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ankylosis     
相关语句
  关节强直
     (4)ankylosis;
     (4 )关节强直 ;
短句来源
     3.23% of the case occurred TMJ ankylosis.
     3.23%继发关节强直
短句来源
     An application of CPM after lysis of knee ankylosis
     CPM在膝关节强直松解术后的应用
短句来源
     ResultsThe absoluteness value of degree of mouth opening in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group( P<0.01), and the course of ankylosis of tempormandibular joint in the treatment group was obviously delayed compared with the control group ( P<0.01).
     结果试验组患者经扩治疗后,绝对开口度的扩大值明显高于对照组(P<0.01),延缓颞下颌关节强直进程明显优于对照组(P<0.01)。
短句来源
     Other TMJ diseases, such as disk displacements in other directions, disk perforation and ankylosis of TMJ, also have relations to the stress distributions in TMJs, but few biomechanical researches have been done on them.
     除了关节盘前移位外,其它TMJ疾病(如关节盘其他方向的移位、关节盘附着松弛、关节盘穿孔、颞下颌关节强直)也与TMJ内的应力分布相关,而目前还没有针对这些病变的生物力学研究。
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  关节僵硬
     The incidence rate of ankylosis reduced obviously from 19.1% to 8.2% (P < 0.01).
     关节僵硬发生率由19.1%降至8.2%,差异明显(P<0.01)。
短句来源
     In the patients treated with the traditional methods, the excellent and good rate reached 85.6%, and 53 hips (19.1%) were complicated with ankylosis.
     应用传统治疗方法治疗的优良率达85.6%,并发关节僵硬53髋(19.1%)。
短句来源
     In the patients treated with the modified methods, the excellent and good rate reached 94.8%, and 11 hips (8.2%) were complicated with ankylosis.
     应用改进治疗方法治疗的优良率达94.8%,并发关节僵硬11髋(8.2%)。
短句来源
     Results All femoral fractures healed,pin infection rate were 34.8% in all femoral fractures knee ankylosis rate were 47.8%.
     结果 股骨骨折全部愈合 ,治疗过程中有 34.8%的病例出现不同程度的针道感染和渗液 ,有 47.8%的病例出现不同程度的膝关节僵硬
短句来源
     The clinical study of implanting human amnion to cure joint ankylosis
     人羊膜植入术治疗关节僵硬的疗效研究
短句来源
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  “ankylosis”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Of the male patients,72.5% developed lumbar spine ankylosis and 43.1% developed chest ankylosis (of the female patients,47.6% and 9.5%,P<0.05 and P<0.01,respectively).
     男性患者中 ,分别有 72 5 %和43 1%发展为腰椎强直和胸廓强直 ,而女性患者分别为 47 6 %和 9 5 % (P <0 0 5和P <0 0 1)。
短句来源
     [WTHZ]Results The follow-up was 12-19 months in group A and 13-20 months in group B. The index of ankylosis (IA) of group A before therapy was 82%±20%, and 45%±13% after theraphy;
     结果A组患者术后均获随访12~19个月,B组患者均获随访13~20个月。 治疗前A组患指的强直失能指数(indexofankylosis,IA)值为82%±20%,B组为78%±17%;
短句来源
     Analysis of reproducibility was done by the Kappa statistics shearman’s rank correlation analysis of clinical and laboratory and radiological changes showed:CT sacroiliac joint erosion and sclerosis correlated negatively with ankylosis(r=-0.57~-0.43;P<0.05) while ankylosis score correlated positively with plain radiography of lumbar spine and sacroiliac joint score(r=0.59~0.70;P<0.01).
     经临床实验室及影像学Spearman等级相关分析,表明:骶髂关节CT上的侵蚀及硬化与强直呈负相关(r=-0.57~-0.43;P<0.05),CT上的强直与腰椎和骶髂关节平片的分数呈正相关(r=0.59~0.70;P<0.01)。
短句来源
     Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups as to the curative effects(P>0.05). However, The treatment group did better than the control group in improving morning ankylosis, arthralgia, arthroncus and joint tenderness and in lowering ESR, igG, igA and igM index (P<0.05 or P<0.01).
     结果 :两组疗效比较无显著性差异(P>0 05) ,但观察组改善关节晨僵、关节疼痛、关节肿胀、关节触痛以及降低ESR、IgG、IgA、IgM指标程度优于对照组(P<0 05 ,或P<0 01)。
短句来源
     A chest expansion test, 20 meter walking time, a finger ground test, a Schober test and a morning ankylosis test showed marked improvements, lumbodorsal pains were alleviated and the function of the whole joints was ameliorated after treatment.
     扩胸试验、2 0 m步行时间、指地试验、Schober试验 (P<0 .0 1) ,晨僵时间 (P<0 .0 5 )和整体关节功能治疗后均有明显改善。
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查询“ankylosis”译词为用户自定义的双语例句

