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pupation
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  pupation
Pupation and feeding of the pest insects Spodopteralitura Fabricius and Helicoverpa armigera Hubner are shown to be affected with restraining effects which increase with the increasing levels of oil concentration.
      
The following lethality stages were established: hatching, (Trl13C, DfTrlR85, TrlEP(3)3609), larval molts (Trll(3)s2325), pupation, metamorphosis (DfTrlR67, Trl62), and eclosion (some compounds).
      
Out of them, marker 808 3000 showed maximum and highly significant correlation (r = 0.757, p >amp;lt; 0.001, t = 4.182) with pupation rate among the silkworm races.
      
Larvae pupate in winter wheat, beginning from mid-June; in spring crops, pupation begins in mid-June.
      
In all the studied regimes, pupation was not recorded, suggesting an obligate diapause.
      
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The present paper gives a report on a study of the life his- tory of a destructive pest, Melanauster chinensis Forster, of citrus trees in Foochow during the years 1951 and 1952. It has been found that the adults lay eggs beginning from the last part of May until the end of July. Eggs are inserted in the bark of the tree trunk about 1. 4 inches from the ground. Incubation period lasts from 9 to 14 days. After hatching the young larvae feed under the bark for three or four months. In October they bore into the...

The present paper gives a report on a study of the life his- tory of a destructive pest, Melanauster chinensis Forster, of citrus trees in Foochow during the years 1951 and 1952. It has been found that the adults lay eggs beginning from the last part of May until the end of July. Eggs are inserted in the bark of the tree trunk about 1. 4 inches from the ground. Incubation period lasts from 9 to 14 days. After hatching the young larvae feed under the bark for three or four months. In October they bore into the wood from a place about one to two inches above the ground. Overwintering of the larvae in the burrows generally begins in November or December. They resume actti- vity in March the following year. Pupation takes place abou the middle part of April. The pupal period lasts from 18 to 20 days. After emergence the adults remain in the pupal cells in the upper part of their burrows for about five to eight days. The adults appear from the middle part of May to the middle part of August. Burrows made by the larvae under the bark as well as in the wood have been studied carefully. Recommendations have been given to improve the original technique of destroying the larvae by probing with wire.

星天牛为柑桔主要害虫之一,研究此种害虫者颇不乏人,但就所见文献中关于该虫习性的报道,多不足作为防治的有力参考。笔者有鉴及此,于一九五一至一九五二年在福州研究这一害虫的生活习性,尤其对于幼虫为害的隧道,有比较详细的观察。把果农钩杀幼虫这一防治方法的实践与理论相结合,初步掌握了幼虫在柑桔树干中钻蛀为害的规律,使过去所谓奥妙不可捉摸的钩杀技术得到了解析,同时也把这一技术从现有的水平提高了一步,希望可以为一般从事柑桔栽培工作者所掌握,成为简单易学的一件事。五月下旬至七月下旬均有成虫产卵,产卵位置平均离地面1.4寸,卵期九至十四天。幼虫孵化后即从产卵处蛀入,向下蛀食于表皮与木质部之间,其向下蛀食范围多在地面下五寸以内。一般在三、四个月后亦即在十月左右,以成熟或将成熟的幼虫,蛀入木质部内,作一隧道,准备过冬及化蛹。蛀入孔多在地面下—、二寸处。一般幼虫在十—、二月开始休眠越冬,历时约三、四个月,翌年三月以后又开始恢复活动。四月中旬开始化蛹,蛹期十八至二十天。成虫羽化后在蛹室内停留五至八天。自五月中旬至七月中旬都有成虫出现,迄八月中旬仍见有极少数成虫。幼虫所营隧道的形状、长短,都有一定的规律,文中有详细的叙述,并附有图解。

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat...

Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

The citrus flat-headed borer is the most destructive of citrus insects which occurs commonly in Cheu-Hsien, Chekiang province. It caused a great damage in the past years. From some of the agricultural-production brigades, more than half of the infested citrus trees had to cut down despite years of toil. The different stages of the this insect are rather indistingly overrlapped, overwintering in the larval stage in side the wood cylinder or cork layer of the tree, beginning to pupate about the first ten days...

The citrus flat-headed borer is the most destructive of citrus insects which occurs commonly in Cheu-Hsien, Chekiang province. It caused a great damage in the past years. From some of the agricultural-production brigades, more than half of the infested citrus trees had to cut down despite years of toil. The different stages of the this insect are rather indistingly overrlapped, overwintering in the larval stage in side the wood cylinder or cork layer of the tree, beginning to pupate about the first ten days of the following March. Pupation occurred mostly at the end of March to the beginning of April. Emergence of adults was firstly seen about the end of March, while it reached the maximum at the end of April. The beetles leaving their turnels are intimately related with air temperature and moisture conditions. Beetles were first observed about the first ten-days of May, reaching a climax during 15—21 of May. Oviposition was first observed during the last 10 days of May, crest of oviposition expected to be from June 5 to July 1, covering a period of 10—21 days. Larvae began to hatch about the middle ten days of June, and hatched most abundently during later ten days of June to the middle ten days of July. After hactching, larvae bored into and injured the bark, causing gummosis of the host tree, breaking down of the injured bark, which and finally resulted in killing of the whole tree. The most effective control measure was found by application of 25% DDT emulsion diluted with an equal volume of kerosene. Application of this insecticide in October or November to kill the larvae before overwintering proved to be effective control of the pest. Fairly good result was also obtained by application during the end of April to the beginning of May, to kill the adults prior to leaving their turnels. Against the newly hatched larvae in July and August, control with mixture of 25% DDT emulsion and kerosene in 1:1 or 1:2 by volume, or with 5% DDT solution in kerosene resulted in over 93% efficacy. Besides, one should carefully note egg laying of the insect soas to give a timely brushing of the eggs applied prior to hatching and soon after the crest of oviposition. Dead plants should be dug out and burnt before April. Good management of the citrus orchard should be maintained during ordinary period. In short, only when a complete series of control measures he practiced that this pest can be destroyed.

柑桔爆皮虫是为害柑桔的一种毁灭性害虫,浙江衢县普遍发生,历年来为害惨重,个別生产队已有半数以上的桔树忍痛砍伐,多年經营毁于一旦,給柑桔生产带来巨大損失。爆皮虫的发生世代很不整齐,以幼虫在木質部或韌皮部中越冬,翌年3月上旬开始化蛹,3月底、4月初为化蛹盛期,3月底开始羽化为成虫,4月底为羽化高峯,成虫出洞与溫湿度关系密切,5月初开始出洞,5月15—21日为出洞高峯,5月下旬开始产卵,估計6月5日至7月1日为产卵盛期,卵期約10—21天,6月中旬开始孵化为幼虫,6 月下旬至7月中旬为孵化盛期,幼虫孵化后即侵入树皮为害,造成流膠、爆皮等症狀,最后树皮枯死剝落,整株桔树死亡。防治爆皮虫的藥剂以1:1火油加25%223乳剂混合液为佳。在10、11月防治越冬前幼虫,在4月底5月初防治出洞前成虫,效果均良好。在7、8月份对剛孵化的幼虫应用1:1或2:1火油加223乳剂,及5%223油剂防治效果也在93%以上。此外,掌握成虫产卵习性,在幼虫孵化前,产卵盛期后进行一次刷卵工作,將已枯死的桔树,在4月份前挖起燒毁,平时加强桔园田间管理,对防治爆皮虫都有一定作用。总之,只有全面的貫彻綜合防治措施,才能彻底的消灭爆皮虫的为害。

 
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