerus, and flattening of the dorsal margin of the pubis.
      
Screw fixation of lateral condyle fractures of the humerus in children
      
Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Proximal Humerus Fractures with a Cannulated Blade Plate
      
Es wurde an 60 Personen zwischen 25-55 Jahren (40 M?nner und 20 Frauen) r?ntgenologisch die Breite der Kondylen des Femurs und des Humerus bestimmt.
      
In most cases this syndrome is a complication of supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children.
      
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This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower...

This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower molars are characterized by their lowness in relationto their lengths and breadths.Pronounced cingulum is present on the buccalsurface of the crown.The humeral shaft is almost identical with that of modern man.Thetibial shaft is slender and its anterior border is blunt.The walls of the tibiaare extraordinarily thick and its medullary cavity is very narrow.The results of the study of Sinanthropus pekinensis by the present authorsand others clearly show that the upper extremity bones of Sinanthropus arealmost identical with those of modern man;the lower extremity bones are definitely human in form and appearance,but possess also some primitive cha-racters.The teeth and skulls possess many primitive features.The cranialcapacity is considerably smaller than that of recent man.It is due to labour,and the operations of the hands that the upper extremity is differentated fromthe lower one.The differentiation of the extremities is followed by the deve-lopment of the brain and the brain case.These results further enrich Engels'theory of the transition from ape to man and testify to the truth that“labour(?)eated man himself”.

1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前...

1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前方而在正中位置。齿根仅在尖端分为唇舌两枝。7.下第一及第二两臼齿大小相似。齿冠硕大,但其高度若与其长度和宽度相比,则相对极为低矮。齿冠唇面有明显的扣带,两臼齿全属五结节齿型,以前内结节为最高和最大。齿根极为粗壮,分为前后两枝,前枝较短而直,后枝则较长而明显向后倾斜。前枝末端分叉,后枝末端则为单独一尖端。8.肱骨干完全具有现代人的形式,唯一真正与现代人的不同之点在共髓腔较小和骨壁较厚,此外其三角肌粗隆特别发达。9.胫骨细长,前缘较为圆钝,中段的横切面呈圆钝的三稜形。胫骨干中央大部为海棉骨质所填充,髓腔极小。中国猿人的胫骨较苏鲁人稍细,但两者颇为相似。10.过去及本文对于中国猿人化石研究的结果,明显指出中国猿人的上肢骨与现代人极为相似;下肢骨虽已具有现代人的形式,但又有若干明显的原始性质;而牙齿及过去发现的头骨,则远较现代人为原始,脑量也远在现代人之下,说明了最初是由于劳动,由于手的使用而使手足发生了分化,脑子随着发展了起来,头骨和牙齿的形态发生了改变,这种结果进一步充实了恩格斯从猿到人的理论,阐明了“劳动创造人类”的真谛。

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation...