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  ankylosis
Mice bearing the ank/ank defect gene develop a bony ankylosis of the spine like that seen in advanced AS and related SpA.
      
Mutations in the ank gene result in decreased extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate in murine progressive ankylosis, and increased extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate in some cases of familial chondrocalcinosis.
      
Syndesmophyte formation and progressive ankylosis are characteristic features of spondyloarthropathies, including psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis, and they can be regarded as abnormal bone remodeling.
      
Successful blocking of inflammation in patients with spondyloarthropathy apparently fails to halt progression of ankylosis in cohort studies.
      
Most patients with FOP eventually develop heterotopic ossification of the chewing muscles with resultant ankylosis of the temporom andibular joints.
      
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X-ray films of 41 cases of arthrotic type psoriasis were studied.Changes in bonesand joints were usually detected at distal interphalangeal joints in the early stage.Thetypical x-ray findings were asymmetrically pointed distal phalanges,irregular tufts andbroadened bases of distal phalanges and the“pencil pointing”pattern of distal inter-phalangeal joints.In the late stage,there were often flexion deformity,subluxationand bony ankylosis in the distal interphalangeal joints.Sometimes,periosteal reactionand...

X-ray films of 41 cases of arthrotic type psoriasis were studied.Changes in bonesand joints were usually detected at distal interphalangeal joints in the early stage.Thetypical x-ray findings were asymmetrically pointed distal phalanges,irregular tufts andbroadened bases of distal phalanges and the“pencil pointing”pattern of distal inter-phalangeal joints.In the late stage,there were often flexion deformity,subluxationand bony ankylosis in the distal interphalangeal joints.Sometimes,periosteal reactionand hypertrophic change might be demonstrated.The authors found that involvementof large joint and osteoporosis were not rare.The arthrotic type psoriasis and rheuma-toid arthritis may be present concurrently in the same patient.These two diseases canbe differentiated radiologically.

本文报道41例牛皮癣关节炎的X线表现,指出远端指(趾)间关节是本病的好发和早发部位,以及有关的典型和不典型的 X 线征象,并提出与风湿样关节炎鉴别诊断的要点。

Palaeomeryx was erected by Hermann von Meyer in 1834, who based his new genus chiefly on the presence of a "W?rst" on the posterior wall of the protoconid of DP_4 and the lower molars (later called the "Pnlaevmeryx-fold"), The fact that no associated antlers were found led von. Meyer to believe that Palaeomeryx might possibly be hornless. Subsequent discoveries of various kinds of "antlers" in association with teeth bearing the Palaeomeryx-fold made the genus Palaebmeryx conceptually ever-changing, and sometimes...

Palaeomeryx was erected by Hermann von Meyer in 1834, who based his new genus chiefly on the presence of a "W?rst" on the posterior wall of the protoconid of DP_4 and the lower molars (later called the "Pnlaevmeryx-fold"), The fact that no associated antlers were found led von. Meyer to believe that Palaeomeryx might possibly be hornless. Subsequent discoveries of various kinds of "antlers" in association with teeth bearing the Palaeomeryx-fold made the genus Palaebmeryx conceptually ever-changing, and sometimes very confusing. L. Ginsburg and E. Heintz's referral of two ossicones, allegedly pertaining to Palaeomeryx from Arteny , France, resurrected the dispute as to the content, affinity and taxonomic position of the genus Palaeomeryx. One of the main reasons for the controversy lies in the lack of complete skulls, to say nothing of skeletons. Till now there have been few records of the genus in China. E. Koken reported in 1885 several isolated teeth from Yummn (?) and erected a new species for them, Palaeomeryx oweni. Chen G. F. and Wu W. Y. (1976) and Li Y. Q. and Wu W. Y. (1978) mentioned some material of Palaeomeryx spp. from Cixian, Hebei, and Lantian, Shaanxi, respectively. All the above mentioned materials are too scanty to be helpful with regard to the paoblems concerned. The presence of Palaeomeryx fossils in Shanwang was first noticed by P. Teilhard de Chardin in 1939. There were two kinds of jaws, both with the Palaeomeryx-fold. The larger one, according to Teilhard de Chardin, "Would, without any hesitation, be determined as Palaeomeryx", "if they had been found in an European site". However, there was only one type of "antler", pertaining, judging by its size, only to the smaller form. As a result, he identified them as Palaeomeryx (?Lagomeryx) spp. A and B. The excavations carried out in the last years have luckily resulted in finding not only complete skulls, but also skeletous of Palaeomeryx. The significance of the discoveries is self-evident. Owing to the extremely fragile nature of the fossil bones and the technical problems in their preparation, we are tempted to publish the first observations on the most important aspects of the skulls and the skeletons before they can be available for detailed study. Description Pmaeomeryx tricornis sp. nov. Holotype V 7728, skull and associated lower jaw (much damaged daring preparation) with three cervical vertebrae. (Pl. III) Other Material 1. 820831~× complete skeleton, female (Pl. VI). 2. 830009~× complete skeleton, male (Pl. III) 3. 840002~× complete skeleton, male 4. 840015~× skeleton, female, the middle part of the vextebral column and the distal parts of the limbs are lacking 5. LV 8003~× incomplete skeleton, male 6. 820837~× part of skeleton 7. V 7729 skull, only the right side is exposed 8. V 7730 left P~2-M~3 9. V 7730.1 left P_4-M_3 Diagnosis of the species Size smmller than the medium-sized species of the genus. P_1 present (but not always), with or without a short diastema to P_2. Teeth brachyodent, corrugated. Metaconids on P_2-P_4 weakly individualized, forming no closod valleys on the inner side of the teeth. Palaeomeryx-fold well developed. Inner crests of P~2-P~4 barely divided by grooves on their inner walls. Upper malars propotionaly wider. Accessory comules of irregular form, but very well developed, labial to the posterior ridge of the protocone on upper molars. Cingulum and style (id) camparatirely weak. Male whith a pair of ossicones above the orbits and an occipital bony "horn" (may be characteristic for the genus in general). The ossicone is Very wide at its base, tapers rapidly and inclines backward. The occipital "horn" long, much dilated at its end. Description The only discernible sutures on the skull are those between premaxilla and maxilla, and between them and nasals. The nasals are flattened dorsally, and extend anteriorly to the level of the front of the upper canine, forming a small nasal notch over the premaxilla. The width at its anterior end is 18 mm, that at its posterior part is 24 mm. The premaxilla forms an oblique parallelogram, forming an angle of 45° with the alveolar border , but ilts anterior tip is rather pointed. The maxilla is rather high. At the posterior end of the nasal-maxilla suture a strip of matrix is exposed beneath the bones, evidently representing the ethmoidal vacuity (fenester ethmoidale). A large, oval (50×20 mm) and sharp-edged preorbital fossa is situated in front of the orbit. The fossa, extends beneath the lower border of the orbit. The infraorbital foromaen lies in front of P~2. The orbit is situated approximately in the middle of the skull (measured from basion to prosthion). The orbit is not outward protruded. The anterior edge of the orbit is damaged, but judging from the preserved parts it can be concluded that there is only one rather large lacrimal orifice on the inner wall of the orbit. Though the back part of the skull is more compressed, a forked sagittal crest is still traceable. The point of bifurcation lies at the level of the glenoid cavity. The delicate parts of the skull, the ear region and the basicranium are too crushed to provide useful informatians. Sexual dimorphism is clearly shown by the presenee or the absence of the "horn" structures. In the male, there a pair of ossicones and an occipital "horn". The ossicones are situated just above the orbits. The surface of the ossicones is rough and cancellous. On the type skull a rough suture can be observed, which separates the