The purpose of this paper is to ascer-tain the cellular transformation in limbswith still fewer kinds of tissues thanthose in the experiments of Weiss (1925)and Thornton (1938a) by observing theregeneration of nerveless limb after exar-ticulation of the humerus. The nerveless larvae obtained by themathod as described by Chuang andWang (1956) were cultured in Holtfretersolution at a temperature of 20±1℃ for24 days, then the forelimb was amputatedand the humerus completely removed.Daily observation was made on the ex-ternal changes and specimens were fixedat various stages for histological study. The external observation has shownthat most of the nerveless limb rege-nerated normally after the removal ofthe humerus, except a few number inwhich the upperarm remained very shortor even absent. The rate of morpho-genesis of these two types of regeneratewas the same as those of the normallarvae at the same age (see Fig. 1). For histological examination specialattention was paid to the changes duringthe early phase of regeneration. It re-vealed that, on the first day after ampu-tation the wound area became coveredby an epithelial thickening formed bythe migration of the sorrounding epi-thelial cells. There was no basementmembrane under the thickening whichwas in intimate contact with the innertissues (Plate I, 1.2). Dedifferentiation hadnot yet begun. On the second day astriking demarcation was formed betweenthe epithelial thickening and inner tis-sues. The former could easily be dis- tinguished from its surrounding, beinglightly stained with cells containingmore cytoplasm and nearly sphericalnuclei with dispersed chromatin granules(Plate I, 3.4). The dedifferentiation ofthe muscle into muscle elements hadbegun. They became dissociated fromthe region near the cut end, transformedinto mononucleated mesenchymal cells,the blastema cells, and aggregated underthe epithelium. On the third day theepithelial thickening was no longer visible,instead, an epithelium with the charac-teristics of the embryonic limb budcovered the cut surface. The dediffe-rentiation of the muscle of the upperarmwas almost completed and muscles of theshoulder girdle also became dissociatedto participate in the blastema formation(Plate I, 5. 6). During the time between4-6 days the dedifferentiation of the innertissues proceeded further and the numberof blastema cells increased rapidly.Simultaneously, mitosis, another way toincrease the number of blastema cells,occured. Cells resulted from both pro-cesses accumulated at the tip of thestump and formed the regenerationblastema (Plate Ⅰ, 7. 8). The further de-velopment of the blastema was histo-logically the same as those in the caseof normal larvae (Plate Ⅱ, 1, 2, 3).Finallya forelimb was formed in the most caseswith the cartilaginous parts in normalproportion (Plate Ⅱ, 5). Only in thoseexperiments in which the upperarmremained very short the humerus repre-sented by a small piece of cartilage(Plate Ⅱ, 4) or even absent. The dedifferentiation of muscle cellswas clearly shown in the present study.Although mesenchyme cells were alsopresent in the stump besides the musclecells and their possible participation inthe blastema formation could not beruled out, yet quantitatively, it is clearthat the main source of blastema cellswere derived from the muscle cells.Since the cartilage was absent in thestump, blastema cells from the abovementioned origin should be responsiblefor the redifferentiation of this structure.This provided a clear evidence that theblastema cells are multipotent and thatthe cellular transformation betweenvarious tissues is possible. Finally, the changes of the epithelialcells are worthy to be mentioned.Although they are essentially the sameas those described by Rose (1948) andThornton (1954, 1960) yet in theirexperiments the epithelium was inner-vated and the formation of the epithelialthickening has been ascribed to thestimulatory influence of the nerve bythe latter author. According to thepresent study, it can be said, at leastin the larval stage, the dedifferentiationof the epithelial cells at the early phaseof regeneration is independent of nervesupply.

1.年青的无神经幼虫前肢,切断并摘除肱骨后可以再生,除去在少数例子肱骨的再生不完全外,大多数的再生都是典型的。再生体形态建成速度也和同年龄的正常幼虫相近。2.再生芽基细胞起源于残肢中仅有的肌肉和结缔组织,其中肌肉在数量上比结缔组织多,去分化过程也非常明显,因此,作为早期再生芽基细胞的来源,肌肉组织可能比结缔组织更为重要。3.由肌肉和结缔组织去分化而来的芽基细胞,不仅能够分化为肌肉和结缔组织,而且能分化出典型的软骨。这表明芽基细胞的多潜能性,由某种组织去分化而来的细胞可以分化为另一种组织。4.表皮细胞在再生初期表现出形态去分化特征,它和内部组织之间有密切的连系,但是没有看到表皮细胞直接参入内部。

A well preserved edentate skeleton discovered from the Upper Paleocene ofNanxiong,Guangdong,in South China in 1973,is here described to represent a newprimitive form of xenarthran.The systematic position and zoogeographical bearings ofthe new form are briefly noted.Family Ernanodontidae fam.nov.Diagnosis:See Genus.Genus Ernanodon,gen.nov.Type species:Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Diagnosis:Size of a small dog,skull robust and relatively broad;brain casesmall,muzzle short and facial deep;sagittal crest strongly developed;premaxillae...