ossicone from the skull. Since the skull belongs to a rather old individual. judging by the strongly worn teeth, it must mean that the ossicone was unankylosed to the skull roof until late in life . Unfortunately we could nat find a similar suture in the other male skulls at our disposal. Probably the ankylosis may occur irregularly, earlier or later in life. Seen from the lateral side, the ossicone is triangular in form, slanting strongly backward. Its anterior margin is far beyond the anterior border of the orbit, while its posterior margin which is concave anteriorly. lies approximately at the level of the posterior border of the orbit. The ossicone is strongly compressed laterally. In the type skull the tip of the ossicone is a little swollen, in other skulls the tips may be pointed. So the ossicone varies in form. The occipital "horn" is morphologically. and histologically different from the ossicones. The surface of the "horn" is smooth, like the surface of any ordinary bone. The lambdoid crest extends upward to the middle of the "horn". The uppermost part of the "horn" is ornamented with fine knots and striations, but this is the usual roughening of the bone surface, as in the case of the "horn" of brontotheres. Seen from the side, the "horn" resembles a large bulb sitting on a stout pedicle. Laterally it is compressed, and seemingly unforkcd, unlike that in Triceromeryx. The upper canine in male is large and sabre-like, with a stout root. The most robust part of the tooth is in the middle of the root (20×10 mm). The demarcation between the root and the crown of the tooth is vague. The anterior margin. is rounded, while the posterior is trenchant. The crown is rather flat externally, but convex internelly (opposite to Teilhard de Chardin's description). Seen from the antero-posterior direction, the tooth is bent, with its tip turned externally. The upper canine of a female individual is very small and peg-like. There is no P~1, the diastema between canine and P~2 on the type skull is about 40 mm. The P~2 is provided with a very strong paracone rib on the labial wall and deep groove in front of it. There is no clear central groove on the lingual wall of the tooth on the type specimen, while on other specimens the groove is very weakly developed. P~3 resembles P~2, with the inner crest more robust, making the tooth more triangular in form. P~4 is markedly shorter than its preceding teeth, but wider. There are two prominent swellings on the labial wall: the parastyle and the paracone rib. Seen from the labial side, the former takes a form of low triangle, while the latter is long and ridgelike. They converge at the base of the crown. The paxacone rib overlaps the groove which lies in front of it. The posterior wing of the protocone is composed of two ridges. The labial one is higher than the lingual one, but the valley between them is very shallow, so that slight wear will change the two ridges into one brad wear surfaec. A weak cingulum runs along the anterior, lingual and posterior sides of the tooth. The three molars are alike in structure. Parastyle and paracone ribs resemble those in P~4. The mesostyle resembles the parastyle in form, but more robust, forming the most labial point of the tooth. The metacone has a mope oblique orientation than the paracone, and has a fine rib on its outer wall. The posterior wing of the protocone is directed more posteriorly than postero-labially, furthermore, it Points to the middle of the anterior wing of the metaconle, rather than to its labial end. Labial to the posterior wing of the protocone there is a conule of irregular form. The form of the conule changes from M~1 to M~3. For the M~1 it takes the form of a knob with two short arms, one of which points lingually, the other posteriorly to the anterior wing of the metaconule. In M~2 this conule has the form of an upside-down "L", while in the M~3 it changes into an upside-down "Y". In later deer the posterior wing of the protocone is construtted differeatly , consisting of two well formed ridges; the labial one stronger than the lingual one. E. Heintz called the labial ridge the Protocone ridge proper, and the lingual one protocone-fold. It is opposite to what we observed in Palaeomeryx. The anterior wing of the metaconule does not reach the inner side of the mesostyle. The me~eonule has a fine rib on its labial wall. Its posterior wing divdes into two thin ridges at its posterior end. One stretches toward the metastyle, while the other, and smaller one, points to the base of the inner wall of the metacone. The cingulum is developed on the anterior and posterior sides. An entostyle is variably developed, but in general it is rather weak. No complete lower incisors and canines are preserved. What left are only their reots. They are rod-like, and stand in a row tightly one after the other. There is no diastema between I_3 and the lower canine. Judging from the small part of the preserved crown, the lower canine seems to be single-cusped, not double-lobed, as in giruffids. P_1 is present at least on three of these specimens. It is small, laterally compressed and single-cusped. A small diastema occus between it and P_2, not longer than 10 mm. In one specimen, LV 8003, P_1 stands close to P_2. On the type specimen only the posterior half of P_2 is stitl preserved, while in another specimen, LV 8003, only the outer wall cad be seen. The protoconid, which is centrally situated, sends a low crest posteroligally. There is no metaconid, and the entoconulid-crest is not fully developod. The P_3 has three fully develaped transverse crests. The crest, which connects the protoconid and metaconid, is diagonally oriented. The metaconid is poorly individualized from the crest, and is situated behind the protoconid. The poserior two crests are not strictly parallel: the entoconulid forms a curve, and approximates the entoconid at both its extremities. The valley between the two crests is shallow. P_4 resembles P_3 in structure, but it is larger. Its posterior two crests are parallel. The protoconid forms an independent crest, and there is a clear groove on the labial wall, just opposite the entoconid. An internal cingulum is present only before the metaconid, which is much better individualized. The molars. except the third lobe of M_3, are structurally alike. The protoconid first connects with the metaconid, then through a tiny enamel tubercle with the posterior end of the paraeonid. Palaeomeryx-fold is alway very well developed. The connegrons between the anterior ends of proto-and Paraconid, and between the posterior ends of hypo- and metaconid are both very low, leaving gaps on the outer wall of the tooth. The former can not be seen owing to the overlepping by the preceding tooth, but the latter can be clearly. seen from the side. The mesostylid is strong, and forms the most lingual point of the tooth. A weak cingulum is preseut on the anterior and posterior sides. The ectestylid is always present between the two lobes. The third 1obe of M_3 takes the form of a horse-shoe, the inner arm of which is 1ow and conneets with the posterior end of the metaconid, while the labial arm goes to the middle of the posteriot wall of the hypoconid. No indication of the special prolongation of the neck is observed. The length of the seven associated cervical vertebrae is only about as long as the basial length of the skull. All the neural spines of cervioal vertebrae II-VII are well developed and platelike, among which that of the axis is especially broad (antero-posteriorly), with the top strongly overhanging anteriorly. The thoracic vertebrae are 13 in number, lumbar vertebrae probably 6, the neural spines of which are broader then those of the cervical ones. The munber of the caudal vertebrae is unknown, but it must be very short, probably extends not much beyond the posterior end of the pelvis. The humerus is shorter than scapula. The intermediate ridge on the distal articular surface of the humerus, seen from the front, stretches not vertically, but with its upper extremity turned laterally. The shaft of the ulna is thin, but fully preserved. Among the carpal bones there are only scaphoideum, magnum, triquetrum and pisiform, which are detached. Morpihlogically they ate quite deer-like. McIII and IV ate completely fused, with the central groove on the front face of the bone distally closed. McII and V are slender, but preserve their full length, and each with a complete set of phalanges. The proximal part of the two lateral metacavpals has shifted to the posterior side of MeIII-IV, The hind limb is longer than the fore limb in general. The tibia longer than the femur. The metatarsals are similarly constructed to the metacarpsals. The central groove on the frontal face of the canon bone is distally closed as well. Diseussion For more than half a century after the erection of the genus most of the German language speaking paleontologists adhered von Meyer's original concept of the genus, that is, they lumped all species having the teeth with a Palaeomeryx-fold into the genus Palaeomeryx, regardless of the marked, sometimes even radical, differences in the "antlers" of these species. However, gradually a series of genera have been extracted from the overly lmnped aggregation. These genera are, for example, Amphitragulus Pomel , 1846, Dicrocerus and Micromeryx Lartet, 1851, Procervulus Gaudary, 1878, Prox Hensel, 1859 (=Euprox Stehlin, 1928), Lagvmeryx Roger, 1904 and Heteroprox Stehtin, 1928, among others, A historical review of the vicissitudes of these genera is given in the text in Chinese. We adopted the conception of the genus proposed by L. Ginsburg and E. Heintz in 1966, with the only emendation that both Asia and Africa may well have their local representatives of the genus. According to the two French paleontologists, there are only three species: P. kaupi (=P. bojani, =P. garsonini), P. magnus (=P. sansaniensis) and P. eminens (=P. nicoleti). Since the Shanwang material provided for the first time so much reliable informations for the genus, it is desirable to give a revised diagnosis for the genus: A primitive group of giraffoids. Size comparable with medium to large deer. Skull dolichoeephalic, orbit central in position. Angle between the basicranial and the palatal surfaces almost 180°. Both preorbital fossa and ethmoidal vacuity present, one lacrimal oriface within the orbit. P_1 present in primitive species. Teeth brachyodont, strongly corrugated, with well developed cingulum and style (stylid) and paracone rib. Molarization of premolars low, transverse valleys seldom closed lingually. Posterior arm of protocone directed posteriorly, a prominent conule situated labially to it. Prominent Palaeomeryx-fold. Neck and limbs not specially elongated. Hind limb longer than foreleg. Canon bone with distally closed groove on dorsal face, its distal condyle with strong keel. Lateval metapodia (II & V) slender, but preserved full length, with full set of phalanges. Sexual