A well preserved edentate skeleton discovered from the Upper Paleocene ofNanxiong,Guangdong,in South China in 1973,is here described to represent a newprimitive form of xenarthran.The systematic position and zoogeographical bearings ofthe new form are briefly noted.Family Ernanodontidae fam.nov.Diagnosis:See Genus.Genus Ernanodon,gen.nov.Type species:Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Diagnosis:Size of a small dog,skull robust and relatively broad;brain casesmall,muzzle short and facial deep;sagittal crest strongly developed;premaxillae notin contact with nasals and separated from the latter by a small septomaxilla;orbitalprocess prominent;postglenoid process large and transversally elongate;no anteriorpalatine foramina;pterygoid large;with postzygomatic foramen;ossicle bulla notobservable;the part of the skull behind post-glenoid very short and transversally broad.Mandibular body robust and horizontal ramus deep;condyle of mandibule large andtransversally elongate.Dental formula (0.1.3.3.)/(1.1.4.3.);lower incisors very small,caninelong and tusk-like;cheek teeth peg-like,and single roots except M_2,enamel bearing.Vertebral formula:C7,D>19,L(?)3,S(?)4,Ca>11;posterior dorsals withlongitudinal ribbed and fluted structures under metapophysis and complex apophysisfrom anapophysis;caudals with the weak chiveron;position sternale of ribs ossified;sternals seven;scapula with second spine;clavecal stout;humerus with rather promi-nent deltoid tuberosity midway of the shaft and epicondyler foramen;ulna not fused withradius;iscium quite short;femur with straight shaft and third trochanter midway ofthe shaft;fibula not fused to tibia;manus and pes pantadactylar and laterally com-pressed claws,central carpal bone fused with radial carpal bone and very small;astragulus with a transversal elongate and flat head,not articulated with cuboid;clawsnot fissured.Ernanodon antelios,sp.nov.Type:An essentially complete skeleton(V 5596).Horizon and Locality:Upper,or Datangxu,member of Nonshan Formation,Late Paleocene;Hwashushia,Youshan Commune,Nanxiong county,Guangdong.(FieldNo.73139).Comparison and DiscussionThe new edentate from Nanxiong Paleocene is decidedly xenarthran-like,and ismorphologically more primitive than all the known members of this group.While it shows nearly all the structural features diagnostic of an edentate,its dental structureis of very primitive type and the posterior dorsal vertebrae distinctly show anxenarthran type of articulation in an incipient degree of development.The new Chinese form shows general resemblance to those in Utaetes and themodern armadillos in pocessing a number of characters as in the structure of scapula,humerus,radius and ulna,ischium,manus and pes,and in proportion of ilium andischium,but it differs in all these characters from those in the ground sloths.Thisindicates that the skeleton of the new form retains many characters of primitivexenarthran in the structure of the appendicular bones;but it is evidently lacking ofan external bony armor as in the armadillos,this apparently excludes it from thesuborder Loricata.Ernanodon,g.n.,is morphologically rather similar to the sloths in the bones of themuzzles region,mandible,the shape of posterior thoracic vertebrae and body propor-tion.Based on these similarities one might well be considered it to be an ancestralform of the ground sloths,but from the known phylogenetic and zoogeographical his-tory of the group,this seems to be improbable.As to whether it is an early offshootof rather xenarthran or not,the available evidence does not seem to permit of such aninference.Ernanodon has some important“plesiomorphic”,as well as “specialized”(or“autapomorphic”)characters.These include the presence of the septomaxillari,ossification of the sternal portion of the costals,the incipient development of axenarthran type of articulation on the posterior thoracic vertebrae,with a second spineon the scapula.All these characters are lacking in palaeanodonts.Besides,Ernanodondiffers from the palaeanodonts in having greater number of teeth,short and transver-sely broader part of the skull behind the post-glenoid process,stronger mandibularcondyles,higher deltoid tuberrosity and relatively shorter and transversely broaderastragulus head,and past in these the new form are similar to the xenarthrans.Thedifferences between Ernanodon and the palaeanodonts show that the former is affiliatedto xenarthran,and the latter,as was pointed out by Emry(1970),should be rea-sonably grouped with the pholidots.As to another specimen,i.e.Chungchienia sichuanica,which has been described asan edentate from the Upper Eocene of Honan(Chow,1963),it is most probabIy closerto a taeniodont,except in the presence of a long mandibular diastema,which is absentin this order.The edentate of Nanxiong is the most primitive xenarthran known outside of So.America.Its occurrence in the Paleocene of China clearly indicates that the geographi-cal distribution of this group is not confined to the western hemisphere in N.and So.America as was previously thought.For long zoologists have been debateing about the origin of the edentate.Thediscovery of their fossils in the Paleocene of Nanxiong throws new lights on thisproblem.At the beginning of this century when the palaeanudonts fossils were firstfound in N.America,some paleontologist had the view that the edentate were probablyderived from certain N.America insectivore,in Cretaceous or Paleocene.In recentyears in spite of that some paleontologists tend to believe that Gondwana land wasthe provenance of the edentate,there are still some who believe in a possible origina- tion of the group in the northern continents.It seems that this is supported by thepresent finding of their fossils in So.China.But,on the other hand,it still does notseem to exclude a possible Gondwana land origin of the order.It may not be entirelyimprobable that Ernanodon,is a relic of earlier immigrants from(or to)the South viaa route other than the one from the north,or by other means or route.

本文是广东南雄古新世贫齿类化石(新科)的初步研究结果。文中,对标本的形态特征、系统位置作了摘要叙述,着重讨论了新科与古贫齿类的关系;简单介绍了南雄标本发现的动物地理意义。

 
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