dimorphism. A pair of orbital ossicones and an occipital bony "horn" as well as sabre-like upper canine in males. The affinity, hence the systematic position of Palaeomeryx, as stated above, has been the subject of controyersy. There are two main contradietory points of view, represented by L. Ginsburg and J. Leinders respectively. The former insists that Palaeomeryx should be included in Giraffoidea, while the latter argues that Palaeomeryx is a member of Cervoidea, and Giraffidae must be placed with the Bovidae. The reader, who is interested to know these poimts of view in detail, is referred to the papers written bv L. Ginsburg and E. Heintz (1966) and by J. Leinders (1984). The discovery of the Palaeoqneryx skeletons in Shanwang contributes the following information to this problem: 1. The discovery has proved the eorreetness of Ginsburg and Heintz's attribution of a pair of ossicones to Palaeomeryx. The Shanwang material shows clearly that Palaeomeryx has ossicones of definitely giraffid type. The form. structure, position and the relationship of ossicones to the skull bones are all uniquely conformable with the ossicones of giraffids. What is more, an occipital bevy "horn" has been found so far only in two ruminants forms: Triceromeryx and Cranioceras (Procranioceras). As to the affinity of Triceromeryx, the opinion is still controversial. However, its giraffid type of P_4 (Crusafont-Pairo, 1952, Pl. XIII) supperts its inclusion in lineage of giraffids. Unfortunately, the true nature of the American genus Cranioceras and its like is still not clear. The presence of giraffid ossicones in Palaeomeryx is Ginsburg's main argumentation for his inclusion of Palaeomeryx in Giraffoidea. In this respect our new discovery substantiates strongly his point of View. The extreme rarity of the occuvrence of ossicones. in the fossil record lies, at least partly, in the phenomen of sexual dimorphism. 2. The doliehocephaly, the central position of the orbit and the gentle bend of the cranimn relative to the facial portion, which we observed in Palaeomeryx trivornis, may constitute a complex of correlated features, characteristic of the giraffids. In general the last two features are considered plesiomorphic for the Ruminantia. However, they are never combined with so long a skull as in Palaeomeryx. Therefore, the combination of the three features is probably to be considered as apomorphic for giraffids. Similar comIbination of features can be found, for example, in Zarafa (Hamilton, 1973, Pl. 2) and Giraffokeryx (Colbert, 1933, fig. 1), both genuine giraffids. 3. Contrary to Ginsburg and Heintz's assertion, Palaeomeryx does have an ethmoidal vacuity. Ginsburg and Heintz were not correct either, when they stated that gimffids are lacking this vacuity. In fact, not only in recent forms, Okapi, and sometmes Giraffa (for example, in one of the skulls in our instipule), but also in fossil forms, Zarafa (Hamilton, 1973, p. 87), Giraffokeryx (Colbert, 1933, p. 7) and Palaeotragus (Bohlin, 1926, p. 11) may possess this vacuity as well. However, it is evidently a plesiomorphic character within the Pecora. It plays thus no role in deciding whether Palaeomeryx belongs to Giraffidae, or Cervidae or even Bovidae. 4. Palaeomeryx has one lacrimal orifice within the orbit. In this respect it is similar to Bovidae. However, from what we leadned from the evolutionary trends in Cervoidea it can be safely deduced that the direction of trensformation of this feature is from one orifice within the orbit to two orifices on the orbit margin. It is well known that the primitive Cervoidea always possess one orifice in the orbit, as in mereboys of the Tragulidae, and even Moschus, but the true deer have only the second type of lacrimal orifices. So, again, the character is plesiomorphic. 5. Palaeomeryx possesses a preorbital fossa and a sabre-like upper canine in males. The former is one of the characteristic features of the Cervoidea, while the latter is very common among the members of the group. Neither have been found in the Giraffidae, or Bovidae. The polarities of these two characters are unknown to us. Since Cervidae, taken as a whole, is considered as an archaic group in Pecora, the above mentioned characters may well be retentions of plesiomorphic features. 6. The cheek teeth of Palaeomeryx, as indicated by Hanilton (1973, p. 94), are very similar to those of Zarafa. In fact, in morphology of the cheek teeth, Zarafa links Palaeomeryx with the later forms of Giraffidae so well, that Hamilton, after having described his Zarafa material, was convinced of the giraffid affinity of the genus Palacomeryx. However, later, based on the belief that these similarities in the cheek teeth were only of plesiomorphic features, he favoured the opinion that Palaeomeryx could be classified with Bovaidea (Hamilton, 1978). It seems to us that the similarities in the cheek teeth between Palaeomeryx and Zarafa are much more than those between Palaeomeryx and Triveromeryx, although many paleontologists were strongly impressed by the similarties between the latter two forms, when Triceromeryx was first described. We are inclined to believe that the common features of Palaeomeryx and Zarafa are not totally plesiomorphic. Some of them could be synapomorphies, for example, the extremely dveloped style (styfid) and ribs, and the prominent accessary conules labial to the posterior wing of protocone on the molars. They have never been so strongly developed in Cervidae, to say nothing of Bovidae. 7. The central groove on the dorsal face of canon bone is here distally closed, as in all advanced forms of deer. This is the main, and in fact the sole criterion, on which J. Leinders moved Palaeomeryx into the Cervidae. Leinders has never unequivocally deciphered the polarity of the character concerned. From the context one can see that he seems to consider the closed-groove as a derived character relative to the open one. The question rises: why he based his Bovoidea (=Giraffidae+Bovidae) on a plesiomorphic character (open-grvove)? This led us to inquire in more detail into the problem retating to the potarity of the canon bones. The results are: (a) The polarity is from open-groove type to closed-groove one. This polarity is clearly demonstrated by the presence of open-groove type in the most primitive forms of deer, like Gelocus Kowalewsky, (1876-77, Tab. II, 19) and Leptomeryx (Matthew, 1908, fig. 9). Thus Leinders' Bovoidea (=Bovidae+Givaffidae) is based on plesiomorphic character (open-groore) and hence questionable. b) Although the closed-groove type is a derived character, it could be independently derived, through parallel evolution in different phyla within the Ruminantia. The Antilocapridae provide a good example in this respect. While the recent pronghorn has a closed-groove type canon bone, some primitive fossil forms may have an open-groove type, for example, the canon bones of Merycodus cf. furcatus (=Cosoryx (Paraeosoryx) furlongi, Frick, 1937) are of open-groove type (Furlong, 1927, fig. 16). The identigfication of Furlong's material as belonging to a primitive form of Antilocapridae is irrefutable, because the skull, which was associated with the above mentioned foot bones, is evidently of antilocaprid affinicy. The inevitable conelusion to be drawn from the feregoing statments is that, when Antilocapridae branehed off from the general stem of Pecora, it must still have an open-groove canon bone, and then at some later time changed into the closed-groove type characteristic of the living pronghorn. 8. Our observations on postcranial skeletons reveal no principal differenees between Palaeomeryx and the typical Cervidae. Some of the differeilces listed by Ginsburg and Heintz as characters shared with giraffids are untanable. Contrary to the statment of Giusburg and Heintz, the hind limb of Palaeomeryx tricornis is evidently longer than its forelimb. However, this should not present an obstacle to the linkage of Palaeomeryx with Giraffoidea, as the true giraffid, Zarafa, has no less deer-like postcranial bones than Palaeomeryx. As a result, the available evidence is in favour of Ginsburg's point of view that Palaeomeryx may share more derived characters with giraffids than with cervids, to say nothing of bovids. At the same time it should be noted that Palaeomeryx must be very primitive, with many plesiomorphic characters shared with cervids. In this case the closed-groove type of the canon bones must be considered as the result of parallel evolution. One of the eonsequences of the present hypothesis is the separation of giraffids from Leinder's Bovoidea. Judging from the evolutionary level of Palaeameryx, it is to be inferred that the giraffids, Palaeomeryx included, originated after Gelocus and Leptomeryx, and before Blastomeryx and Eupecora in the sense of Webb and Taylor (1980). In comparison with the European species, Palaeomeryx tricornis is comparable only with the small species, P. kaupi. The other two species. P. magnus and P. eminens, are much larger and more advanced than ours. The molarimtion of the premolars, espectally P_4, in the two larger species is evidently higher than in ours. Unfortunately, P. kaupi has not been properly studied. At any rate the distinetdon between the Shanwaug species and the European ones is clear. In none of the European species there exists a P_1, primitive character of Palaeomeryx tricarnis. Furthermore, the cingulum is generally weak in our form, while it is markedly developed in European species. It seens that the upper molars of the Shanwang specimens are proportionally wider. Probably there are also some differences in the form and size of the ossieones or "horns" between them. The only record of the ossicones, from Artenay (Ginsburg and Heintz, 1966), belongs most probably, to P. kaupi, because at that locality the only recorded species is P. kaupi. The above mentiongd ossicones are proportionally slender at their bases. No occiipital "horn" has been so far reported from Europe. These differenees, it seems to us, warrant the separation of the new material as a new speies: Palaeomeryx tricornis. ap. nov. According to Ginsburg and Heintz, the European Palaeomeryx icereased regularly in size, and this may serve as good indicator of geological age. In size our specimens are comparable to those from Pontlevoy (MN 5) and Baigneaux (MN 4b). Strictly speaking, our specimens are among the smaller of Pontlevoy matorial, but a little larget than those from Baigneaux. In case the Chinese form represents a sepurate lineage, diffferent from its European relatives phylogenetically, its age may be older or younger. Acknowledgments Special thanks are here extended to Dr. L. Ginsburg, Mus. nat. d'Hist. nat., Paxis and J. Leinders, Institute for Earth Sciences, Utrecht, far their great help in sending casts, unpublished manuscripts and measurements, for the great enthllsiasm they showed to us and the valuable suggestions and cncouragements through the correspon

Palaeomeryx 在含义、性质和分类位置上,一直是一个争论较多的属.最近在山旺发现的 Palaeomeryx 完整骨架,为解决上述问题提供了有价值的资料和证据. Palaeomeryx 雄性具有一对眶上"皮骨角"和单一的"枕顶角".根据共近裔性状的分析,本文作者认为 Palaeomeryx 应该归入长颈鹿,作为这一支中最早分出的一个旁支.长颈鹿和鹿科有较近的亲缘关系,而和牛科的关系较远. Palaeomeryx 大概位于 Blastomeryx 和 Leptomeryx 之间,从反刍类主干中分出.山旺的材料,代表本属中一个较原始的新种: Palaeomeryx tricornis. 它的时代,可能相当于欧洲的 MN4 或 MN5.

2 cases of early repair of the mandibular ramus defect in fire-wound were reported in this article. Prom the principle of autograft to repair one's mandibular defect, two cases of bullet exposive wound accompanied by comminuted fracture of single side of mandibular ramus were successfully repaired through transplantation of displaced fractured coronoid process with part of anterior segment of ramus. and replantation of remained condyle segment at the same operative area during the early debridement.Both cases...

2 cases of early repair of the mandibular ramus defect in fire-wound were reported in this article. Prom the principle of autograft to repair one's mandibular defect, two cases of bullet exposive wound accompanied by comminuted fracture of single side of mandibular ramus were successfully repaired through transplantation of displaced fractured coronoid process with part of anterior segment of ramus. and replantation of remained condyle segment at the same operative area during the early debridement.Both cases were fllowed up for one year and showed good results in occlusion and mastication. The active opening of the mouth was of 3.9 and 4.1 cm. respectively.Anatomic-physiological bases of the operation design,clinical significance to repair the ramus defect early and the effective measures in securing the survival of the implanted bone graft and preven-ting adhesive ankylosis of the temporo-mandibular joint were discussed briefly in this article.

报告火器伤下颌骨升支缺损早期修复2饲。对弹片炸伤一侧下颌骨升支粉碎性骨折的伤例,在早期彻底清创的同时,于同一手术范围内,采用骨折移位的喙突带部分升支前分骨块移植和残留的髁状突再植,立叩修复下颌骨升支缺损获得成功。经过1年的随访观察,2例的咬(牙合)关系和咀嚼功能恢复良好,自动张口度分别为3.9和4.1cm。

 
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